3. The Second Report on Proposals and Policies
5. National Transport Strategy
7. Greenhouse Gas Inventory for England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland: 1990-2014, AEA Technology; http://naei.defra.gov.uk/reports/
8. "Scottish Greenhouse Gas Emissions 2014" Official Statistics – published in June 2016: http://www.gov.scot/Publications/2016/06/2307
9. While not relevant to the transport sector, the full inventory includes the three other greenhouse gases - Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) and Sulphur hexafluoride (SF6).
10. This calculation uses the unadjusted Scottish emissions total for 2014- i.e. excluding the impact of the EU Emissions Trading System (ETS). Including the ETS would lower Scotland's net emissions total and it is this adjusted total that is used in assessing Scotland's performance under the Climate Change (Scotland) Act.
11. Includes national navigation and international shipping
12. Source: Scottish Transport Statistics, No 34, 2015 Edition, Table 7.1
13. For a full definition of exact vehicle types see: DfT vehicle definitions
14. Rural areas are defined as major and minor roads outside urban areas. Urban areas are defined as having a population of more than 10,000 people. Motorways are a separate classification.
15. Emissions per passenger kilometre are calculated as the distance a vehicle travels and its fuel efficiency divided by the number of occupants travelling that distance.
16. 2015 Government GHG Conversion Factors for Company Reporting https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/greenhouse-gas-reporting-conversion-factors-2016 (Advanced user set).
17. Source: Transport and Travel in Scotland 2015, available at http://www.transport.gov.scotj450918-00 Table TD9.
18. All car figures assume the average car occupancy rate published in Transport and Travel in Scotland 2015 for each respective year regardless of engine type. Bus and coach figures assume an average vehicle occupancy rate based on Guidelines to Defra/DECC's GHG Conversion Factors for Company Reporting.
19. Design Manual for Roads and Bridges (2009): Highways Agency Design Manual for Roads and Bridges (DMRB)
20. Rail Emission Model (2001), AEA Technology Environment
21. To be consistent with the scope of this document, the average annual and total savings relate to emissions in the transport sector only and exclude increased emissions in the electricity sector associated with electrification. When including these emissions, the estimated net impact for Scotland remains at lower emissions over the long term.
22. A negative impact indicates a carbon emission saving.
24. Switched on Scotland
25. Switched on Scotland 2016 Review
26. Flights from Highland and Island airports are excluded
27. Estimate of the Impact on Emissions of a Reduction in Air Passenger Duty in Scotland | Transport Scotland
28. The impacts from both VED and company car tax contribute to the delivery of the savings from the EU regulation on CO2 from cars, as opposed to representing additional savings.
29. Including those measures whose expected emissions impacts has not been quantified on an individual basis, e.g. Freight Facilities Grant.
30. The reduction in emissions within the non-traded sector that are a result of EGIP have been added to the modelled output, as these benefits sit outside the scope of the modelling framework.