6 Cultural Heritage 6.1 Scope of the Assessment 6.2 Statutory and Planning Context 6.3 Assessment Methodology 6.4 Baseline Conditions 6.5 Predicted Impacts 6.6 Mitigation and Monitoring 6.7 Residual Effects

6 Cultural Heritage

6.0 Introduction

6.0.1 This Chapter reports the findings of the assessment into the implications of the Proposed Scheme on resources and features of cultural heritage interest where the cultural heritage comprises sites and features of archaeological value, historic landscapes and historic building resources.

6.1 Scope of the Assessment

6.1.1 In accordance with the requirement that the form and extent of archaeological assessment for trunk road schemes in Scotland must be determined and administered by Historic Scotland (HS), the agency was initially consulted in May 2003 in relation to the preliminary online options and latterly in March 2006 to establish requirements for the proposed offline scheme.

6.1.2 Evaluation of the potential for impacts on the cultural heritage during the consideration of route options identified a number of potentially significant impacts:

  • impact on the setting of the Kinmount House Designed Landscape; and
  • impact on currently unknown sites and features associated with known sites at Braehill, north of the existing trunk road (Braehill Fort and Enclosure).

6.1.3 Following the move to the proposed offline scheme, HS further noted the potential impact on other unknown sites in the area to the south of the existing road that could be disturbed during construction.

6.1.4 In their March 2006 response, HS noted that there would be a need for field evaluation and sampling along with a follow-on potential for further intrusive investigation subject to the results of the findings. This was to be undertaken once the land-take requirements for the Proposed Scheme were confirmed and prior to any construction should the scheme be approved for implementation.

6.1.5 The current assessment herein is accordingly based on the desk-based analysis and consultations with HS and the Regional Archaeologist.

6.2 Statutory and Planning Context

6.2.1 The following guidelines, legislation and planning policy documents provide the framework for the protection and conservation of cultural heritage interests within Scotland and more locally within Dumfries and Galloway.

  • Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979.
  • Town and Country Planning Act (Scotland) 1997.
  • Town and Country Planning (General Development Procedure) (Scotland) Order 1992 (1992 Order).
  • Planning (Listed Buildings and Conservation Areas) (Scotland) Act 1997.
  • NPPG5: Archaeology and Planning (1998).
  • NPPG18: Planning and the Historic Environment (1999).
  • Planning Advice Note 42 (PAN42) Archaeology, the Planning Process and Scheduled Monument Procedures (1994).
  • SHEP 1, 2 and 3 (Scottish Historic Environment Policy) (2007).
  • Dumfries and Galloway Structure Plan (Adopted December 1999).
  • Annandale and Eskdale Local Plan (Adopted October 2006).

Historic Scotland

6.2.2 HS is an executive agency within the Scottish Executive and is responsible for the administering of laws concerning protection and management of ancient monuments and historic buildings. The agency is directly responsible for the assessment of the implications of Scottish Executive road schemes on the archaeological and built heritage resource. Appendix D comprises HS’s provisions with this respect.

Designations and Planning Policies

6.2.3 Designations and features of relevance to the Proposed Scheme corridor and neighbouring areas are outlined below along with an explanation of their protection/regard under the above guidelines, legislation, and policies. The implication of the Proposed Scheme in relation to heritage-related policies is discussed in detail in Chapter 14; Policies and Plans.

Archaeological Sites, Monuments and Landscapes

6.2.4 Archaeological sites and monuments without statutory protection are curated by local planning authorities. NPPG5 and PAN42 provide guidance and advice on the treatment of this resource. PAN42 indicates that the principle that should underlie all planning decision-making is preservation of cultural resources, in situ where possible, and by record if destruction cannot be avoided. Where preservation does not prove possible, and where damage is unavoidable, various mitigation measures may be proposed.

Archaeological Consultation Zones (ACZ)

6.2.5 Archaeological Consultation Zones are those areas where records held indicate that archaeological issues are likely to exist.

Listed Buildings

6.2.6 Responsibility for the compilation of lists of buildings of special architectural or historic interest is vested in the First Minister for Scotland. Criteria for determining the value of such buildings has been devised by HS. The listings provide for three categories of building.

  • Category A – buildings of national or international importance, either architectural or historic, or fine, little altered examples of some particular period, style of building type.
  • Category B - buildings of regional or more than local importance, or major examples of a particular period, style, or building type which may have been somewhat altered.
  • Category C - buildings of local importance; lesser examples of any period, style or building type, whether as originally constructed or as the result of subsequent alteration; simple, well proportioned, traditional buildings often forming part of a group, for example an estate or an industrial complex, or grouping in association with buildings in a higher category.

Historic Gardens and Designed Landscapes

6.2.7 Whilst a non-statutory designation, there is an Inventory of Gardens and Designed Landscapes in Scotland compiled and maintained jointly by HS and Scottish Natural Heritage (SNH). Under the provisions of the 1992 (General Development Procedure) Order (GDPO), planning authorities must consult HS and SNH on any proposed development that may affect a site contained in the Inventory.

Development Plan Policies

6.2.8 The Dumfries and Galloway Structure Plan and Annandale and Eskdale Local Plan contain policies that seek to protect non-designated sites of archaeological importance and their settings, historic gardens and designed landscapes, and listed buildings.

6.3 Assessment Methodology

6.3.1 The assessment has been undertaken in accordance with the Design Manual for Roads and Bridges (DMRB), Volume 11 Section 3, Chapter 8 and in accordance with best practice, as broadly outlined in the Institute of Field Archaeologists’ Standard and Guidance for Archaeological Desk-based Assessment (IFA 2001).

6.3.2 There have been five stages to the assessment:

  • the recording and analysis of the existing built heritage and archaeological context of the receiving environment;
  • a review of the nature, forms and features of the Proposed Scheme;
  • an evaluation of predicted impacts based on the initial two stages;
  • an identification of appropriate design and mitigation measures; and
  • a description of the residual effects taking proposed mitigation into account.

Baseline Data

6.3.3 Information has been obtained through a combination of desk-based review of existing documentation related to archaeological interests and historic features of the built environment, site survey and consultation with statutory bodies and other organisations with responsibility for or an, interest in cultural heritage. A consultation area of 1km centred on the Proposed Scheme was agreed as being appropriate with the Dumfries and Galloway Regional Archaeologist.

6.3.4 Documentary sources included:

  • the National Sites and Monuments Record;
  • the Inventory for Gardens and Designed Landscapes in Scotland; and
  • Historic maps of the area associated with the Proposed Scheme corridor.

6.3.5 A walkover survey was undertaken in early May 2006.

6.3.6 The following bodies and organisations were consulted to source information relating to the Proposed Scheme corridor and associated consultation area:

  • Dumfries and Galloway Council, Planning and Environment;
  • the Garden History Society;
  • Historic Scotland ; and
  • National Trust for Scotland (NTS).

6.3.7 Consultation responses are provided in Appendices B and D.

Impact Criteria

6.3.8 The determination of impact significance has involved consideration of the sensitivity of existing resources to change, as represented by the importance of each site or feature, and the magnitude and nature of the impact.

6.3.9 Assessment of the importance of cultural heritage resources has been undertaken in accordance with published guidance in NPPG5. The main thresholds accordingly comprise:

  • Sites of National Importance - those sites protected by scheduling under the 1979 Act, and sites of "schedulable quality";
  • Sites of Regional and Local Importance - those that do not merit scheduling, but which have significance or distinctiveness within a regional or local context. This may apply to their importance to regional or local history, or they may be the only local example of a monument type; and
  • Other sites - sites of lesser importance, although they may comprise component parts of a landscape rich in archaeological monuments, and thereby gain greater significance.

6.3.10 Direct impacts are recorded as a physical impact on a cultural heritage asset as a result of development. Indirect impacts are where a cultural heritage asset would be affected visually, by a disturbance such as noise, dust or vibration, or where the setting is compromised. Uncertain impacts are where there is an unsubstantiated risk to a cultural heritage asset.

6.3.11 Impacts may be adverse or beneficial; permanent or temporary in effect; reversible or irreversible; and of minor, moderate or major order.

  • Minor impacts are detectable but do not alter the asset in question materially.
  • Moderate impacts materially alter the asset in question but not fundamentally.
  • Major impacts fundamentally alter the asset in question.

6.3.12 In practice, all direct adverse impacts on cultural heritage features would be permanent and irreversible.

6.3.13 For cultural heritage sites of local or lesser importance, material or fundamental changes to baseline conditions are considered to be significant, whereas minor changes are not considered significant. For sites of national or regional importance, all changes to baseline conditions are considered significant.

6.4 Baseline Conditions

Regional Cultural and Archaeological Context


6.4.1 The south western region of Scotland was a hive of activity in prehistoric times, from the Mesolithic period onwards. Much of the evidence confirming this activity can only be truly appreciated in an aerial context such as Mesolithic shell middens8, post defined Crucis monuments and other timber settings such as the Dunragit complex.

6.4.2 The region does however display an abundance of physical remains, i.e. upstanding monuments; although many are located in remote areas and are only accessible on foot. There are also chambered cairns, passage graves and long cairns from the Neolithic period as well as round cairns, cists, burnt mounds, standing stones, short stone rows, stone circles and rock art.


6.4.3 Recent archaeological excavations within the region have unearthed evidence of Scotland’s oldest Christian settlement whilst historical documentation and artefacts indicate that the area was the last outpost of Christianity in North West Europe after the fall of the Roman Empire.

6.4.4 Despite their short stay in the region, the Romans left behind significant evidence of their presence. The most significant is the Roman road running north from Carlisle into central Scotland. The mound on which the road sat can still be seen around Moffat. The valley of the Evan Water and the ridge to the west of today’s town was the site of a number of marching camps. The semi-permanent buildings left scars in the land that have been excavated by archaeologists.


6.4.5 Less than two centuries following the Roman withdrawal, the region was subsumed into the domain of the Kingdom of Rheged, and monks arriving from Ireland established Christianity as a significant religion. In the 8th century the border area became part of the domain of the Anglo Saxon kingdom of Northumbria which, in turn, was destabilised during the Viking invasions from the 9th century onwards. It was during this period that the kingdom of Galloway became established west of the River Nith. The kingdom survived until its rulers accepted Scots over-lordship in 1018, though many historians believe that the area was not securely incorporated into Scotland until as late as the 13th century.


6.4.6 Although little is left of the medieval town, Dumfries has long been the main centre of this region and was given the status of a royal burgh as long ago as 1186. The medieval town was situated between the wide River Nith, which flows through the modern town, and the old red sandstone bridge, which dates back to the 15th century.

6.4.7 The area has always been an agricultural region with much of its economy dependent on sheep and cattle farming; and Dumfries has a long tradition of an allied industry in the manufacture of knitwear and, in particular hosiery. While these trades still significantly contribute to the economy in recent years there have been efforts to attract a wider range of commerce resulting in a range of light industries in the area9 .


6.4.8 1633, an important year in Dumfries and Galloway’s history, saw a mineral spring discovered near the town of Moffat, and the subsequent development of the town as Scotland’s first spa resort. People journeyed long distances to seek respite and remedy for a variety of afflictions. In 1683, the Black Bull Inn became the first of many inns built to accommodate the travellers and the town began to grow considerably. A second spring was discovered in 1748 further reinforcing the town’s status.


6.4.9 In southern Scotland, the Industrial Revolution in the late 18th century brought flourishing towns, expanding populations, and the creation of industries such as cotton and shipbuilding, which brought booming trade. The spread of urban life coincided with an intellectual flowering, the Scottish Enlightenment, personified by the poet Robert Burns, the philosopher David Hume and the political economist Adam Smith.

6.4.10 Early industries included tanning in Whithorn, a cotton mill, damask weaving in Sorbie, and local milling of oats using both water and wind-power at Whithorn (now demolished), Portyerrock on the east near the Isle, Bysbie Mill in the Isle village, and at the still existing buildings in the middle of Port William. Pigot and Slater's Directory produced throughout the 19th century and republished by Dumfries and Galloway Libraries, lists the trades that once made these small Machars settlements virtually self-sufficient well into the 20th century. Drapers, shoemakers, candle makers, saddlers, blacksmiths and tide-waiters; even actors are listed amongst the traders and shopkeepers of Whithorn, Port William, the Isle and Garlieston.

6.4.11 Today, agriculture is still a significant industry, but with the advent of more powerful machinery, it no longer supports a large labour force as it did until the Second World-War. Locally, the construction industry and the army provide employment opportunities. There is a greater level of commuting regionally to larger centres such as Stranraer10 .

Sites Associated with the Proposed Scheme Consultation Area

Scheduled Ancient Monuments (SAMs)

6.4.12 There are no SAMs within the consultation area.

Recorded Archaeological Sites

6.4.13 The Dumfries and Galloway Sites and Monuments Record (SMR) lists various monuments that have been evaluated in accordance with the categories of importance defined within NPPG5 and described in Paragraph 6.3.9.

6.4.14 The sites are scheduled in Table 6.1. Their location is shown in Figure 6.1. Some sites, although listed in the SMR, do not have a designated Dumfries and Galloway SMR significance rating.

Table 6.1 – Recorded Archaeological Sites

Site Name (Period)

Grid Ref.

Monument Type

SMR Reference Number

D&G Significance Rating


3119, 5709

Fort, Settlement




3119, 5711





3100, 5704

Farmhouse, Farmstead



Kinmount House, Walled Garden

3136, 5693

Walled Garden



Whitecroft Gate Piers

3106, 5717

Gate Pier

DG 7081



3115, 5696

Rubbing Stone, Findspot

DG 6954


Roman Camp Field

3121, 5692




*Hetland Cottage (at Hetland Road End)

3095, 5720




Denbie Mains

3103, 5725

Farmhouse, Farmstead




3101, 5718





3106, 5720

Farmhouse, Farmstead

DG 7080



3112, 5706

Farmhouse, Farmstead



Hardgrove Cottages

3114, 5704





3121, 5714

Farmhouse, Farmstead



Kinmount House, Uppermains/ Kelhead

3130, 5698

Farmhouse, Farmstead



*Kinmount, West Lodge

3135, 5693




Kinmount, West Lodge

3135, 5693




*Kinmount, Keepers Cottage (to west of walled garden)

3135, 5693




Kinmount Keepers Cottage

3135, 5693




* site also classified as a Listed Building. Note: Dumfries and Galloway SMR Ref numbers DG19651 and DG6939 both relate to Listed Building Reference number 3546 and Ref numbers DG19648 and DG6941 relate to Listed Building Reference number 3543.

Archaeological Consultation Zones (ACZ) and Records

6.4.15 There are four archaeological consultation zones defined by Dumfries and Galloway Council within, or near to, the 1 km consultation area. Referenced ACZ1 – ACZ4, their location in relation to the Proposed Scheme is shown in Figure 6.1.

  • ACZ1 - Area surrounding Hetland House Hotel (0.6 km north west of the western end of the Proposed Scheme).
  • ACZ2 - Area of Braehill Oak Wood (0.1 km north of the central section of the Proposed Scheme).
  • ACZ3 - Newfield plantation (1 km south of the central section of the Proposed Scheme).
  • ACZ4 - Kinmount Lodge (0.8 km south west of the eastern end of the Proposed Scheme).

6.4.16 ACZ2, the area at Braehill, is the only one of the four close enough to the Propose Scheme where there is a potential for impacts associated with the Proposed Scheme. This ACZ includes two sites identified by the review of the SMR; Braehill Fort and Settlement (DG7094) and Braehill Enclosure (DG7095). Both are sites of national importance as is the ACZ.

Listed Buildings

6.4.17 Three listed buildings have been identified within the consultation area. These are scheduled in Table 6.2 and shown in Figure 6.1. Hetland Cottage is located approximately 1 km west of Carrutherstown. The other two listings are associated with the Kinmount Estate and are located on the western edge of Kelhead Wood approximately 0.6 km east of the eastern end of the Proposed Scheme.

Table 6.2 – Listed Buildings

Listed Buildings and Ref. Nos

Grid Ref.

D&G SMR Reference Number


Hetland Cottage (3463)

3095, 5720



Kinmount, West Lodge (3546)

3135, 5693



Kinmount, Keeper’s Cottage (3543)

3135, 5693

DG 19648


*The specific designation C(S) indicates that the property is Category C and is also included on the statutory list of Buildings of Architectural or Historic Interest.

Conservation Areas

6.4.18 There are no conservation areas within the consultation area.

Designed Landscapes

6.4.19 The Kinmount Estate is identified within the ‘Inventory of Garden and Designed Landscapes in Scotland’. HS note that the estate is of high historic, scenic and nature conservation value whilst being considered a ‘work of art’ and outstanding in architectural terms.

6.4.20 There are two non-inventory designed landscapes within and close to the consultation area. These comprise Denbie, approximately 1 km northeast of Carrutherstown village, and Murraythwaite, approximately 0.7 km northeast of Braehill Farm (See Figure 6.1).

6.5 Predicted Impacts

Archaeological Sites and Features

6.5.1 There would be no direct impacts on any known features or designated sites of national, regional or local importance.

6.5.2 The proposed tie-in location at the western end of the Proposed Scheme corridor would require the relocation of an old undesignated milestone located in the southern verge of the existing road. The milestone would be removed prior to commencement of the works, stored and relocated locally once the proposed engineering works are completed. There would be no material impact on the feature, its precise location not being the principal interest in the feature, rather its association with the history of the trunk road corridor and modifications to the corridor over time. It has therefore been concluded that the impact would be negligible.

6.5.3 The nature of the Proposed Scheme is such that heavy volumes of existing traffic would be displaced further south from known archaeological interests north of the existing A75 and would be more substantially screened from the sites and features by virtue of substantial dense scrub planting that would be introduced between the existing and new section of road (see Chapter 8). The assessment has accordingly concluded there would be no material impact on the setting of these sites and features.

6.5.4 Within the narrow corridor that would be disturbed to the south of the existing A75 there would be the potential for direct impacts on currently unknown features. A strategy for addressing any such features encountered during construction is outlined under Section 6.6. The impact on such features would depend on the nature and extent of any finds. The likelihood of a find involving a site or substantive feature of a national or regional significance is considered to be low as confirmed by the proposed strategy to be adopted by HS.

6.5.5 It has been concluded that there would therefore, be a low probability of impacts on unknown archaeological sites or features and that the potential impact would be minor-to-moderate adverse at worst.

Listed Buildings and Conservation Areas

6.5.6 There would be no direct or indirect impact on existing listed buildings or their setting.

Designed Landscapes

6.5.7 The Proposed Scheme would involve localised modification to the existing A75 some 0.6 km north west of the westernmost boundary of the Kinmount House Designed Landscape. There would be no discernable change in the relationship between the trunk road and the designed landscape and no impact on its character or setting.

6.5.8 Neither of the two non-inventory designed landscapes, Denbie and Murraythwaite, would be affected by the Proposed Scheme. In their consultation response, The Garden History Society reported that the properties are believed to be naturally screened by intervening topography and are at sufficient distance from the Proposed Scheme to remain largely unaffected.

6.6 Mitigation and Monitoring

6.6.1 In the absence of predicted direct or indirect impacts on known sites of cultural heritage value, proposed mitigation is limited to consideration of the potential for the discovery of currently unknown sites and features. HS has indicated that a field walkover survey should be undertaken once the required land-take for the Proposed Scheme is known and prior to construction should approval to proceed be given. The requirement for any further intrusive investigation would be determined by the initial walkover survey and sampling.

6.7 Residual Effects

6.7.1 The assessment has demonstrated there would be no direct impacts on known sites of archaeological importance, listed buildings or designed landscapes. It has further demonstrated that there would be no impacts on the settings or context of these known interests. It has concluded there would be no requirement for mitigation in relation to these known interests beyond those implicit in the alignment of the Proposed Scheme. There would accordingly be no significant residual effects on known sites of archaeological or the historic built environment.

6.7.2 The assessment has recognised that there would be the potential for unknown archaeological interests to be exposed within the proposed construction corridor to the south of the existing A75. In light of the disposition and nature of existing known features and limited extent of the proposed works it has been concluded that there would be a low likelihood of a significant site or feature find.