Kelhead Flow Phase 1 Habitat Map 1999

Kelhead Flow Phase 1 Habitat Map 1999

Kelhead Flow Phase 1 Habitat Map 1999

Full Name



Protected Areas

Site of Special Scientific Interest


SSSIs are key areas of nature conservation and wildlife importance. In the coastal context they can include dunes, cliffs and intertidal foreshore as far as the mean low water spring mark. SSSIs are designated by Scottish Natural Heritage (SNH) under the Nature Conservation (Scotland) Act (formerly under the provision of the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981). SSSI status does not change the use of the land but local authorities, owners and occupiers must consult with SNH on any developments or activities which may affect the site. Citations are available for each site stating the features of interest for which the site was designated.

National Nature Reserve


NNRs are areas of national importance for nature conservation and include some of the most important natural and semi-natural habitats in Great Britain. NNRs are designated by Scottish Natural Heritage (SNH) under the National Parks and Access to the Countryside Act 1949 and the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981. All NNRs are SSSIs and the land is either owned by SNH or managed under agreement between SNH and the owner specifically for nature conservation.

Local Nature Reserve


LNRs can be declared by local authorities in conjunction with Scottish Natural Heritage (SNH) to reflect areas of local nature conservation importance or amenity and to give access to the public. A management agreement, often in the form of a management plan, is usually required and bylaws may be introduced to regulate the use of the LNR. The legislative basis is the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981 (as amended by the Local Government and Planning (Scotland) Act 1982).

Special Protection Area


SPAs are classified under EC Directive 79/409/EEC on the Conservation of Wild Birds (the Birds Directive). The Directive requires the Member States of the European Community to identify and classify the most suitable territories, in size and number, for certain rare or vulnerable species (listed in Annex I of the Directive) and for regularly occurring migratory species. SPAs are intended to safeguard the habitats of the species for which they are selected and to protect the birds from significant disturbance. SPAs together with Special Areas of Conservation form the Natura 2000 network of sites.

Special Area of Conservation


SACs are designated under EC Directive 92/43/EEC on the Conservation of Natural Habitats and of Wild Fauna and Flora (the Habitats Directive). Candidate sites are identified to the European Commission and agreed at biogeographic region level as qualifying for designation. Almost all terrestrial candidate SACs are SSSIs. Together with SPAs, SACs will form a network of European sites to be known as Natura 2000.

Ramsar Site


Ramsar Sites are wetlands of international importance particularly those containing large numbers of waterfowl. They include estuaries, open water and intertidal marine areas. They are listed under "The Convention on Wetlands of International Importance especially as Waterfowl Habitat 1971", known as the Ramsar Convention, which was ratified by UK Government in 1976. All Ramsar Sites in Scotland are SSSIs and nearly all are SPAs under the EC Directive on the Conservation of Wild Birds 1979.

Non-statutory Sites

Biosphere Reserve


Biosphere Reserves are representative examples of natural habitats which characterise one of the world's natural regions. They are used for long term research of ecosystems, environmental change and diversity of species. There is no statutory requirement for Biosphere Reserves. The Biosphere Programme was set up in 1971 by United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) to co-ordinate understanding of man's influence on the natural environment.

Local Wildlife Sites


Local Wildlife Sites (or Local Biodiversity Sites) are identified to recognise places of local biodiversity importance outside statutory designated areas. Each candidate site is surveyed and assessed by a team of local experts against agreed criteria. Sites meeting or exceeding an agreed standard are classified as Local Wildlife Sites. This dataset includes the records from these surveys, each of which was carried out by a professional ecological surveyor. Surveys were carried out predominantly from 1998 onwards.

National Scenic Area


NSAs are nationally important areas of outstanding natural beauty which were identified in the report "Scotland's Scenic Heritage" and introduced by the Government in a Scottish Office Development Department Circular in 1980 (amended by Circular 9/1987). Policies for protecting NSAs are set out in development plans; there are no separate management plans.

Red Squirrel Priority Woodlands


Woodlands that have been identified using the Reynold and Bentley selection criteria as priority woodland for Red Squirrel conservation. A 3km buffer

SNH Protected Species Consultation Zones


The zones illustrate the known distribution of Great crested Newt and Natterjack toad both of which are European Protected Species (EPS) under The Conservation (Natural Habitats, &c.) Regulations 1994, "The Habitats Regulations" . These zones are based on a 2 km radius of known breeding sites for these species and are taken from survey data held by Scottish Natural Heritage (SNH). It is essential that planning permission is not granted without the planning authority having satisfied itself that the proposed development either will not impact adversely on any European protected species on the site or that, all three tests necessary for the eventual grant of a Regulation 44 license are likely to be satisfied. Further advice should be sought from SNH with regards development proposals within or close to these areas.

Semi-natural Ancient Woodland/Ancient Woodland


In response to a 1980 select committee which recommended that ancient woods should be recognised and treated as a separate category, the NCCs compiled the Inventories of Ancient, Long-established and Semi-natural woodlands. A more sophisticated classification was developed for woodlands in Scotland due to the nature of the available historical sources. IMPORTANT. For Scottish woods, the category Ancient' comprises woods recorded as being of semi-natural origin on EITHER the 1750 Roy maps OR the 1st Edition Ordnance Survey maps of 1860. This is due a) to the likelihood of the latter having been omitted from the Roy maps and b) to render the Scottish classification compatible with that for England and Wales.

Important Bird Areas


IBAs have been identified and published in Important Bird Areas in Europe: priority sites for conservation, sponsored by RSPB. These sites are selected because of the bird numbers and species complements they hold. IBAs are particularly important for species that congregate in large numbers, such as wintering and passage waterbirds and breeding seabirds. Many sites have also been identified for species of global and European/EU conservation concern.

Marine Consultation Area


MCAs are non-statutory designations introduced in 1986 and represent areas where Scottish Natural Heritage (SNH) wish to be consulted on developments which are likely to have an impact on the marine environment.

Private Reserves

Royal Society for the Protection of Birds Reserve


RSPB Reserves are owned or leased by RSPB to protect and manage the habitats of important species of birds. They provide public access and promote conservation. There is no statutory requirement for these reserves but they are often SSSIs and RSPB usually prepares management plans for the sites.

Scottish Wildlife Trust Reserve


SWT Reserves are owned or managed by SWT to protect locally important plants, animals and other wildlife. They provide public access and encourage the involvement of landowners. There is no statutory requirement for these reserves. SWT usually prepares management plans for the sites.

Wildfowl & Wetlands Trust


WWT reserves are owned or leased by WWT and manage to conserve wetland habitats and their dependent wildlife, particularly wildfowl. There is no statutory requirement or protection for these reserves, although many include areas protected by other designations (e.g.SSSIs).