15 Pedestrians, Cyclists, Equestrians and Community Effects
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This chapter considers the proposed scheme’s impacts on journeys people make in its locality. Journeys include those made by pedestrians, cyclists and equestrians and also local traffic.
The appraisal considers severance of community journeys which can be defined as a reduction in the ease or amenity of community journeys where these are made for local domestic or leisure purposes. Effects on community journeys are considered during construction of the proposals and once the scheme is operational. Specific effects on traffic disruption during construction are appraised in Chapter 12: Disruption due to Construction. Traffic flow changes resulting from the scheme are discussed in Chapter 4.
15.2 Sources of Information
The following sources of information have been used to inform the appraisal:
- Stirling Council Local Plan (1999);
- feedback from consultees;
- site visits in 2007; and
- the 1:25 000 Ordnance Survey (OS) map, Loch Lomond North (Explorer 364).
Key issues raised by consultees included:
- the impact of the proposed scheme on The West Highland Way and access to and from the village should be considered and access and signage maintained (SNH, 2006, Loch Lomond and Trossachs National Park Planning Services, 2006, Scotways 2006 and Forestry Commission, 2007); and
- it is necessary to incorporate off-road access both round and across the northern roundabout for pedestrians and cyclists (Access Officer, LLTNP, 2007)
15.4.1 Community Facilities
The key community facilities (see Figure 6.1) which have been identified in the study area are:
- primary school;
- Crianlarich Parish church;
- Crianlarich Hotel;
- police station (including mountain rescue post);
- railway station;
- station tearoom;
- two public houses with restaurants (the Ben More Lodge and the Rod and Reel);
- shop (with post office, girobank and public telephone);
- Crianlarich Community Hall;
- fire station;
- bus stops;
- public toilets; and
- youth hostel.
The nearest community facilities outside of Crianlarich are in Tyndrum some 7.5km to the north east.
The closest doctor’s surgery to Crianlarich is in Killin, some 20km north east and the closest dentist is in Lochgoilhead some 30km south west.
15.4.2 Current Community Journeys and Linkages
Crianlarich is at the junction of the A85 and A82 roads which serve as the key communication link between Perth and Oban and Glasgow and Inverness as well as connecting Crianlarich to nearby communities.
Other roads which are used by the local community to access the facilities listed in Section 15.4.1 are local roads such as Station Road which runs south alongside the local shop to the railway station and various smaller access roads to individual or groups of properties.
The National Catalogue of Rights of Way195 shows three rights of way in the vicinity of the scheme corridor (see Section 6.4.4) including:
- CS374, a spur off the West Highland Way into the village196;
- CS316, to the west and north of the village; and
- CS317, access through gates located beside the Glenbruar Viaduct on the north side of Callander Road offering access to the north and westwards along the riverbank.
Circular footpaths are also found in the Crianlarich Woodland and the footways alongside the Glenfalloch Road are used by local residents and tourists to access community facilities (e.g. local shop, public toilets) and destinations such as the youth hostel, Crianlarich Station, bus stops and the West Highland Way.
The Loch Lomond and Trossachs National Park has identified six draft Core Paths197 within Crianlarich and the surrounding are. These are:
- S3037, a footpath along the Callander Road, east of the Glenbruar Viaduct;
- S3036, a footpath around the River Fillan flood plain, east of the Glenbruar Viaduct;
- S3035, a circular footpath within the Crianlarich Community Woodland;
- S3029, a spur off the West Highland Way into the village;
- S0071, going west along the Tyndrum Road out of the village; and
- S0048, to the west and north of the village.
An off-road cycleway to extend the Glen Dochart Cycle Route between Crianlarich and Tyndrum has been consented and a planning application for an extension of this has been lodged with the National Park Planning Authority. The plan would extend the cycleway on-road through Crianlarich on the Tyndrum Road and Callander Road (see Sections 5.7 and 6.4.4).
No equestrian facilities have been identified in close proximity to Crianlarich.
15.5 Assessment Methodology
The approach to assessment of community severance is based on guidance in Volume 11 of the DMRB, Pedestrians and Others and Community Effects198. The DMRB concentrates on the impact of a proposed scheme on pedestrian, cyclists, and equestrians. Emphasis is placed on the positive or negative change to journey length and amenity experienced by these groups (see Section 15.4). Changes in journey length can be caused either by the loss of a community resource (requiring the use of another somewhere else) or by the scheme acting as a barrier which deters people from using an existing facility.
The approach to assessment of the effects of the scheme on pedestrians, cyclists, equestrians and community effects was carried out in the following stages:
- first, as DMRB requires, existing local travel patterns were established through identification of community facilities in the study area and estimating the likely patterns of usage of these facilities;
- the roads and routes affected by the proposals were then considered, including all roads and tracks which are physically crossed by the scheme and those which are predicted to be subject to significant traffic flow changes (increases and decreases);
- the effects of the scheme on the community journeys identified was then predicted and evaluated using the criteria described below.
In presenting and discussing the approach to the assessment of community severance effects, it should be noted that it was considered that there would be no significant effects on community journeys as a result of changes to access routes, diversions of pedestrian, cyclist or equestrian journey routes. This is because the scheme is not predicted to physically change most community journeys made in the proposal corridor. The approach to the assessment, and the level of detail on existing (baseline) community journeys reflects this ‘scoped’ assessment.
15.5.1 Evaluation Criteria
The evaluation is based on judgement taking into account the following factors:
- the type of route involved;
- the nature and degree of effect on the length, complexity and amenity of the journey;
- the purpose of the journey in relation to the type of effect (leisure journeys might be more affected by amenity and essential journeys e.g. to school, by length and difficulty);
- whether the journey is made by particularly vulnerable or special groups.
The assessment does not consider specifically the number of people whose journey would be affected but has concentrated on an appraisal of which journeys could be affected to the various community facilities. User counts were not considered necessary because the scheme is not considered to change most journeys (see above). It was considered likely that the new provision provided opportunities to reduce any existing severance by reducing traffic numbers in the village (see Chapter 4).
The impact on journeys was assessed using the criteria set out in Table 15.1.
Table 15.1: Evaluation Criteria used for Assessing Pedestrians, Cyclists, Equestrians and Community Effects
- In general the current journey pattern is likely to be maintained but there would be some hindrance to movement and/or a small reduction in amenity
- Some residents, particularly children and elderly people, are likely to be dissuaded from making the journey, or the journey would be made moderately longer and/or less pleasant
- Many people are likely to be deterred from making the journey to an extent sufficient to induce a re-organisation of their habitats, or the journey would be made substantially longer and/or less pleasant
DMRB offers some guidance on judging the effect of changes in the length of non-car journeys199:
- an increase in pedestrian journey length would be moderate if it is lengthened by 0.25-0.5km and substantial if it is lengthened by >0.5km;
- an increase in cyclist journey length would be moderate if it is lengthened by 1- 2km and substantial if it is lengthened by >2km200.
Horse riders are not considered to be affected by length as their journeys are usually for leisure purposes.
Information in DMRB also suggests that effects on pedestrians crossing roads affected by changes in traffic flows should be evaluated as follows201:
- if the flow increases or decreases202 by 30%, the impact is slight;
- from 30% to 60% the impact is moderate;
- if more than 60%, the impact is substantial.
These effects include positive changes (e.g. from a reduction in traffic flows on local roads within the study corridor) as well as negative. The assessment of community severance has addressed the scheme as a whole and therefore takes into account all the impacts arising from its component parts and the interactions between them.
15.6 Potential Impacts
Potential permanent impacts include:
- permanent changes in the alignment of the West Highland Way spur under the new road.
Potential construction impacts include:
- temporary changes in journey length or ease of making journeys for pedestrians, cyclists and equestrians through construction activities.
Potential operational impacts include:
- change to conditions within the village e.g. reduction in traffic.
15.7 Mitigation Measures
PLE1. A pedestrian underpass would be constructed under the bypass to accommodate the West Highland Way spur. Signage to the West Highland Way would be reinstated.
PLE2. Alternative routes would be signed for any access route temporarily affected during construction.
PLE3. The visual barrier of the new road would be mitigated, in part, by careful design and new planting.
PLE4. The contract documents would specify construction traffic routes which use the existing road network as far as possible.
PLE5. Access to all properties would be maintained throughout construction.
PLE6. Signs would be erected for Crianlarich community facilities on the A82 before reaching the bypass.
15.8 Assessment of Residual Effects
There would be no permanent direct physical severance effects on community journeys made by vehicles as a result of the scheme. There would be a reduction in traffic on the Glenfalloch Road (see Section 4.4) which would mean that users would benefit from a more accessible, safer and user friendly local road network within the village for motorised and non motorised users.
A new underpass would be constructed under the bypass to maintain access to the West Highland Way (draft Core Path S3029 and Right of Way CS374). Linking the underpass into the existing path would require a diversion of some 100m via an underpass. This would have a minor adverse effect on pedestrians journey time (slight increase) but the effect is not considered to be significant as the increase in distance is less than 0.25km. Signage would be erected to guide users through the diversion and underpass. Paths in Crianlarich Community Woodland would not be directly affected by the scheme. The Right of Way CS316 at the northern end of the village, which is also a draft Core Path (S0048), would not be affected by the proposals.
Access to all properties would be maintained and all pedestrian routes would remain open or a suitable alternative provided. The contractor would be encouraged to keep all community disruption to the minimum necessary for safe construction of the works and also to keep local communities informed about disruptions and the alternative routes to be used. Access to the West Highland Way would be maintained and appropriately signed throughout construction. Provided all the mitigation measures are successfully implemented no significant adverse effects from construction are predicted.
The reduced traffic on the Glenfalloch Road once the bypass was operational would mean a positive reduction in traffic passing through Crianlarich village, thus meaning a quieter and less congested environment for pedestrians and cyclists as well as vehicle travellers making local journeys throughout the village.
There would be no effect on cyclists entering Crianlarich from the south, east and west as they would not experience any change in route length as a result of the scheme because it is considered likely that they would be likely to continue to travel through the village as opposed to using the bypass.
Provisions for cyclists and pedestrians have been included in the design of both roundabouts. At the southern end, an additional section of footway203 has been included to facilitate access from properties at the southern edge of the village (see Figures 3.3a and b). The proposals at the northern end of the scheme would accommodate the proposed extension to the Glen Dochart Cycle Route if this is consented (see Sections 5.7 and 6.4.4).
Access from the south would be via a joint cycleway/footway within the verge on the left hand side of the road. Pedestrians would access the village by crossing the A82(T) at a pedestrian crossing point at the southern splitter island204 of the roundabout. Cyclists would travel around the south roundabout and cross the A82(T) using the northern splitter island of the roundabout to rejoin the verge on the Glenfalloch Road entering the village. In the opposite direction, cyclists and pedestrians would use a joint cycleway/footway in the verge to travel around the roundabout when leaving the village to the south.
Cyclists entering Crianlarich from the off-road cycle/footway route to the north would cross Tyndrum Road using the roundabout’s north splitter island and travel into the village via a cycle path/footway in the verge of the road (see Photograph 12, Annex E). Cyclists leaving Crianlarich to the north would follow the cycle/footway facility in the verge and cross the A82(T) at the crossing point, using the roundabout’s southern splitter island and then follow the verge around to join the off-road cycle path/footway.
Dropped kerbs would be provided at all access points and the splitter islands at the crossing points. The dropped kerbs would be positioned to provide sufficient width to accommodate more than one pedestrian/cyclist (see Figures 3.3a and b).
It is considered that there would be no effect or a minor beneficial effect on pedestrians and cyclists in Crianlarich with the successful implementation of these measures.
Key findings of the assessment of effects on journeys made by pedestrians, cyclists, equestrians and local traffic resulting from the scheme are:
- Access to and from all properties near the scheme and for users of local roads accessing community facilities would be maintained for all modes during construction and operation of the scheme.
- An underpass and realignment of the West Highland Way spur would be provided to maintain permanent access. Access with appropriate signage would be maintained during construction.
- Reduced traffic within Crianlarich would provide a quieter and less congested environment for pedestrians and cyclists once the bypass was constructed.