Footnotes for Main document

Footnotes for Main document

1 Transport Scotland is the national transport agency for Scotland. Its purpose is to help deliver the Scottish Government’s vision for transport

2 Roads Orders are published by the Scottish Ministers under the Road (Scotland) Act 1984 as the statutory development consent process for construction and operation of the trunk road. The orders show the line of the road. A compulsory purchase order (CPO) is the means whereby land can be acquired by Transport Scotland. draft Orders are initially published and a period of consultation follows. Any objections or comments received by Transport Scotland on behalf of Scottish Ministers are taken into account in making the decision about whether the proposals should be approved and the orders made. If any objections cannot be resolved there may be a Public Local Inquiry at which the objections are examined further by a Reporter who makes a recommendation about whether the proposals should proceed. All this information is taken into account when the Scottish Ministers make their final decision about whether the scheme should proceed

3 Essential mitigation is required to reduce the significance of identified environmental impacts. In some cases, essential mitigation (e.g. planting to provide a visual screen for properties) may require land beyond that needed for construction of the road, and is therefore included in the CPO

4 The integrity of a site can be defined as the coherence of all its ecological structure, across its whole area, which enables it to sustain habitat, complex of habitats and/or populations for which it was classified

5 Formerly called the Scottish Executive

6 Scottish Executive, Nature Conservation: Implementation of EC Directives on the Conservation of Natural Habitats and of Wild Flora and the Conservation of Wild Birds (‘The Habitats and Birds Directives’) Revised Guidance, June 2000

7 Carl Bro Group and Turnbull Jeffrey Partnership, 1994. Crianlarich Project: Stage 2 Scheme Assessment Report. The Scottish Office Industry Department

8 The Scottish Executive Development Department Planning Services. (1999) Travel Choices for Scotland: Strategic Roads Review. The Scottish Executive

9 Scott Wilson, 2006. The A82 Tarbet to Fort William Route Action Plan Study. Transport Scotland 2006

10 Grontmij, 2008. A82/A85 Crianlarich Bypass: Stage 2 Addendum Report, March 2008. Transport Scotland

11 Scottish Transport Appraisal Guidance

12 Scottish Development Department Planning Advice Note Pan 58 Environmental Impact Assessment (1999)

13 IEMA Guidelines for Environmental Impact Assessment (2004)

14 NB The assessment of the compliance of the scheme with policy and planning has been informed by the technical assessments but does not use the criteria described in this section to define the level of compliance

15 Impact is specific and applies to a particular element of the environment (ie air, water). In order to assess the impact of a proposed development on a particular aspect of the environment, it is firstly necessary to measure the degree of change caused to that element by the proposal. A description of the change to an element of the environment caused by a proposed development can be made factually. Effect is a broader based view of the effect of the cumulative consequences of one or more impacts on a specific aspect of the environment (often referred to as the receptor). Assessment of effect involves not only a degree of professional judgement but also some extrapolation and generalisation, both of which also involve judgement (IEMA, 2004)

16 i.e. important or having an important effect and of sufficient importance to take into account in development decisions

17 For some environmental aspects such as noise or air quality it is possible to use measurable, quantifiable criteria from legislation or guidance to establish at what level an effect becomes significant. For other areas this may not be possible and it may be necessary to rely on more qualitative criteria and this necessarily involves the use of professional judgement. Choosing the relevant criteria also depends in part on the particular characteristics of the project which is being assessed

18 In Chapter 16 (Vehicle Travellers) appraisal criteria follow the DMRB categories for ability to view the surrounding landscape and for level of driver stress

19 Scott Wilson, 2006. A82 Tarbet to Fort William Route Action Plan Study. Transport Scotland

20 A small scheme is one estimated to cost under £5 million at the time of the assessment. Scottish Executive, 2003. Scottish Transport Appraisal Guidance

21 Initial information taken from original Stage 3/EIA work. Carl Bro Group and Turnbull Jeffrey Partnership, 1995. Crianlarich Project: Stage 2 Scheme Assessment Report. The Scottish Office Industry Department

22 It is considered unlikely that the road could be open before 2012/2013

23 A footpath is a pedestrian route remote from the road and a footway is adjacent to the road carriageway

24A splitter island is an island in the centre of a two lane round where it approaches/leaves a roundabout that provides a safe place for pedestrians/cyclists to wait until it is safe to cross the next section of road

25 Watercourses are shown on Figure 8.1

26 Shallow excavation filled with rubble, stone or some other void-forming media that creates temporary subsurface storage for stormwater runoff which is then filtered through the stone media and conveyed downstream

27 Shallow vegetated channel designed to conduct and retain water, but may also permit infiltration; the vegetation filters particulate matter

28 C650 Environmental good practice on site (Second Edition). CIRIA, 2005 and CIRIA, Control of Water Pollution from Linear Construction Projects, Technical guidance (C648)

29 Department of Transport/ Scottish Office Industry Department/Welsh Office/ Department of Environment for Northern Ireland. 1992 Manual of Contract Documents for Highway Works, HMSO

30 ISO 14001 is an international standard for environmental management

31 The exact line of the wind-firm edge would be finalised and agreed on site with the Forestry Commission prior to works commencing on site

32 New planting protected in tubes can be grazed off at the tops and result in misformed and stunted growth forms

33 Estimates of HGV movements are based on the following assumptions:

a) 10m3 of soil / topsoil material per load

b) 6 m3 of concrete per load

c) 10 tonnes of steel per load

d) 10 m3 of road pavement product per load

A worst case assumption has been made that there is no back loading for vehicles.

34 One trip involves two movements e.g. site to tip and tip to site

35 Extant: still live

36 http://www.scotland.gov.uk

37 The Scottish Government (2009) The National Planning Framework for Scotland 2. The Scottish Government

38 Scottish Executive (2006) Scotland’s National Transport Strategy. The Scottish Executive

39 The Scottish Executive (2004) Scotland’s Transport Future: The Transport White Paper. The Scottish Executive

40 The Scottish Executive (2004) The National Planning Framework for Scotland. The Scottish Executive

41 The Scottish Executive (2002) Scotland’s Transport: Delivering Improvements. The Scottish Executive

42 The Scottish Executive (2000) Trunk Road Biodiversity Action Plan: Review for Discussion. Scottish Executive

43 The Scottish Executive Development Department Planning Services (2002) Scottish Planning Policy (SPP) 1: The Planning System. The Scottish Executive

44 The Scottish Executive Development Department Planning Services (2005) Scottish Planning Policy (SPP) 15: Planning for Rural Development. The Scottish Executive

45 The Scottish Executive Development Department Planning Services (2005) Scottish Planning Policy (SPP) 17: Planning for Transport. The Scottish Executive

46 The Scottish Executive Development Department Planning Services (2004) Scottish Planning Policy (SPP) 7: Planning and Flooding. The Scottish Executive

47 Scottish Government (2008) Scottish planning Policy (SPP) 23: Planning and the Historic Environment. The Scottish Government

48 The Scottish Office (1999) National Planning Policy Guidance (NPPG) 14: Natural Heritage. (updated 2008) The Scottish Office

49 Special Area of Conservation (SAC) are areas designated under the Habitats and Species Directive (92/43/EEC), implemented in the UK under the provisions of the Conservation (Natural Habitats &c) Regulations 1994 (the Habitats Regulations)

50 The Scottish Executive Development Department (1994) Planning Advice Note (PAN) 42: Archaeology, The Planning Process and Scheduled Ancient Monuments. The Scottish Executive

51 The Scottish Executive Development Department (2006) Planning Advice Note (PAN) 51: Planning, Environmental Protection and Regulation. The Scottish Executive

52 The Scottish Office (1999) Planning Advice Note (PAN) 56: Planning and Noise. The Scottish Office

53 The Scottish Executive Development Department (1999) Planning Advice Note (PAN): Environmental Impact Assessment

54 The Scottish Executive Development Department, 2000 (updated 2008). Planning Advice Note (PAN) 60: Planning for Natural Heritage. The Scottish Executive

55 The Scottish Executive Development Department (2004) Planning Advice Note (PAN) 69: Planning and Building Standards Advice on Flooding. The Scottish Executive

56 The Scottish Executive Development Department Planning Services (2005) Planning Advice Note (PAN) 75: Planning for Transport. The Scottish Executive

57 MacCulloch, F (2006) Guidelines for the Risk Management of Peat Slips on the Construction of Low Volume/Low Cost Roads Over Peat. Forestry Civil Engineering, Forestry Commission Scotland

58 Scottish Government (2007) Peat Landslide Hazard and Risk Assessments: Best Practice Guide for Proposed Electricity Generation Developments. Scottish Government

59 Scottish Environmental Protection Agency (2005) The Water Environment (Controlled Activities) (Scotland) Regulations 2005 (as amended) (CAR), Scottish Environmental Protection Agency

60 Scottish Environment Protection Agency (2003) Policy Number 19: Groundwater Protection Policy for Scotland. Scottish Environment Protection Agency

61 Scottish Environment Protection Agency (2003) Policy Number 26: Policy on the Culverting of Watercourses. Scottish Environment Protection Agency

62 Clackmannanshire Council and Stirling Council (2001) The Clackmannanshire and Stirling Structure Plan

63 Stirling Council, 1999. Stirling Local Plan

64 Loch Lomond and Trossachs National Park Authority (2007) Loch Lomond and Trossachs National Park: National Park Plan 2007-2012

65 The final wind-firm edge will be agreed with the Forestry Commission on the ground prior to the commencement of works

66 Stirling Council, 1999. Stirling Local Plan

67 Information from Stirling Local Plan, 1999

68 www.lochlomond-trossachs.org

69 Website last checked 26.08.09

70 www.lochlomond-trossachs.org

71 Website last checked 26.08.09

72 A footpath is a pedestrian route remote from the road and a footway is adjacent to the road carriageway

73 The Oban Branch Line railway bridge is on a tight bend with poor visibility. It is also quite narrow

74 National record of public rights of way within England, Wales and Scotland, http://www.way-finder.co.uk/

75 NB property records are as accurate as possible but there could be occasional properties which have not been identified

76 The distance of properties from the edge of the A82 has been provided to help locate the property and understand ho it could be affected by the proposals

77 All landtake figures in the ES are approximate as exact figures would depend on the details of the final design

78 Scottish Office (1995) Crianlarich Project Stage 3 Environmental Assessment Volume 2

79 British Geological Service (2006) Geological Assessment — Detailed, client’s reference: 115799

80 Landmark Information Group Service Ltd (2006) Envirocheck Report, order number: 20525483

81 Holequest Ltd (2008) A82 Crianlarich Bypass — peat probes

82 Headley, A (2008) Peat landslide hazard and risk assessment

83 Norwest Holst, 2009. Ground Investigation Report

84 A SSSI is an area that has been notified as being of special interest due to its flora, fauna or geological or physiographical features under the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981 and the Nature Conservation (Scotland) Act, 2004

85 Regionally Important Geological and Geomorphological Sites (RIGS) are a non-statutory designation of the most important places for geology and geomorphology in the United Kingdom.  RIGS are locally designated by geological groups

86 Sediment or sedimentary rock that shows evidence of having been subjected to metamorphosis

87 To change the form or nature of

88 Material placed or tipped, often as a result of previous industrial or mineral extraction activities

89 Sediments deposited into lakes that have come from glaciers

90 Scottish Office (1995) Crianlarich Project Stage 3 Environmental Assessment Volume 2

91 For example see Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, Good Practice Guide for Handling Soils http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20090306103114/http://www.defra.gov.uk/farm/environment/land-use/soilguid/index

92 Naturally occurring watercourses within the body of the peat

93 http://gis.sepa.org.uk/rbmp/MapViewer.aspx

94 http://www.sepa.org.uk/scotlands_environment/data_and_reports/water/idoc.ashx?docid=f09338c7-6f52-4f25-916a-f335f101afd5&version=-1

95 General Binding Rules (GBRs) represent the lowest level of control and cover specific low risk activities. Activities complying with the rules do not require an application to be made to SEPA, as compliance with a GBR is considered to be authorisation. Since the operator is not required to contact SEPA, there are no associated charges.

96 The three levels of treatment are comprised of 1) filter drain adjacent to the carriageway; 2) detention basin or filter trench; and 3) an underdrain beneath the basins and the filter trench

97 The Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC

98 Guidance is contained in The Water Environment (Controlled Activities) (Scotland) Regulations 2005: A Practical Guide, Version 5 June 2008 (as amended).

99 Consultation response, 21.11.05

100 Design Manual for Roads and Bridges, Volume 11, Part 10, HA 216/06 Road Drainage and the Water Environment

101 New water monitoring and classification developed by SEPA to help meet the aims of the WFD. The new classification system covers all rivers, lochs, transitional, coastal and groundwater bodies, and is based on a new ecological classification system with five quality classes. It has been devised following EU and UK guidance and is underpinned by a range of biological quality elements, supported by measurements of chemistry, hydrology (changes to levels and flows) and morphology (changes to the shape and function of water bodies). Some of the quality elements used in the new ecological classification system have not been monitored in Scotland before. http://gis.sepa.org.uk/rbmp/MapViewer.aspx

102 Before the introduction of the Water Framework Directive (WFD), SEPA had a number of classification schemes which it used to report the status of Scotland's aqueous environment

103 Composition of a rock formation

104 Areas defined where groundwater is extracted from boreholes or springs for public water supply

105 SEPA online indicative flood map (2008) http://www.multimap.com/clients/places.cgi?client=sepa

106 http://www.crianlarichyouthhostel.org.uk/fishingl

107 Department of Transport/Scottish Office Industry Department/Welsh Office/Department of the Environment for Northern Ireland (1993) Design Manual for Roads and Bridges, Volume 11: Environmental Assessment. HMSO. Department of Transport/Scottish Office Industry Department/Welsh Office/Department of the Environment for Northern Ireland (1994) First Amendment to Design Manual Volume 11. HMSO. The technical chapters of the DMRB have subsequently been updated and amended on a number of occasions

108 Current list of relevant guidance available at: SEPA website www.sepa.org.uk

109 CIRIA, Control of Water Pollution from Linear Construction Projects, Technical guidance (C648)

110 Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems (SUDS) are drainage methods which are based on natural processes to achieve attenuation of run-off water quality and quantity. Guidance on SUDS systems is available from SEPA, CIRIA etc (see relevant web links)

111 Scottish Planning Policy 7: Planning and Flooding

112 SEPA Technical Flood Risk Guidance For Stakeholders Version 3 http://www.sepa.org.uk/flooding/flood_risk/planning__flooding.aspx

113 See Figure 8.1

114 The science dealing with the occurrence, circulation, distribution, and properties of the waters of the earth and its atmosphere

115 The science dealing with the occurrence and distribution of underground water

116 Ø = diameter

117 The Agricultural Development and Advisory Service (ADAS) is a method for estimating flood flows in small catchments up to 0.3km2 based on widely available catchment descriptors. A full definition of the equation can be seen in flood risk assessment in Appendix 8.6

118 http://www.sepa.org.uk/flooding/flood_risk/planning__flooding.aspx

119 The Water Environment (Oil Storage) (Scotland) Regulations, Scottish Statutory Instrument 2006 No. 133

120 Department of Transport/Scottish Office Industry Department/Welsh Office/Department of the Environment for Northern Ireland (1993) Design Manual for Roads and Bridges, Volume 4: Geotechnics and Drainage. HMSO. Department of Transport/Scottish Office Industry, update May 2006

121 Environmental Quality Standards are a set of requirements which must be fulfilled at a given time by a given environment or particular part of it as set out in EU legislation under the Council Directive 96/61/EC 1996 concerning IPPC

122 Carl Bro Group & Turnbull Jeffrey Partnership, 1994. Crianlarich Project. Stage 2 Scheme Assessment and Environmental Assessment Reports. The Scottish Office Industry Department Roads Directorate

123 Carl Bro Group & Turnbull Jeffrey Partnership, 1995. Crianlarich Project. Stage 3 Environmental Assessment. The Scottish Office Industry Department Roads Directorate

124 IEEM, Guidelines for Ecological Assessment in the United Kingdom. IEEM, version 7 July 2006

125 Williamson, K. 1964. Bird Census work in woodland. Bird Study 11, 1-22

126 JNCC, Handbook for Phase 1 habitat survey. A technique for environmental audit. JNCC, 2003

127 Institute of Environmental Assessment, Guidelines for Baseline Ecological Assessment. Spon, London, 1995

128 Special Area of Conservation (SAC) are areas designated under the Habitats and Species Directive (92/43/EEC), ), implemented in the UK under the provisions of the Conservation (Natural Habitats &c) Regulations 1994 (the Habitats Regulations)

129 Containing little nutrient material

130 Containing medium levels of nutrients

131 A SSSI is an area that has been notified as being of special interest due to its flora, fauna or geological or physiographical features under the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981 and the Nature Conservation (Scotland) Act, 2004

132 Otter droppings

133 Her Majesty’s Stationary Office. Biodiversity: The UK Action Plan. 1994 add website

134 Stirling Council, 2004. Stirling Biodiversity Action Plan: Volume 3

135 Loch Lomond and the Trossachs National Park (2008) National Park Biodiversity Action Plan, 2008 — 2011

136 The Population Status of Birds in the UK Birds of Conservation Concern: 2002-2007 from Gregory et al, The Population Status of Birds in the UK, Channel Islands and Isle of Man: an analysis of conservation concern 2002-2007. British Birds, 95, 2002

137 Red list species are those that are Globally Threatened according IUCN criteria; those whose population or range has declined rapidly in recent years; and those that have declined historically and not shown a substantial recent recovery

138 Amber list species are those with an unfavourable conservation status in Europe; those whose population or range has declined moderately in recent years; those whose population has declined historically but made a substantial recovery; rare breeders; and those with internationally important or localised populations

139 As part of its commitment to sustainable development, the Government accords the planning system an important role in the protection of the natural environment and the maintenance of biodiversity. At the UN Conference on the Environment and Development held in Rio in 1992 (the "Earth Summit"), the UK signed the Biodiversity Convention, which requires that the components of the Earths biological diversity should be used in ways, which do not lead to their decline. The UK Biodiversity Action Plan sets out national targets for the conservation of biodiversity and in Scotland the Scottish Biodiversity Group is promoting the preparation of Local Biodiversity Action Plans (LBAPs) as a means of identifying priorities for action at the local level. LBAPs are generally prepared by partnerships of public bodies, local organisations and communities

140 Loch Lomond and the Trossachs National Park (2008) National Park Biodiversity Action Plan, 2008 — 2011

141 Informed by IEEM guidance and www.webtag.org.uk etc

142 Where proposals have potential to affect European protected species a licence must be obtained from the Scottish Executive as described in European Protected Species, Development and the Planning System. Interim guidance for Local Authorities in licensing arrangements. October 2002, SEERAD

143 Further mitigation relating to water and drainage is contained in Section 9.8

144 For example, Watercourses in the Community, A Guide to Sustainable Watercourse Management in the Urban Environment. SEPA, June 2000

145 River Crossings and Migratory Fish: Design Guidance: A consultation paper. Scottish Executive, April 2000

146 All habitat loss and gain figures are approximate and based on assumptions about the final scheme design and construction outlined in Chapter 3

147 Some seeding may be undertaken on bunds close to houses or if slopes do not regenerate satisfactorily

148 This figure is based on the scheme including approximately 2ha of blacktop, surfaced paths and carriageway filter drains

149 The air quality assessment reported in Chapter 15 indicates effects would not be significant

150Loch Lomond and the Trossachs National Park Landscape Character Assessment, ERM, 2005, SNH commissioned report No 93

151 Visual Envelope Map (VEM): Map showing the area of land within which there is a view of any part of the proposed development

152 Defined by the National Parks (Scotland) Act 2000

153 The Park Authority and its partners will apply the Precautionary Principle wherever necessary. The Park Authority will apply it a cross its full range of powers, including planning and access functions. New information or other data suggesting scientific certainty may lead to a review of decisions made using the Precautionary Principle

154 The principle, set out in Section 9(6) of the National Parks Scotland Act (2000), states that if it appears there is a conflict between the four Park aims, the Park Authority must give greater weight to the conservation and enhancement of the natural and cultural heritage

155 Scottish hills over 3000 feet on a list maintained by the Scottish Mountaineering Club, all regularly walked and important outdoor recreation destinations

156 This text has been edited to remove a small number of guidelines not relevant to a trunk road

157 Supplementary Guidance to DMRB Vol 11 S.3 Pt. 5 Landscape & Visual Assessment, issued by the Scottish Executive Development Department, National Roads Directorate, 11th February 2002

158 Additional species of willow found locally may be added to this list

159 Moderate in a Scottish mountain context

160 A Munro is a Scottish mountain with a height over 3,000 feet (914.4 metres)

161 The Corbetts are peaks in Scotland between 2,500 and 3,000 feet (762 and 914.4 m)

162 Scottish Government, 2008. Scottish Planning Policy (SPP) 23 — Planning and the Historic Environment

163 Scottish Office, 1994. Planning Advice Note (PAN) 42 — Archaeology — the Planning Process and Scheduled Monument Procedures

164 Historic Scotland, 2006. Scottish Historic Environment Policy 2 — Scheduling: Protecting Scotland’s nationally important monuments

165Scottish Government, 2008. Scottish Planning Policy (SPP) 23 — Planning and the Historic Environment

166 Historic Scotland, 2006. Guide to Protection of Scotland’s Historic Buildings — what listing means to owners and occupiers

167 The 2007 edition of DMRB (Volume 11 Section 3 Part 2 HA 208/07) gives five levels of sensitivity (or value) of sites (or assets): Very High, High, Medium, Low and Negligible. For the purposes of this assessment only three levels of sensitivity have been used. Had the full five been used then two additional levels of importance would have been added to include International (ie World Heritage Sites, of which there are none in proximity to the site) and Negligible (ie sites of no cultural heritage importance) of which only one would have been included (site 46). In addition, the terms used for significance of impact and magnitude of impact do not follow DMRB as a uniform approach has been taken across the ES (see Section 1.6)

168 Scottish Government, 2008. Scottish Planning Policy (SPP) 23 — Planning and the Historic Environment

169 Scoping of Development Proposals: Assessment of Impact on the Setting of the Historic Environment Resource — Some General Considerations: http://www.historic-scotland.gov.uk/scoping_of_development_proposals_2009.pdf

170 One trip involves two movements e.g. site to tip and tip to site

171 ‘Noise Nuisance’ is defined by the World Health Organisation as ‘a feeling of displeasure associated with any agent or condition, known or believed by an individual or group to adversely affect them’. This definition is referenced within the DMRB

172 Grontmij, 2008. A82/A85 Crianlarich Bypass: Stage 2 Addendum Report, March 2008. Transport Scotland

173Reflective surfaces include building facades and road surfaces

174 It is anticipated that pecking of rock could be required in some areas. It has been assumed for this assessment that blasting would not be required. If blasting were required the contractor would be required to consider the noise and vibration impacts of this in advance and to identify appropriate mitigation

175 Advisory Leaflet 72: Construction and Noise and BS5228: Part 1 :2009

176 Volume 11, Section 3, Part 1 Air Quality (Highways Agency, May 2007)

177 Scottish Transport Appraisal Guidance (STAG) (Transport Scotland, September 2006)

178 The Air Quality Strategy for England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland (Volumes 1 and 2) July 2007

179 The Air Quality (Scotland) Regulations 2000, Scottish Statutory Instrument 2000 No.97

180 The Air Quality (Scotland) Amendment Regulations 2002, Scottish Statutory Instrument 2002 No. 297

181 DEFRA, July 2007. The Air Quality Strategy for England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland (Volumes 1 and 2)

182 An area designated because it has not met air quality objectives set out in the Air Quality (Scotland) Regulations and the Air Quality (Scotland) (Amendment) Regulations 2002

183 Stirling Council, 2007. Local Air Quality Management Progress Report; Stirling Council, 2006. Local Air Quality Strategy 2006, A Report to Stirling Council

184 http://www.airquality.co.uk

185 Approximately 300m north of the A82/A85 junction in Crianlarich

186 Kukadia, V., Upton, S. L. and Hall, D. J., 2003. Control of dust from Construction and Demolition Activities. BRE

187 Quality of Urban Air Review Group, 1996. Airborne Particulate Matter in the United Kingdom — Third Report of the Quality of Urban Air Review Group. Prepared for the Department of the Environment

188 Arup Environmental and Ove Arup and Partners, 1995. The Environmental Effects of dust from Surface Mineral Workings Volume 2. Prepared for Department of the Environment Minerals Division

189 Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA): Part IV The Environment Act 1995 and Environment (Northern Ireland) Order 2002 Part III, Local Air Quality Management Review and Assessment Technical Guidance LAQM.TG(09) (Feb 2009).

190 D Laxen and B Marner, 2003. Analysis of the relationship between 1-hour and annual mean nitrogen dioxide at UK roadside and kerbside monitoring sites (July 2003)

191 A Cook, 2008: Analysis of the relationship between annual mean nitrogen dioxide concentration and exceedences of the 1-hour mean AQS Objective

192 The criteria relate to changes in annual mean NO2 and PM10 concentrations resulting from the development.

193 Review and Assessment: Selection and Use of Dispersion Models; Part IV The Environment Act 1995 Local Air Quality Management LAQM.TG(00) May 2000

194 http://www.snh.org.uk/

195 National record of public rights of way within England, Wales and Scotland, http://www.way-finder.co.uk/

196 No specific footpath user numbers have been accessed but it is assumed that the path (and all paths in the area) are popular and well used

197 The draft Core Paths Plan can be viewed at http://www.lochlomond-trossachs.org/park/default.asp?p=302

198 Department of Transport/Scottish Office Industry Department/Welsh Office/Department of the Environment for Northern Ireland (1993) Design Manual for Roads and Bridges, Volume 11: Environmental Assessment. HMSO. Department of Transport/Scottish Office Industry Department/Welsh Office/Department of the Environment for Northern Ireland (1994) First Amendment to Design Manual Volume 11. HMSO. The technical chapters of the DMRB have subsequently been updated and amended on a number of occasions

199 Length is only considered to impact non-car journeys to and from facilities and not those taken for leisure purposes along footpaths, cycle routes and bridleways. All equestrian journeys are assumed to be for leisure purposes

200 DMRB guidance suggests pro rata speeds of 5km/h for pedestrians and 20km/h for cyclists

201 DMRB provides additional criteria for evaluation of new severance where new pedestrian at-grade crossings of roads are required

202 DMRB defines thresholds for severance according to relief of traffic. In the absence of other guidance we have taken a 30% threshold as the starting point for the assessment of both increased severance and relief from severance

203 A footpath is a pedestrian route remote from the road and a footway is adjacent to the road carriageway

204A splitter island is an island in the centre of a two lane round where it approaches/leaves a roundabout that provides a safe place for pedestrians/cyclists to wait until it is safe to cross the next section of road

205 Prevailing conditions will include the amount of traffic on the road, weather and daylight conditions. Additionally, each road has a design speed which is determined by factors such as visibility, curvature, width, surface conditions, the presence of junctions and accesses and speed limits

206 Design standards cover geometric aspects of road design such as curvature, gradient and sight distances as well as distance between junctions and provision for pedestrians

207 It was considered that the scale of effects (minor, moderate, major) described in Section 1.6 and used for other appraisals in the ES was not suitable for this chapter and has thus been adapted to help better understand the effects for travellers

208 Traffic flows are measured in flow units where a car of light van equals one flow unit and HGVs or public service vehicles equal 3 flow units