Carbon Account For Transport No. 3: 2011/12 Edition
3. The Climate Change (Annual Targets) (Scotland) Order 2010, SSI 2010 no.359
7. Scotland's National Transport Strategy (2006), The Scottish Executive.
9. Greenhouse Gas Inventory for England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland: 1990-2009 (2011), AEA Technology;
10. While not relevant to the transport sector, the full inventory includes the three other greenhouse gases - Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) and Sulphur hexafluoride (SF6).
11. Includes national navigation and international shipping
12. Guidelines to Defra / DECC's GHG Conversion Factors for Company Reporting (2011), Produced by AEA for the Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC) and the Department of Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra)
13. Passenger Kilometres is the product of the distance a vehicle travels multiplied by the number of occupants travelling that distance.
14. All car figures assume an average car occupancy rate of 1.6 passengers based on the Scottish Household Survey Travel Diary: 2007-8.
15. Alternatively fuelled vehicles include all vehicles whose primary method of propulsion is neither petrol nor diesel.
16. Source: Scottish Transport Statistics, No 30, 2011 Edition. Tables 5.3, 1.1, 11.2, 8.1, 9.1, 5.11.
17. Road transport fuel consumption indicator is referred to in 'Conserve and Save: The Energy Efficiency Action Plan for Scotland' published in October 2010.
18. GROS population estimates (mid 2009) for Scotland are 5,194,000.
19. Design Manual for Roads and Bridges (2009), Highways Agency
20. Rail Emission Model (2001), AEA Technology Environment
21. Emissions figures have been updated since 2010 publication from Carbon emissions to CO2 emissions.
22. To be consistent with the scope of this document, these figures (both the average annual savings and the cumulative savings) relate to emissions in the transport sector only and exclude increased emissions in the electricity production and distribution sector associated with electrification. However, the estimated net impact at the overall Scottish level, even including these emissions, is to lower emissions over the longer term
23. The Edinburgh Tram network is the responsibility of the City of Edinburgh Council who are both Statutory Undertaker and operator of the two proposed tram lines under the respective Edinburgh Tram (Lines One and Two) Acts of 2006.
24. To be consistent with the scope of this document, these figures relate to emissions in the transport sector only and exclude increased emissions resulting from power consumption by the tram. If the CO2 emissions resulting from power consumption by the tram are added to the additional emissions from road traffic, then the net emissions impact of the project increases by 8ktCO2 and 11ktCO2 p.a. in 2011 and 2031 respectively.
25. It is worth noting that without the tram, it is possible that the developments referred to would take place elsewhere, most likely in peripheral locations with a higher proportion of car usage and longer trip lengths. These 'disbenefits' have not been accounted for. Without the effect of the larger assumed travel market in the 'with-tram' scenario, the increases in emissions would be approximately half of those reported.
26. All figures and analysis for the Edinburgh Trams Lines 1a and 1b refer to modelling of the original project scope and do not take account of decisions to be made through current contractual discussions.
27. Climate Change: The UK Programme (2006), Presented to Parliament by the Secretary of State for the Environment, Food and Rural Affairs by Command of Her Majesty
28. Meeting the Energy Challenge: A White Paper on Energy (2007, Department of Trade and Industry
30. Figure is based on the impact assessment of the 2009 APD reform.
31. On 28 October 2009 the European Commission also adopted a new legislative proposal to reduce CO2 emissions from light commercial vehicles. In December 2010, the European Parliament and the Council reached agreement on the final text of the vans Regulation. The main objective of the vans Regulation is to cut CO2 emissions from vans to 175 grams of CO2 per kilometer by 2017, phasing in the reduction from 2014, and to reach 147g CO2/km by 2020. These cuts represent reductions of 14% and 28% respectively compared with the 2007 EU average of 203 g/km.
32. The King Review of low carbon cars (2007), King, J.
33. The Gallagher Review of the indirect effects of biofuels production (2008), Renewable Fuels Agency
34. Budget 2008 announced that from April 2010, the biofuels duty differential will cease and support for biofuels will be provided by the RTFO. The exception to this is biofuels made form used cooking oil. Pre-Budget Report 2009 stated that a 20 pence per litre duty differential will continue on this until 2012.
35. A primary outcome of this intervention will be to facilitate the savings attributed to the 'New car CO2 Regulation'.
36. The impacts from both VED and company car tax contribute to the delivery of the savings from the EU regulation on CO2 from cars, as opposed to representing additional savings.
37. Including those measures whose expected emissions impacts has not been quantified on an individual basis, e.g. Freight Facilities Grant.
38. The reduction in emissions within the non-traded sector that are a result of EGIP have been added to the modelled output, as these benefits sit outside the scope of the modelling framework.