This chapter reviews a range of active travel, cycling and placemaking strategies from around the world to identify useful insights for the new Framework and Delivery Plan for Scotland. The aim is to draw on good practice to inform the creation of a Framework and Delivery plan which is both ambitious and achievable.
An Active Travel Action Plan for Wales
- Leadership (at national and local levels)
- Legislation, standards and tools
- Promotion & Behaviour Change
- Skills & Training
- Monitoring & Evaluation
Overall approach to cycling
The purpose of this plan is to set out the Welsh Government’s vision for active travel and how it relates to their wider aims, how they will work with others to achieve the changes required, how they will embed consideration of active travel across different portfolios and how they will monitor progress.
Vision:For people in Wales, we want walking and cycling to become the preferred ways of getting around over shorter distances.
Increased rates of active travel in Wales will support the government’s well-being goals in the Well-being of Future Generations (Wales) Act 2015. In their programme for government, the Welsh Government made a commitment to introduce legislation in support of increased levels of walking and cycling. They plan to accompany this aim by a range of wider reaching actions and changes by government.
An action plan sets out the priority areas to enable more people to use active travel more often, within the aim of significantly increasing the proportion of the population who walk or cycle for short journeys.
- An Active Travel Board was established in 2014 to provide strategic support to the implementation of the Active Travel Act and wider actions to support increases in cycling. It’s made up of representatives of the main government departments, voluntary sector and local authorities.
- Public services boards have the potential to fulfil an important role in overseeing active travel delivery across partners’ activities. Supporting increases in walking and cycling should be tackled as a service-straddling issue in local authorities.
Legislation, standards and tools
- The vision will be incorporated into the legal, regulatory and advisory frameworks and tools and extends beyond those focussed on transport. It will be mainstreamed into areas including the National Curriculum and Health Standards.
- The Welsh Government funded an initial survey of active travel infrastructure in all designated localities in Wales, the results of which were captured in a custom-built data management system. All local authorities can access and amend data on infrastructure in their area. The system provides mapping capability, which will ensure a level of consistency between local authorities’ approaches to meeting their mapping and reporting duties under the Active Travel Act.
- Active travel will be incorporated into the daily routine for children and young people.
- Opportunities exist within the National Curriculum for schools to develop pupils’ knowledge and understanding of the benefits of active travel through Physical Education and the Personal and Social Education Framework for 7-19 year olds.
- Awareness of these resources will be raised in schools including promoting national standards cycle training.
- Each local ‘Healthy Schools Scheme’ set up by the government employs healthy school practitioners who work directly with schools to identify health improvement needs. Schools involved in the scheme are encouraged to consider walking and cycling as part of their healthy schoolwork.
- The government are funding an Eco-Schools programme which 85% of schools in Wales take part in. the programme promotes a number of issues relating to transport including reducing carbon footprint.
- There is a ’Healthy Working Wales’ programme delivered by Public Health Wales including modules on physical activity for employers and employees. This is supported by Sustrans.
- The government will work with partners to identify links to other programmes such as She Cycles Wales, a three-year Welsh cycling project to encourage more women and girls to cycle.
- The strategic focus is to move from a situation where people walk and cycle despite a lack of suitable infrastructure, to a situation where people choose to do so because it’s easy, safe, convenient and desirable.
- To boost the creation of good quality infrastructure, the government will maximise funding from across a range of sources, including the private sector. The funding strategy will consider the merits of setting a fixed rate of active travel transport funding against other funding options.
- Children and young people are a priority, and the government will make it a mandatory requirement to consult with young people as they plan future active travel networks.
- The government will ensure that all future highway construction and improvement schemes consider walking and cycling from the outset and will seek to enhance provision for walkers and cyclists when investing in public transport infrastructure.
Promotion and Behaviour Change
- A core communication and engagement strategy will be created by Welsh Government Transport officials to include national events, a newsletter, website, and initiatives to increase the profile of active travel.
- The Welsh Government will also scope the development of an online active travel portal for Wales which will be regularly maintained and updated to reflect changes in best practice.
- A settings-based approach to behaviour change allows the focus on establishing active travel behaviours linked to journeys that people most regularly make. E.g., they are funding a multiyear intervention, ‘Active Journeys’, to promote active travel in schools.
- The government will explore how active travel promotion elements can be incorporated into the delivery of complementary programmes such as cycle and child pedestrian training and aim to develop and pilot revised training.
- Health and care professionals will promote active travel uptake through direct contact with patients and clients.
A detailed action plan with timescales for each action and responsibility has been produced. Timescales refer to Short (1y), Medium (2-3y), Long (4-5y) and C(continuous).
There are no specific measures set out regarding equality.
Ireland’s First National Cycle Policy Framework, 2009-2020
- Interventions – infrastructure and the physical environment
- Interventions – communication and education
- Instruments – financial resources
- Instruments – legislation and enforcement
- Implementation – human resources and coordination
- Evaluation and effects
Overall approach to cycling
All cities, towns, villages and rural areas will be bicycle friendly. Cycling will be a normal way to get about, especially for short trips. Next to walking, cycling will be the most popular means of getting to school, both for primary and secondary school. Our universities and colleges will be bustling with bicycles. Businessmen and women will see the bicycle as the best way to travel for part or all of their daily commute. Shopping by bike will be as normal as it is in many of the Northern European cycling friendly countries. The bicycle will be the transport mode of choice for all ages. We will have a healthier and happier population with consequent benefits on the health service. We will all gain economically as cycling helps in easing congestion and providing us with a fitter and more alert work force.
- One of the main focusses of Ireland’s NCPF is providing the correct infrastructure to support and encourage an uptake in cycling, by enhancing safety of cyclists through cyclist-friendly urban road infrastructure (new and retrofitted), traffic-management measures, good quality surfaces and lighting along routes, and sufficient signposting. This includes provision of rural cycling networks where cycle use is significantly lower.
- As well as improving cycle routes, the NCPF identifies the importance of providing secure parking for bikes at key destinations and along routes, and also providing public bikes within cities.
- Ensuring proper integration between cycling and public transport to promote the uptake of non-car-based travel.
- Education both in schools and cycle-maintenance training is another strategic focus which can help to promote the benefits of cycling and promote cycling infrastructure.
- Cycle training should be provided to all school pupils in Ireland along with adequate cycle parking facilities within schools.
- Cyclists’ cycling standards and behaviour on the roads will be improved through a mandatory national cycling proficiency programme for all school children starting at primary level and continuing to through to secondary level. A similar approve national curriculum for adult cyclists could also be developed e.g., Bikeability.
- Design professionals should receive suitable training / guidance to develop and implement the policies of the NCPF and support the deepening of knowledge of the subject of planning for cyclists in Ireland. This will include training workshops and sessions in understanding and using the new guidance produced.
- Undergraduates and postgraduates will also be instructed on the safety issues involved in providing for vulnerable road users and planning for more sustainable modes.
- Drivers of motor vehicles will also be educated so that there is a greater appreciation for the safety needs of cyclists. This will be achieved through awareness campaigns for all drivers, emphasis on cycle safety in driving instructors/student curriculum, training bus drivers to understand how best to safely interact with cyclists, review training curriculum for HGVs and provide incentives to encourage the retrofitting of Cyclops mirrors to the older fleet.
Perceptions of cycling
- Improving the public perception of cycling as an alternative mode of travel is a strategic focus. This will be achieved through using “soft interventions” such as promotional campaigns, events etc.
- The provision of fiscal incentives to cycle will also be supported including allowing for the purchase of subsidised bikes for those who require financial assistance, business cycle mileage allowances and possibly using the indirect tax system to reduce the cost of bicycle purchase.
- Changes to legislation to improve cyclist safety and change the balance in favour of cycling will be introduced. The adoption of 30kph speed limits in core urban areas and reduced limits applied on residential streets and large junctions will be considered. On the spot fines will be extended to infringements by cyclists, and other ideas to facilitate cyclists such as exempting from no-entry/one-way street restrictions and pedestrianised streets will be introduced.
- Enforcement of traffic laws to enhance cyclist safety and respect for cyclists will be improved through urban speed enforcement, enforcement of other laws including dangerous driving, illegal parking on cycle tracks, and motorbikes using bus lanes.
- The number of bicycle-mounted Gardai (police) will be increased to reinforce the notion that cyclists are an integral part of the city.
Funding and implementation
- It is acknowledged that there needs to be continuous funding of the NCPF over the short to long term and appropriate levels of, and timely, financial resources will be provided towards implementing the NCPF.
- A structure will be developed that can coordinate the implementation of activities across the many Government Departments, Agencies and NGO’s.
- A National Advisory Forum of stakeholders will be established to advise the DfT on the delivery of the NCPF.
- Each local authority will be assigned a Cycling Officer and establish a Cycle Forum to oversee the formulation and delivery of the local cycling policy.
A wide package of measures will be created to reverse the decline in cycling numbers which will integrate with wider transportation policies as well as other policy fields such as land-use planning, road safety and health. The interventions can be grouped into planning and infrastructure (hard engineering measures) and communication and education (soft measures).
There will be many separate bodies that will have a role in implementing the NCPF and implementation will have a multi-level multi-stakeholder approach.
Not specially mentioned.
Irish Programme for Government: Our Shared Future
- Mission: A Better Quality of Life for All
- New Measures of Wellbeing and Progress
- Town Centres First
- A National Clean Air Strategy
- Better Work-life Balance
- Walking and cycling
- Transport infrastructure
- Public transport
- Decarbonisation of road transport
- Road safety
- Other measures
Overall approach to cycling
The government will promote cycling and pedestrian safety and enable this through improved design, increased separation and better signage and marking.
- The government will mandate that every local authority, with assistance from the National Transport Authority (NTA), adopts a high-quality cycling policy, carries out an assessment of their roads network and develops cycle network plans, which will be implemented with the help of a suitably qualified Cycling Officer with clear powers and roles.
- Expertise on active travel will be expanded and enhanced and is needed to dramatically improve infrastructure and participation both in the NTA and local authorities, including by establishing Regional Cycle Design Offices, co-located in the seven Regional Design Offices for roads, to support local authorities.
- A review of road traffic policy and legislation will be conducted to prioritise the safety of walking and cycling.
- The government aims to dramatically increase the number of children walking and cycling to primary and secondary school by mandating the Department of Transport towork with schools across Ireland, local authorities, the Green-Schools programme and local initiatives, including Cycle Bus and School Streets.
- They will also ramp up the Cycle Right programme to ensure that all children are offered cycling training in primary school.
- In 2020, the new programme for government set 20% (€360 million each year) of the transport budget to active modes.
- As part of this, 248 new posts in local authorities are to be funded to expand walking and cycling facilities nationwide. This includes 30 proposed for Regional Cycling Design Offices. The new staff will support the delivery of almost 1,000 kilometres of improved walking and cycling infrastructure by 2025.
- The eligibility of the Bike to Work scheme will be widened, and provision of an increased proportionate allowance for e-bikes and cargo bikes.
Not specifically mentioned.
Changing Gear: A Bicycle Strategy for Northern Ireland
The Bicycle Strategy outline the Minister’s vision for cycling in Northern Ireland and how they intend to achieve this vision over 25 years.
- Our Cycling Future
- Our Approach
- Build – A Comprehensive Network for the Bicycle
- Support – People who choose to travel by Bicycle
- Promote – The Bicycle as a mode of Transport for everyday journeys
- How will we deliver this strategy?
Overall approach to cycling
Vision:“A community where people have the freedom and confidence to travel by bicycle for everyday journeys”
Higher levels of cycling, walking and public transport use are key to ensuring a transport system that benefits everyone in society. One of the major constraints identified is that funding available has been limited and spread thinly across Northern Ireland. The government want to change this to a prioritised, more focussed approach which provides a comprehensive solution to make sure the full benefits of cycling are realised. They will begin by focussing on a small number of areas where detailed proposals for cycling schemes and pilot projects will be developed and will also build on opportunities that arise as other transport interventions are taken forward.
In developing cycling infrastructure, the government will adopt a three-pillar approach which will evolve over the 25 years:
- Build – a comprehensive network for the bicycle
- Cycle parking
- Support – people who choose to travel by bicycle
- Education and training
- Safety and security
- Promote – the bicycle as a mode of transport for everyday journeys
- Respect and understanding
- Marketing campaigns
- Flagship events and schemes
They recognise that infrastructure provision alone is not sufficient to generate new bicycle trips, and that a creative approach is required to support that investment and encourage more people to cycle part or all of their everyday journeys.
- Making urban areas in Northern Ireland more accessible for people using the bicycle – improvements to cycling infrastructure will enable more people to access facilities in our urban centres by bicycle or by multi modal journeys.
- Improve opportunities for social interaction – 22% of households in Northern Ireland do not have access to a car/van. Improved cycling infrastructure enhances the travel opportunities for those who don’t have access to a car/van. Perhaps more importantly, cycling is a social form of transport. It allows people to interact and engage with their surroundings, their community and their neighbours. This can help build a sense of community and contribute to personal well-being and social inclusion.
- Improvements in public health – increased levels of bicycle use have both direct (personal fitness) and indirect (improvements to air quality) benefits for public health.
- Increase safety for people using the bicycle – this includes reducing the proportion involved in collisions and increasing the ‘feel safe’ factor for people riding a bicycle.
- Urban areas will be made more accessible for people by bike by developing bicycle network plans which will cover defined geographical areas and set out detailed proposals for bicycle infrastructure. The plan will first be focussed on Belfast as it is the most populated area and there is a perception that levels of commuter cycling here are higher than in other areas. These bicycle network plans will be considered within existing Transport Plans.
- Provision of cycling infrastructure measures will be integrated and coherent by providing a ‘whole of route’ treatment.
- Opportunities will be taken to improve bicycle provision locally whilst road maintenance and upgrade schemes are being undertaken.
- The development of off-road traffic-free Greenways will be encouraged to provide routes between urban areas reaching out into more rural areas.
- The government will continue to invest in enhancing physical infrastructure in rural areas where opportunities arise and there is demand.
- Drawing on the Welsh experience, options will be explored to develop active travel legislation for Northern Ireland.
- A legible and easily identifiable brand standard for the transport network can help people find their way and increase a sense of security for all road users. It will also improve Northern Ireland’s potential as a cycle tourism destination.
- Greater respect and understanding between all users of the transport network will be approached through various training programmes including cycle training and Bikeability; driver cycle awareness training; HGV, bus and taxi driver training providing drivers with the opportunity to experience the roads on a bicycle; and media campaigns delivering tailored safety messages.
- The government will work with the education sector to influence travel behaviour of young people. They will build on established education programmes including the Active School Travel Programme, Dept. of Environment funded cycle proficiency training and school cycle infrastructure.
- Interchange between modes will be facilitated by secure cycle parking at access to public transport, the use of folding bikes, encouraging subscription to the Belfast Bike Share schemes and carriage of bicycles on public transport.
- To date, 500 20mph zones have been introduced to create calmer traffic environments. These have been implemented where local residents have expressed a desire for reduced speed limits following consultation. 20mph zones are self-enforcing whereas 20mph limits are mandatory. The Department of Environment Road Safety Strategy has set out a commitment to pilot 20mph limits with 5 pilot schemes currently being implemented.
- Work will be continued to collaborate with retail and service provider groups to encourage staff, customers and clients to cycle their everyday journeys. This includes targeted activities such as Bike Week and Bike to Work Day, Workplace Travel Plans, Cycle to Work Scheme and other one-off events.
- The government will produce a publication called ‘Bike Life’, similar to the Copenhagen Bicycle Account, to provide current information about Belfast as a cycling city, initiate ongoing sustainable exchange with how they will monitor, evaluate and communicate cycling, and assist in producing a consistent method of collating data to enable benchmarking and comparative statistics to be carried out.
A funding allocation of €40 million in the Interreg V programme has been granted for sustainable transport, with a significant emphasis on cycling.
This is a 25-year strategy. The government want to priorities the Build and Promote pillars of the strategy in the first 10-15 years to reach the point of having high quality infrastructure on the ground. At this point there will then be more focus on the support pillar.
Implementing the strategy will result in improved access to a greater range of services and facilities and will support social equality and integration.
Gear change: a bold vision for cycling and walking, DfT
- A case for change
- Better streets for cycling and people
- Cycling at the heart of decision making
- Empowering and encouraging local authorities
- Enabling people to cycle and protecting them when they do
- Summary principles for cycle infrastructure design
Overall approach to cycling
To transform the role cycling and walking can play in our transport system and get England moving differently. Bold action will help to create places people want to live and work with better connected, healthier and more sustainable communities.
Due to recent Covid-19 restrictions which have impacted the way people live, work and travel, the changes can now be embedded in people’s travel behaviour and increase active travel and transform how people move around permanently.
Vision: England will be a great walking and cycling nation. Places will be truly walkable. A travel revolution in our streets, towns and communities will have made cycling a mass form of transit. Cycling and walking will be the natural first choice for many journeys with half of all journeys in towns and cities being cycled or walked by 2030.
West Midlands Cycling Charter and Action Plan
Overall approach to cycling
Vision: To realise the full potential of cycling’s contribution to the health and wealth of the West Midlands – creating more sustainable suburbs, towns and cities that are healthier, safer and more desirable places to live, work and learn.
- By 2023 5% of all trips made by bike
- 400% increase in cycling journeys
- By 2033 10% of all trips made by bike
- Increased overall participation in cycling whether for exercise, leisure or commuting
- Improved health and air quality
- Decreased car dependency
- Leadership and raising the profile
- Cycling network
- Promotion and encouraging cycling
The following strategic actions will be delivered by a Cycling Charter Steering Group.
Leadership and raising the profile
- TfWM will engage with the Mayor and local councillors to influence decision on funding for active travel and ensure that cycling is included in stakeholder’s strategic and policy frameworks.
- Larger events in the West Midlands building on the legacy of the 2022 Commonwealth Games will be held to raise the profile of cycling.
- The physical cycling network will be planned and built, and new and existing infrastructure will be well maintained.
- Provisions for cycling at public transport interchanges to provide better choices to combine modes of travel will also be provided.
- A West Midlands Bikeshare scheme will also be created.
Promotion and encouraging cycling
- A customer-based approach to promoting cycling will be developed through behaviour change.
- TfWM will work with partners and stakeholders to develop a plan for resilience that includes cycling.
- Work with stakeholders to improve safety on roads for cyclists.
- Collaborate with West Midlands Police, British Transport Police and other stakeholders to reduce cycle crime.
- A coordinated approach to work with partners and stakeholders to bid for funding will be used.
TfL Liveable Neighbourhoods Programme Guidance
- A new radical policy direction
- Policy, context and aims
- Liveable neighbourhoods’ projects
- Liveable neighbourhoods funding buds
- Delivering a liveable neighbourhoods project
Overall Approach to Cycling
Given London’s limited space, a steady reduction in car use is necessary and walking, cycling and public transport use must increase. London must become a place where walking, cycling and public transport are the most appealing and practical choices for many more journeys.
The Liveable Neighbourhoods programme is a TfL funded programme, delivered by TfL and the boroughs, to improve the public realm and the experience of walking, cycling and using public transport while increasing opportunities to use streets as public spaces and reducing car trips. The aim is for 80% of all journeys in London to be conducted on foot, by cycle or by public transport by 2041.
Active and sustainable transport choices not only support the health and wellbeing of Londoners, but also support the city as a whole by reducing congestion and providing the most efficient use of valuable and finite street space.
- Increasing the number of trips made by walking, cycling and public transport, and improving local connections by these modes
- Reducing car dominance, and increasing the active use of streets and public spaces
- Creating safer neighbourhood environments, including reducing road danger and improving personal security
- Improving the efficiency and safety of freight movement
- Improving air quality and green infrastructure to create more attractive neighbourhoods for people
- Improving the quality and resilience of the public realm
- Ensuring neighbourhoods have good connections to public transport
- Delivering outcomes across a wider area rather than individual streets or junctions, creating vibrant streets that help local businesses to thrive and provide places for the community to come together and interact
Changes to town centres and their surrounding residential areas to improve conditions for walking and cycling and reduce traffic dominance.
- Traffic calming
- A network of good cycle routes including safe routes to stations
- Reduced motor vehicle parking provision
- Redesigned junctions
- Restrictions on motor traffic in town centres
- Modal filtering to limit through traffic
- Timed closures to vehicles on streets
- Play streets to improve ambience and things to do and see
- New cycle parking and high-quality cycle facilities
- Signage and wayfinding
- New segregated cycle lanes on busy streets
Engagement with stakeholders and communities
A crucial factor will be the development of proposals through early and ongoing engagement. By being more responsive to the needs of communities, projects will have a broader range of interventions that deliver the right solutions in the right locations. Consequently, projects will vary depending on local context, and borough and community aspirations
- Take a proactive and collaborative approach to supporting boroughs in developing bids and delivering projects
- Seek to ensure behaviour change and non-infrastructure activities are included as part of projects
- Ensure early engagement with communities in the development of proposals, including using innovative approaches such as trials and open streets events
- Behaviour change initiatives
London’s local authorities will be vital in making the mayor’s vision a reality, and the mayor wants to work with local politicians and officers, building on their strong history of achievement across London, to ensure successful delivery of the Liveable Neighbourhoods programme.
Each Liveable Neighbourhood application is required to undergo an Equality Impact Assessment (EQIA) to improve the benefits to local communities by making sure there are no discriminatory outcomes and that, where possible, Liveable Neighbourhoods promote equality and build upon the duties bestowed upon local authorities under individual pieces of legislation.
Denmark – on your bike! The national bicycle strategy, July 2014
- Everyday cycling
- Active holidays and recreation
- New and safe cyclists
Overall approach to cycling
The downward trend in cycling popularity in Denmark must be reversed so that more people again choose the bicycle every day for work, education and leisure activities. Children are a particular area of focus as far more children are drive to school by car compared to earlier generations and this must be changed. Today’s child cyclists are the adult cyclists of the future.
There are three pillars to the national bicycle strategy, each containing a number of specific initiatives to support and increase the use of bicycles as a means of transport for the benefit of mobility, the environment and public health.
- Everyday cycling
- Active holidays and recreation
- New and safe cyclists
Everyday cycling – can lead to increased mobility, a cleaner environment and better climate with the bicycle as the means of transport
- Door-to-door strategy focussing on making it convenient and flexible to combine cycling with public transport
- The Ministry of Transport is establishing many more safe and attractive parking facilities for cyclists at train stations and at other hubs, including spaces for carrier bikes and bicycles with trailers.
- Charging stations for e-bikes should be considered
- The Ministry of Transport has set up an expert monitoring group to explore ways to reduce the number of bicycle thefts at stations, including a design competition inviting citizens to submit their best ideas on how to reduce bicycle thefts
- The Ministry of Transport will also set up a task force to focus on parking conditions for cyclists when constructing new stations
- The Ministry of Transport supports Cycle Superhighways for improved accessibility in more cities
- Ministry of Transport supports Cycling Cities that invest in promoting cycling through holistic solutions e.g., in Dronningborg the cycling city has held a series of events including family trips and BMX shows, loans of e-bikes and learner bicycles, and free spinning classes for employees of the cooperating companies.
- Companies and workplaces should take more responsibility for providing better cycle solutions for employees. A company bicycle policy may involve commuter bicycle schemes, good parking facilities on site, service bicycles for transport during working hours, good facilities for employees such as shower, changing rooms and towel schemes, and bicycle services such as bicycle pumps and repair schemes
- The Ministry of Transport is working to allow bicycles to turn right at suitable intersections when the lights are red. This is intended to make commuting easier for cyclists.
- Improved opportunities for combining cycling with public transport
- Increased focus on cycling by employers, with new bicycle solutions, commuter bicycles and mobility schemes.
Cycling on active holidays and recreation can lead to healthier lifestyles and new experiences with recreational cycling
- Greater investment in bicycle tourism
- The Ministry of Transport is working on improving signposting on the national cycle routes.
- The Ministry of Transport is setting up a group of experts to develop cycling tourism and award the Cycle Tourist Solution of the Year.
- More recreational cycling routes
- A well-connected network of bicycle routes with good accessibility, also in relation to cycling tourists.
New and safe cyclists – safe to school and other activities promoting good traffic culture
- The Ministry of Transport supports the development of bicycle paths at schools and near leisure activities.
- The Ministry of Transport is working to achieve School Cycling Cities with coherent road safety solutions at schools.
- The Danish Cyclist’s Federation public a School Cycling Handbook which identifies a range of intervention tools to promote more school cycling. Interventions include bicycle play, cycling tests, road traffic education workshop and maintenance courses, helmet policy and adult school crossing guards, signage and bicycle paths.
- Happy Bicycle School in Odense – the bicycle has been integrated into and enrich the teaching processes through the following measures: training of 20 teachers as cycling instructors; bicycle play day for 6th graders; pimp my bike workshop; cycling as an optional subject.
- The Ministry of Transport is tackling risk zones, including with measures to combat right-turn accidents and achieve safer railway level crossings
- Further development of tools for teaching better cycling culture
Finland’s National Strategy for Walking and Cycling 2020
Overall approach to cycling
The strategy is designed to enhance the political status of walking and cycling to the point that they will be recognised by policy makers as equal to other modes of transport. The strategy and action plan target an increase in the number of journeys undertaken on foot or by bicycle by 20% by 2020 and a corresponding decrease in the number of car journeys.
The objective is to encourage and enable people to opt for walking or cycling at least for a portion of their journeys.
A major shift in transport habits cannot be affected through new walking and cycling routes alone. A shift in attitudes and improvement of the existing route network, along with community structures and service networks favourable to walking and cycling, are needed too.
The objective is to change people choices of transport so that walking or cycling offers a viable, practical, and desirable alternative. Small changes made by a large group of people can make a great impact.
- Measures for marketing walking and cycling, and other instruments designed to guide mobility
- Development of walking and cycling equipment and services, alongside promotion of their use
Finnish experiences show that the popularity of cycling depends on the ease and practicality of undertaking daily journeys by bicycle. The right conditions must be created for pleasant, safe, and fast cycling, along with a smooth flow of traffic.
- Drawing up local guidelines to address the status of walking and cycling, and revising the planning principles for bicycle traffic
- Building an attractive environment for pedestrian traffic and introducing traffic-calming measures for motor vehicles
- Improving the quality of cycling routes and adding the missing route links
- Providing appropriate bicycle stands and similar facilities
- Ensuring proper maintenance of pavements and cycle paths
Distance is a key factor in the choice of a mode of transport. Simultaneously, increasing car ownership significantly reduces the use of other modes of transport. Ensuring that the right conditions are created for cycling must become a key factor in land-use planning. The development of public and private service networks must be steered towards ensuring access by bicycle.
- Improving and extending cycling zones on the basis of short distances and mixed functions
- Strengthening and public and commercial local services
- Outlining and demonstrating the provisions for property-specific bicycle facilities and a cycling network appropriately linked to land use in planning at different levels
Choices that facilitate walking and cycling are called for when decisions are being made and resources allocated for the development of communities and transport systems. Both financial and human resources should be allocated to the various modes of transport in accordance with their target share of overall use.
- Making cycling an integral part of central and local government transport policies
- Introducing financial incentives to support commuting to work on foot or by bicycle
- Providing adequate and skilled human resources for the planning and promotion of cycling, and monitoring the cycling statistics
- Introducing and monitoring traffic regulations that support the growth and safety of cycling, and providing information about these
The proposed measures will be employed in the central and local government plans guidelines and implementation procedures. The implementation of the Action Plan will be subject to regular assessment.
The action plan sets out four priorities:
- A shift in attitudes
- Community structure
- Administrative structure and legislation
Each priority involves the following central strategies:
- Key choices
- Clear routes
- Short distances
- Working systems
Sydney Cycling Strategy and Action Plan 2018-2030
- Executive summary
- Four priorities to increase cycling
- Connecting the network
- Supporting people to ride
- Supporting businesses
- Leadership and advocacy
- Measuring the outcomes
- More cycling delivers broader goals
- Cycling in the city: progress since 2007
Overall approach to cycling
The efficient and safe movement of people and goods is essential for economic growth and is a hallmark of a globally competitive city. Cycling and walking are integral to our transport future because they are the most accessible, equitable, sustainable and reliable forms of transport.
We are committed to making bicycle transport easier and safer, so it is an attractive and feasible option for more people.
Our Sustainable Sydney 2030 target for 10% of all trips in the city to be made by bike is ambitious. This strategy builds on the progress made over the last 10 years and keeps us moving toward this target.
Connect the network – build a bike network to make it safer for people to ride in Sydney
- Substantially complete the local bike network
- Build regional routes as separated cycleways where feasible
- Add local wayfinding signs
- Improve safety and access through providing new contra-flow provisions, kerb ramps, reducing through traffic and speed on local streets
- Provide public bike parking where needed and on request, including on-street bike parking corrals in high demand locations and for public schools
- Work with the government and developers for safe, connected and comprehensive bicycle infrastructure for large developments and precincts
- Provide shared paths on state roads where the City isn’t permitted to reallocate road space
- Consult with the public for suggestions and comments about the bike network, safety, access and comfort
- Advocate to the government for new lower speed limits and to complete the Sydney City Centre Access Strategy bike network
- Advocate for Transport for NSW to fully fund their portion of the network and pursue multi-year funding agreements
- Investigate opportunities for more children’s riding areas and learn to ride tracks
Support people to ride – understand and address barriers and help people to start, and continue riding
- Target activities in areas where existing and new infrastructure is connected
- Provide opportunities for people to build skills and capabilities
- Distribute information about the bike network including maps and digital navigation
- Ensure programmes are informed by a strong evidence base that addresses local needs and barriers, and that they are inclusive and respond to the needs of a diverse community
- Support children and families to ride safely and increase cycling participation by women
- Create and support events that incorporate bike riding
- Work to improve relations between road users and encourage people to look out for each other
- Monitor and evaluate effectiveness and incorporate learnings into future programs
- Work with state government to improve compliance with road rules, targeting high risk behaviours
Support business – partner with employers to encourage staff to ride
- Work with employers to encourage cycling, particularly in locations with job growth and change and where new cycling infrastructure is built
- Work with venues and tourism, entertainment and accommodation sector to encourage cycling by visitors
- Deliver public end-of-trip facilities in the city centre, connected to the bike network
- Provide information and support for workplaces wanting to set up a bike fleet or encouragement programs, and support a bicycle friendly workplace accreditation scheme
- Support and encourage bike based or related enterprises or activities and work with operators to maximise beneficial outcomes for Sydney, including bike share and food delivery
- Work with the bike industry to increase the range of bikes available, to meet varying needs
Lead by example – share expertise and be a positive influence for improvements for cycling within and beyond Sydney’s boundaries.
- Lead by example in encourage staff to ride to work and for work trips
- Continue to integrate cycling throughout the organisation’s policies, operations and community planning
- Share knowledge and expertise with other councils, cities, agencies and the community
- Support research and innovation, including for service and delivery in the city centre
- Build the community’s capacity to contribute to, and advocate for, improved cycling conditions and culture
- Identify and advocate for higher capacity separated cycleways along the most direct and flat routes with priority at intersections
- Pursue funding and implementation of the Inner Sydney Regional Bike Network
- Push for integration between cycling and public transport operations, incorporation of cycling into transport projects and for building paths alongside rail lines
- Advocate for fairer prioritisation of street space and allocation of time at signals, and for more action from state and national governments
- Encourage the NSW Government to facilitate successful operation of bike share
- Advocate for changes to practices, legislation, training and technical guidance which will improve and increase cycling, and for more NSW government action on driver education and road safety
All bike network users, including those on cargo bikes, e-bikes, trishaws and mobility scooters should be considered in the design of infrastructure.
Germany 2030 – a cycling nation, National Cycling Plan 3.0
- Shaping cycling together
- Germany – a cycling nation in 2030
- A vision for more, better and safer cycling
- The potential of cycling for people, the economy and the environment
- Enormous potential: the initial situation
- Living the vision: more, better and safer cycling
- At a glance
- Principles of active cycling promotion
- The four pillars of cycling promotion
- Cycling & politics
- Bicycle & infrastructure
- Cycling & people
- Cycling & business
- Fields of action
- Urban & rural areas
- Innovation & digitalisation
Overall approach to cycling
Mobility is a basic need for everyone. The bicycle stands for personal, sustainable, resilient, time-flexible and cost-effective mobility that is also good for one’s health.
In 2030, cycling will be a matter of course and diverse. People will enjoy cycling and feel safe doing so. In short, cycling will be attractive to everyone, a way of life and an opportunity to experience and engage with the world in a new way. The bicycle will be the means of transport of choice on more and more routes, both in everyday life and for leisure.
Cycling & politics
- Anchor cycling in building and planning law. The Federal Government, federal states and local authorities will integrate cycling needs in regional planning, planning law and building regulations.
- Lay the foundations for safe coexistence. The Federal Government will review the obligation to use cycle lanes for cargo bikes and the right to use cycle lanes outside urban areas for speed pedelecs. It will align the legal framework for visibility rules at intersections with technical standards and rules. In this way, cyclists will become more visible in road traffic.
- Strengthen the legal framework for commercial bicycle use. The Federal Government will examine a clarification of the technical regulations for cargo bikes. It will support the efforts of the associations to create uniform European standards for superstructures and digital interfaces.
- Set standards. The Federal Government will create the legal basis for opening data interfaces of mobility service providers and thereby enable municipalities to control their offerings and to integrate these into their mobility planning.
- Push & pull for relaxed coexistence in traffic. The Federal Government, federal states and local authorities will promote cultural change in the way road users interact with each other. Essential preconditions for this are educational measures as well as communication and information tailored to specific situations and target groups. Compliance with traffic rules must be consistently monitored and offences must be punished. The federal states will support the police and municipal authorities in their enforcement measures. The Federal Government will constantly review the catalogue of fines.
Bicycle & infrastructure
- Roads with a regional or supra-regional connection function and a high volume of motor vehicle traffic, a high proportion of heavy goods vehicles or a high permitted motor vehicle speed will be made safe for cyclists by providing dedicated cycling infrastructure. The requirements of pedelecs and speed pedelecs will be taken into account.
- Agricultural roads will become infrastructure elements in cycling networks and can fill numerous network gaps.
- Flexible solutions will be tested on other roads outside cities.
- Protected bike lanes will become a standard design element in Germany.
- Safe junctions will be implemented. A prerequisite for this is the establishment of a safe crossing design.
- Concepts for flexible road cross-sections, for instance, with low-speed lanes, will be developed to enable diverse inner-city traffic.
- Bicycle lanes will create bicycle routes in the secondary network with low motor vehicle traffic. Clear priority rules with regard to intersecting roads will allow cyclists to move forward quickly and safely.
- Commuters, in particular, will benefit from well-developed express cycle connections, priority cycle routes and directly guided cycle paths, as well as their good connections to public transport
Cycling & people
- A comprehensive mobility management system will be introduced at all schools, with cycling being given a central role.
- Mobility education at schools will be intensified and extended to all grades. It will introduce children and young people to the use of bicycles and thus lay the foundation for integrating cycling into active everyday life.
- The Federal Government will have further developed driving school training (for driving a motor vehicle) to include aspects for increasing safety for cyclists.
- Bicycle retailers will offer buyers of pedelecs additional cycling training to complement existing training.
- Target-group-specific communication measures will ensure widespread and safe use of the bicycle as an everyday means of transport. The measures will be designed as a long-term programme that is evaluated regularly.
- Despite significantly more cycling, the number of cyclists killed on roads will be reduced by at least 40% compared to 2019. This will contribute to the achievement of national road safety targets.
- Safety and integrity of vulnerable road users will be paramount in all cycling promotion measures.
- Safety-relevant technologies will be used, for instance, in new motor vehicles. Existing fleets (HGVs, buses, waste disposal vehicles) will be rapidly retrofitted and a high level of penetration achieved.
- The federal states will arrange for additional information relevant to cycling safety management to be recorded in police accident reports.
- The Federal Government and the federal states will include appropriate data in official road traffic accident statistics. They will, for instance, create the conditions for hospital data to be used for road safety management. The Federal Government will commission further studies on near misses in order to make a broader database available for road safety management.
- The federal states and, above all, municipal authorities will make intensive use of available accident data and tools for data evaluation. They will introduce mandatory accident analyses and use the findings in planning, operation and maintenance. They will identify safety-relevant aspects of new forms of mobility through regular monitoring.
- Road traffic authorities will inspect accident-prone junctions even faster than before, draw up action plans and implement them promptly.
Cycling & Business
- The German bicycle sector will continue to record dynamic growth and will have consolidated its leading position in the world market.
- The German bicycle sector will contribute to increased bicycle use through further innovation. It will be seen as one of Germany’s particular strengths.
- A high density of bicycle retail outlets, a wide range of services and information on cycling as well as networking platforms will reflect the increased importance of cycling.
- Cycling for tourism and leisure will be popular among all groups of the population. The share of cycling tourism in German tourism will have increased.
- Cities and regions will make use of the locational advantages associated with cycle tourism. Germany will also be increasingly perceived internationally as an attractive cycling destination. The number of foreign cyclists will have increased significantly.
- The German cycling network, the German sections of the EuroVelo network and other long-distance cycle routes will have been developed and signposted according to uniform standards.
- Germany will be perceived as a cycling nation at both national and international level.
- Germany will regularly host international conferences and congresses in the cycling sector, including a Velo-City.
- Cycling will be an integral part of the curricula of relevant studies and of training programmes in vocational education.
- A central training facility for sustainable and multimodal mobility systems will have been firmly established for public administration as well as the construction and transport industries.
- There will have been a noticeable increase in the number of trainees and employees in the bicycle sector, as well as in the number of well-qualified specialist planning personnel.
- Bicycles will be widely used by businesses and administrations as an alternative mode of transport.
- Courier, express and parcel (CEP) services will increasingly use cargo bikes. Logistics companies will integrate them into supply chains in a targeted manner.
- For many employees in companies and public institutions, the bicycle will be the means of transport of choice for commuting to work.
- Many large and medium-sized companies as well as public institutions will have a corporate or official mobility management system in place that specifically promotes cycling.
Paris en Velo
Paris en Velo
Overall approach to cycling
Following on from the Plan Velo 2015-2020 which provided 150 million euros of investment to move Paris towards becoming the cycling capital of the world, Paris’ Mayor has announced plans to make Paris 100% cycle friendly by 2024. A new traffic plan will be implemented to promote walking, cycling and public transport.
Some of the strategic actions include:
- At least one cycle route will be created in each borough: a street where pedestrians and bikes have priority over motor vehicles
- Two-way cycling will be generalised in 30kmh zones
- All bridges will be equipped with secure cycle paths
- The green thread, a network of planted lanes, will be reserved for pedestrians and bikes to connect Paris to neighbouring municipalities
- The completion of the Vélopolitain and the RER V – a new network of major cycle routes – in addition to the 1,000km already existing
- Apply and enforce the Street Code, which gives priority to the most vulnerable, pedestrians and cyclists
- Regulate the access of heavy goods vehicles which are not equipped with anti-blind spot devices
- Learn to cycle from school – increase school bikes to promote learning for all and create spaces dedicated to learning to cycle
- Install Véloboîtes for secure residential parking of bikes, equipped with free pumping stations and repair tools
- Install secure Vélostations in 15 Parisian stations to promote train / RER / metro and bike interchange
- Offer a multi-park bike pass giving access to the 100 underground car parks in the city
- Provide secure bike shelters wherever possible, in condominiums, social housing and in corporate buildings
- Investment in cycling will be increased to €26 per inhabitant per year – a total of €350 million in six years.
- 72% of on-street car parking spaces will be removed.
Paris, the 15-minute city
In addition to the ‘Paris en Velo’, Paris’ Mayor announced in 2020 the concept that would make Paris a ‘fifteen-minute’ city, to create neighbourhoods where every essential resident’s needs are within reach in 15 minutes by walking or cycling. The 15-minute city requires minimal travel between housing, offices, restaurants, parks, hospitals and cultural venues. Each neighbourhood should fulfil six social functions: living, working, supplying goods, caring, learning and enjoyment.
Traffic Circulation Plans
Traffic circulation plans are used by urban planners to manage and monitor traffic and pedestrian patterns to help make future improvements to the traffic system. This links to the general move away from motor traffic to more sustainable modes.
The plans aim to pull traffic off more local residential roads and onto main thoroughfares to separate non-local traffic from commuter traffic, for example. Methods can include simple signage and wayfinding, parking charges and traffic restrictions along certain routes, and one-way streets.
Ghent, Belgium, has implemented a traffic circulation plan and has converted some streets to one-way systems and bicycle lanes and wider pavements have taken the place of the other lane. There are also some completely car-free sections, and others where only public transport, taxis and permit holders can enter with speed limits. Ghent also has a ‘parking route’ around the circumference of the city centre with a parking guidance system. Links to the underground at all car parks have been provided to reduce traffic in the city centre.
In Groningen, in the Netherlands, the rate of all trips made by bicycle is 61% and rising to 70% for trips made for education. Groningen has implemented a traffic circulation plan and has now become a cycling template for cities all over the world. Existing and planned cycling infrastructure implemented in Groningen to priorities active travel includes:
- Cycle paths and tree planting in the city centre
- Transformation of the main central square from a parking centre to its historical function as a market
- Traffic lights with rain sensors to give quicker priority to cyclists on wet days
- Heated cycle paths for frosty conditions
- Park and bike areas with bike rental services on access roads to encourage commuters to leave their cars behind and enter city by bike
- 5,000 new parking places for bikes near the main train station
- ‘Bicycle effect analysis’ will be obligatory for each territorial development project to endure that provision is made for bikes right from the start
Vision Zero Policies
The Vision Zero policy was adopted by the Swedish parliament in 1997 in an attempt to improve road traffic safety. The aim of the policy is that there should be no casualties or serious injuries as a result of traffic accidents and that the road system should be designed to adapt to this requirement.
Vision Zero policies require Local Authorities to implement clear busy arterial/quiet local access street hierarchies backed up by closely aligned street design guidance. This strongly supports successful active travel delivery by clarifying where & when segregated cycleways are required, where safe on-carriageway cycling is appropriate & how both should be designed as part of a holistic system where safety is design in from the outset.
Transport for London is implementing Vision Zero for London. The Mayor’s Transport Strategy sets out the goal that by 2041 all deaths and serious injuries will be eliminated from London’s transport network.
Strategic actions include:
- Safe speeds: Encouraging speeds appropriate to the streets of a busy and populated city through the widespread introduction of new lower speed limits
- Safe streets: Designing an environment that is forgiving of mistakes by transforming junctions, which see the majority of collisions, and ensuring safety is at the forefront of all design schemes
- Safe vehicles: Reducing risk posed by the most dangerous vehicles by introducing a world-leading Bus Safety Standard across London's entire bus fleet and a new 'Direct Vision Standard' for Heavy Goods Vehicles
- Safe behaviours: Reducing the likelihood of road users making mistakes or behaving in a way that is risky for themselves and other people through targeted enforcement, marketing campaigns, education programmes and safety training for cyclists, motorcycle and moped riders
- Post-collision response: Developing systematic information sharing and learning, along with improving justice and care for the victims of traffic incidents