3 General Site Operations
3.1.1 To design and construct the project having regard to the safety and security of the public and construction staff and to mitigate the impact of general site operations and construction activities on the environment.
3.2.1 As explained in Section 1.5 of this CoCP it is the contractor’s responsibility to comply with all legislative requirements applicable at the time of construction.
3.2.2 The contractor will operate a health and safety management system in accordance with BS OHSAS 18001 Occupational Health and Safety Management Systems.
3.2.3 There are a number of activities that could give rise to specific safety issues for the public or construction staff. The contractor will have to consider these and other issues in the design and construction of the Project, including, for example:
- Working adjacent to built-up areas.
- Working in, over or adjacent to watercourses including the Firth of Forth.
- Working on or adjacent to public roads, footpaths or cycle tracks or in proximity to live traffic.
- Working over or adjacent to railways.
- Working in proximity to Edinburgh Airport.
- Working at height.
- Using explosives.
- Undertaking electrical works.
- Working over or adjacent to, or diverting Statutory Undertakers’ plant.
- Excavations in areas affected by ground gas.
- Handling contaminated materials.
3.2.4 Health and safety legislation, such as the Construction (Design and Management) Regulations 2007, requires the contractor to prepare a Construction Phase Health and Safety Plan prior to construction works commencing. The detailed requirements of the Plan are set out in the relevant legislation, but in summary it must ensure that adequate arrangements and welfare facilities are in place to cover:
- the safety of construction staff;
- the safety of all other people working at or visiting the construction site;
- the protection of the public in the vicinity of the construction site; and
- overall compliance with health and safety legislation, approved codes of practice and industry best practice.
3.2.5 Examples of additional relevant health and safety legislation is listed in Section 3.13 of this CoCP, and further to these legislative requirements, the contractor will comply with the byelaws and operational requirements of the relevant road, navigation, harbour, rail and airport authorities when undertaking construction works, unless otherwise agreed with the Employer’s Representative and the relevant authority.
3.2.6 The contractor will provide a full-time construction Health and Safety Manager as part of their resident site management team who will manage the health and safety aspects of the project during construction.
3.3 Area Management Plan
3.3.1 As explained in Section 1.7 of this CoCP, the contractor’s EMP will include an Area Management Plan for the construction works and the contractor will appoint a Site Operations Manager who will be responsible for implementing the procedures in the plan. The Area Management Plan will be the overarching plan for the construction works and will include details of the following, as appropriate:
- The contractor’s management team and structure.
- Working hours.
- Construction site layout and appearance, including site compounds.
- Fencing and hoarding.
- Use of artificial lighting.
- Requirements associated with living accommodation.
- Pest control procedures.
- Site security procedures.
- Requirements for clearance of the construction site on completion of the construction works.
- Sustainability procedures to be implemented.
- Reference to the specific management plans to be prepared including the persons responsible for ensuring they are implemented.
3.3.2 Notification of the intended commencement of the works will be provided to the relevant local planning authorities in accordance with the requirements of Sections 27A to 27C of the Town and Country Planning (Scotland) Act 1997 which were inserted by section 6(1) of the Planning etc. (Scotland) Act 2006. Notification of the completion of construction works will also be provided.
3.4 Working Hours
3.4.1 Normal working hours will be Monday to Saturday 0700 to 1900 hours. The contractor will use best practicable means to keep noise levels within the threshold for normal working hours, as described in Section 5 of this CoCP.
3.4.2 Working at night and on Sundays will be permitted for ‘marine works’ associated with construction of the main crossing and approach viaducts, provided that the work is undertaken in accordance with the requirements of Section 5 of this CoCP relating to noise thresholds for these periods. Such marine works may include:
- any works associated with construction of the foundations for the main crossing and approach viaducts within the Firth of Forth;
- any works required to construct the towers and piers within the Firth of Forth to a reasonable level above the Highest Astronomical Tide to enable construction of the remainder of the towers under normal working hours;
- any works reliant on the operation of major marine plant; and
- any other works required within the Firth of Forth, including construction of any platforms required to facilitate construction of the towers or piers above the surface water level of the Firth of Forth.
3.4.3 The contractor will be permitted to undertake other works (works other than marine works) at night and on Sundays with the approval of the Employer’s Representative and provided that the work is undertaken in accordance with the requirements of Section 5 of this CoCP relating to noise thresholds for these periods.
3.4.4 A half-hour start-up period will be included within the normal working hours to allow the contractor’s staff to arrive at the site and prepare for the construction works.
3.4.5 Similarly, a half-hour close-down period will be included within the normal working hours to enable the contractor’s staff to exit the site. This will include departing from the wider construction site to return to the main site offices.
3.4.6 Should the contractor require to undertake construction works, except works which fall under the definition of ‘exceptional works’ in paragraph 3.4.8 below, outwith the normal working hours and associated noise thresholds, the consent procedure described in Section 5 of this CoCP will be followed.
3.4.7 Where construction works are permitted to be undertaken outwith the normal working hours and associated noise thresholds, the contractor will provide information regarding these works to the relevant local authorities and adjacent residents through the communications strategy described in Section 2 of this CoCP. The notification will include an explanation of the construction works to be undertaken, working hours, measures to be implemented to control construction noise and disturbance and details of the enquiries and complaints procedure.
3.4.8 Certain ‘exceptional works’ may require to be undertaken outwith normal working hours. Exceptional works are works which it would not be reasonably practicable to undertake during normal working hours and may include:
- construction works which are required in response to an emergency;
- construction works which are required as directed by the Police or other emergency services;
- construction works being undertaken as normal works which could give rise to any damage, be unsafe or be detrimental to the integrity of the works if they were not completed; and
- servicing of plant essential to maintain safe operation of the site.
3.4.9 The contractor will notify the Employer’s Representative and the relevant local authority, together with the relevant navigation or harbour authority, Network Rail or Statutory Undertakers, as appropriate, of any exceptional works that are necessary as soon as possible.
3.5 Construction Site Layout and Appearance
3.5.1 The Area Management Plan will set out the procedures to be implemented to manage the site in accordance with a ‘good housekeeping’ policy and best practice. This will cover site offices, compounds and the general construction site.
3.5.2 The contractor will appoint a Site Operations Manager who will be responsible for site facilities and implementing the procedures and reasonable precautions set out in the Area Management Plan such that the site facilities are managed, operated, maintained and serviced effectively to reduce disturbance and other environmental impacts associated with day-to-day site activities.
3.5.3 The site offices for the main contract will be located to the west of South Queensferry, providing office, parking, storage and welfare facilities for the construction workforce. A site compound for other facilities such as materials and equipment storage and plant will also be situated at this location to service the main crossing and the new road construction in the area. A site compound will also be located to the west of Ferrytoll junction. Site offices and a site compound will be located adjacent to Junction 1a on the M9.
3.5.4 The contractor will provide adequate car parking facilities for construction vehicles and those of construction workers at each site office and compound. Monitoring any problems associated with over-parking on residential streets and wider issues of vehicular access are covered in Section 4 of this CoCP.
3.5.5 The contractor will provide appropriate mitigation to meet the requirements of the Environmental Statement and this CoCP to mitigate the effect of the construction or operation of site offices and compounds.
3.5.6 The layout, appearance and operation of the construction site, site offices and compounds will be a matter for the contractor and will take cognisance of the requirements in this CoCP relating to fencing and hoarding, lighting and security. In particular, the layout, appearance and operation of the construction site, site offices and compounds will be managed taking consideration of the following requirements:
- The site office and compound layouts will segregate construction vehicles and pedestrian movements.
- All working areas will be kept in a clean and tidy condition.
- Smoking areas at site offices/compounds or work sites will be equipped with containers for smoking waste and will not be located at the boundary of working areas or adjacent to neighbouring land.
- All necessary measures will be taken to minimise the risk of fire, including preparing a Fire Safety Plan, and the contractor will comply with the requirements of the local fire authority.
- Radios (other than two-way radios for the purposes of communication related to the works) and other forms of audio equipment with loudspeakers will not be operated on any work site, unless it is related to the construction works being undertaken.
- Workers will maintain a reasonable and appropriate standard of dress at all times and will not use foul language or display lewd or derogatory behaviour.
- Appropriate measures, such as use of enclosed containers, will be employed to store waste susceptible to spreading by wind or liable to cause litter. See also section 8 of this CoCP.
- Rubbish will be removed at frequent intervals and the site kept clean and tidy.
- Fencing and hoardings will be frequently inspected, repaired and repainted as necessary. See also section 3.6 of this CoCP.
- Adequate welfare facilities will be provided for all construction staff. All toilets will be serviced and kept clean.
- Food waste will be removed frequently. See also Section 3.9 of this CoCP.
- Good personal hygiene will be promoted by the contractor for the workforce, particularly when using site canteens or mess facilities.
- Site accesses, accesses to site offices/compounds and roads in the vicinity of site access points will be maintained clean as required. See also Section 4 of this CoCP.
- The requirements of this CoCP relating to noise and vibration. See Section 5 of this CoCP.
- The requirements of this CoCP relating to dust, odours and air pollution. See Section 6 of this CoCP.
- The requirements of this CoCP relating to the handling, storage and disposal of materials. See Sections 7 – 9 of this CoCP.
- Appropriate management and disposal of foul water and sewage. See Section 9.5 of this CoCP.
3.6 Land Made Available, Fencing and Hoarding
3.6.1 The Scottish Ministers will make land available to the contractor for construction of the Project. The land and rights in land the Scottish Ministers intend to acquire or use are shown in the book of reference and on the maps, plans and sections which accompany the Forth Crossing Bill.
3.6.2 Prior to the start of construction, the contractor will accurately identify the land area to be occupied by the construction works. In addition to the land made available by the Scottish Ministers, the contractor may provide additional areas to facilitate their own construction methods for the Project, subject to obtaining the necessary approvals.
3.6.3 Where the contractor proposes to make additional land available to facilitate their construction methods for the Project, an environmental impact assessment of the use of this land will be undertaken, as may be necessary, to ensure any impacts due to construction are line with those described in the Environmental Statement, and enable appropriate mitigation measures to be implemented.
3.6.4 Some land will only be made available by the Scottish Ministers temporarily to facilitate construction of the Project. These areas are defined in the book of reference and maps, plans and sections which accompany the Forth Crossing Bill. The contractor will undertake a joint survey of any land made available temporarily by the Scottish Ministers with the relevant landowner, or their representative, to record the condition of the land prior to entry to the land being taken. A photographic and video record of the condition of the land will also be taken by the contractor.
3.6.5 The contractor will liaise with the relevant roads authority regarding condition surveys for public roads and any remedial works necessary as a consequence of the works.
3.6.6 All active working areas will be adequately fenced off by the contractor from members of the public and to prevent animals from straying into working areas. Factors that will be taken into consideration by the contractor in the design and provision of adequate fencing and hoarding will include:
- Maintaining adequate site security. The contractor will undertake a risk assessment as part of the design process for fencing and/or hoardings.
- The location of the construction site, use of adjacent land and risk of the public trying to seek unauthorised entry to the site.
- The nature of the construction activities to be undertaken.
- Specific mitigation associated with site fencing and security to comply with the Environmental Statement and this CoCP.
- Hoardings will include noise-attenuating structures as appropriate. Section 5 of this CoCP covers requirements relating to construction noise.
- Gates or access points in the site boundaries, fencing or hoardings, will be positioned and constructed to mitigate the effects of noise transmitted from the site to nearby noise sensitive properties, as described in the Environmental Statement, subject to ensuring the safety of public or the safe operation of the construction site or works.
- The location and design of site boundaries, hoardings and temporary structures on or adjacent to public roads will maintain adequate visibility at junctions and forward visibility on roads to levels acceptable to the relevant roads authority.
- Where hoardings affect visibility on pedestrian routes, the contractor will provide bulkhead lights and these will be illuminated in times of darkness. Lighting will be inspected and maintained on a regular basis by the contractor.
- Where used, the contractor will paint hoardings on the side facing away from the working area in a colour and style approved by the Employer’s Representative. Viewing panes will be provided in hoardings to allow the public to see the works, subject to them not diminishing the efficiency of the hoardings with regard to security and noise attenuation or their use leading to the creation of hazards or obstructions on public roads or footpaths. Section 5 of this CoCP covers requirements relating to construction noise.
3.6.7 The contractor is expressly prohibited from displaying or allowing the display of any advertisement or notice and the like, including illicit bill or fly posting on any hoardings. All graffiti, fly posting or defacement to hoardings will be removed and made good within 48 hours of discovery.
3.6.8 An information board will be erected by the contractor at prominent positions at each working area, including site accesses, offices and compounds, providing information on the work programme and estimated duration of the overall works in the area, together with the Project website address and relevant contact details for the Enquiries and Complaints Procedure as described in Section 2 of this CoCP.
3.6.9 The contractor will remove all temporary fencing and hoarding following completion of work and following consideration for any ongoing need to retain fencing and hoarding in line with the factors set out in paragraph 3.6.4 of this CoCP.
3.6.10 The contractor will seek to minimise the area of land used for the Project. If any land is deemed surplus to requirements following construction of the Project, the Scottish Ministers will seek to dispose of this land in accordance with normal procedures (Crichel Down Rules).
3.7.1 Site lighting may be required in the following situations:
- Provision of background lighting for contractor’s offices or compounds, for security and safe movement of staff during winter mornings and evenings.
- Provision of temporary road lighting along temporary access roads.
- Provision of bulkhead lighting for pedestrian walkways, as described in paragraph 3.6.5 of this CoCP.
- Provision of temporary road lighting to maintain at least an equivalent level of lighting where there is existing lighting in place prior to construction.
- Provision of temporary road lighting where there is currently no lighting but lighting is required as a safety measure under temporary traffic management, for example at carriageway cross-overs and where temporary access roads cross existing public roads.
- Provision of task lighting required for night time activities or winter afternoon activities, such as installation of bridge beams.
- Provision of navigation warning lights to safely identify plant and construction within the Firth of Forth.
- Provision of aircraft warning lights to safely identify the main towers and construction plant or apparatus.
3.7.2 The contractor will consult with the airport operator of Edinburgh Airport regarding any construction activities which may affect the airport controlled airspace and the use of appropriate lighting or other warning measures to be implemented. The contractor will obtain any consents necessary for construction works within the airport controlled airspace.
3.7.3 The contractor will take consideration of the following requirements in relation to the provision of temporary lighting:
- The lighting design will seek to reduce visual intrusion and light spillage, including avoiding unecessary use of lighting, at nearby residential properties and sites of ecological interest, insofar as is consistent with the safe and efficient operation of the construction site.
- Where necessary, lighting to site boundaries will be provided with illuminations sufficient for the safety of the passing public.
- Lighting will be positioned and directed to reduce nuisance to residents and avoid creating distractions or confusion to passing drivers on adjacent public roads and railways.
- Where necessary, lighting at locations where the road layout is to be changed will be provided by early commissioning of permanent new lighting where feasible or by provision of mobile lighting towers or use of columns in temporary locations.
- Special consideration of lighting requirements will be required in the vicinity of Edinburgh Airport and the existing rail network and the contractor will agree lighting requirements with the relevant authorities prior to the commencement of works which may affect their areas of responsibility.
- So far as reasonably practicable, all power to temporary traffic signals or lighting will be taken from mains supplies rather than from portable generators.
- The contractor will take reasonable precautions in accordance with the Scottish Government Guidance: Controlling Light Pollution and Reducing Lighting Energy Consumption insofar as it is applicable to use of lighting associated with the construction works.
3.7.4 The contractor will comply with the requirements of the relevant roads authority with regards to temporary lighting on or adjacent to public roads.
3.7.5 The contractor will comply with the requirements of the Environmental Protection Act 1990, as amended with regards to preventing or counteracting the effects of any nuisance due to artificial lighting.
3.8 Living Accommodation
3.8.1 No living accommodation will be permitted on land made available by the Scottish Ministers for the Project or on the construction site, except with the approval of the relevant local authority and/or the Employer’s Representative as appropriate. Mess rooms, locker rooms, welfare facilities and showers will be permitted.
3.9 Pest Control
3.9.1 The contractor will implement adequate arrangements for the disposal of food waste or other material attractive to pests or vermin to control the risk of infestation. If infestation occurs the contractor will take such actions as is necessary to deal with it, as required by the relevant local authority.
3.10.1 The contractor will be responsible for the security of the construction site and will establish appropriate security measures to protect the public and prevent unauthorised entry to or exit from the site. The contractor will close and lock site gates when there is no site activity and implement site security measures.
3.10.2 The contractor will consider the need for security cameras and will provide these as considered necessary to maintain the security of the site and safety of the public. Where security cameras are used, they will be placed in locations which will not cause offence or unduly infringe upon the privacy of local residents.
3.11 Clearance of Site on Completion
3.11.1 The contractor will clear and clean all working areas as work proceeds and when no longer required for the carrying out of construction works. This will also include areas adjacent to the site which may require to be cleared or cleaned due to construction activities and site accesses and roads in the vicinity of site access points.
3.11.2 Where land has been made available by the Scottish Ministers on a temporary basis for construction of the Project, the contractor will reinstate this land in accordance with the provisions in the Forth Crossing Bill prior to it being returned to the relevant landowner.
3.12 Consents and Licences
3.12.1 Where appropriate, the different sections of this CoCP make reference to consents and licences that will be required during construction. The contractor will maintain a Consents Register which will document all consent requirements and record all applications made and the status of the applications.
- BS OHSAS 18001:2007 Occupational Health and Safety Management Systems
- Construction (Design and Management) Regulations 2007
- Controlling Light Pollution and Reducing Lighting Energy Consumption, Scottish Government Guidance Note, March 2007
- Environmental Protection Act 1990, as amended
- Explosives Act 1875, as amended
- Forth Road Bridge Byelaws for the Management, Regulation and Control of the Forth Road Bridge
- Forth Ports Authority, Forth Byelaws
- Health and Safety at Work etc Act 1974
- Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999, as amended
- Planning etc. (Scotland) Act 2006
- Prevention of Damage by Pests Act 1949
- The Diving at Work Regulations 1997
- The Diving Operations at Work Regulations 1981, as amended
- The Control of Explosives Regulations 1991
- The Control of Noise at Work Regulations 2005
- The Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations 2002, as amended
- The Control of Vibration at Work Regulations 2005
- The Electricity at Work Regulations 1989
- The Work at Height Regulations 2005, as amended
- Town and Country Planning (Scotland) Act 1997