This section considers the potential effects of the proposed
scheme on social capital, or the connections within and between
Social capital has been described as comprising ‘trust,
reciprocity, local identity, civic engagement and community
cohesion’ (Cave et al., 2001). This may be influenced by
the effects of the proposed development (both positive and
- community space and communities facilities;
- the degree of severance between communities; and
- quality of the rural and urban environment, including factors
- traffic on local roads;
- visual impacts of construction sites and new
- lighting; and
- the presence of construction sites
The issues discussed in this section overlap with issues
considered in Section 6 Economics and Employment, Section:9: Access
to Services and Section 10: Physical Activity and Green Space.
11.1.1 Study Area
As described above, potential social capital effects are
associated with direct effects of the proposed scheme, including
environmental effects and severance. Therefore the study area
focuses on the communities in the immediate vicinity of the
proposed scheme (Main Crossing, junctions and road alignments).
11.2 Evidence of Health Effects
11.2.1 Social Capital
Social capital has been linked with health in a number of
studies. Cave et al. (2001) includes a review of recent work on the
subject of social capital and health, which reveals divided views
on whether a tangible association exists. Those that identify a
linkage quote inversely proportional relationships between levels
of social capital and issues such as self-assessed health,
susceptibility to disease and infection, and the occurrence of
accidents, as well as proportional relationships between social
capital and good mental health and long life expectancy. Some
authors cited in the review suggest that these linkages arise as a
result of the influence of social capital on health related
behaviour, esteem and health service use.
11.2.2 Security and Fear of Crime
Opportunities for crime and antisocial behaviour, and fear of
crime, are affected by the quality of the urban and rural
environment (for example derelict sites, lighting and visibility).
Direct experience of crime is less consistently related to ill
health than fear of crime. Recent research (Jackson et al.,
has identified a correlation between self-reported health and
fear of crime. However the same research found that the evidence
base with regard to the effect of fear of crime on health and
quality of life is scarce.
11.3 Existing Conditions
Data on neighbourhood ratings at the national level is available
from the Scottish Household Survey. Table 11 below presents an
extract from the neighbourhood survey data.
Table 11: Aspects of
Neighbourhood Particularly Liked, by SIMD
% of respondents
who mentioned aspect as a positive factor in neighbourhood
15% most deprived
These data show that people
living in the 15% most deprived areas in Scotland are less likely
than those living elsewhere to mention that their local
neighbourhood is pleasant, safe, or has a sense of community and
No local data on neighbourhoods and communities was found in
this study. The overall levels of deprivation are shown in Figure 2
of this report and information on communities and facilities is
presented in Section 6.
11.4 Impact Assessment
11.4.1 Operational Effects
(a) Community Severance
Chapter 17 of the ES identifies increases in community severance
of slight to moderate significance following mitigation, in the
- Inverkeithing to North Queensferry;
- South Queensferry to Linn Mill; and
- South Queensferry to Newton.
These impacts arise from the proposed alterations to the roads
around Ferrytoll Junction on the north side and the new road
alignment on the south side. The increased journey times between
these communities has the potential to reduce the ability or
inclination to access friends/family or social groups. The overall
effects on wellbeing are considered to be extremely small, but
individuals who regularly used the affected routes may be
disproportionately affected. Particularly vulnerable groups include
people without cars, the elderly and mobility impaired people.
Other issues that could give rise to community severance include
the loss of green space used by communities for informal
recreation, such as the fields at Echline. These impacts are
discussed in Section 10 of this report.
(b) Crime and Security
The proposed scheme is not considered to have adverse effects on
security and fear of crime during operation. Where public footpaths
pass under the proposed new alignment, these would be designed to a
high standard to ensure visibility and adequate lighting.
11.4.2 Construction Effects
(a) Community Severance
During construction, community severance could increase as a
result of construction traffic and road diversions around Ferrytoll
Junction and the west side of South Queensferry.
(b) Crime and Security
Construction sites have the potential to attract crime and
antisocial behaviour, including trespass, graffiti, fly tipping and
theft. The presence of vacant construction sites and footpath
diversions can increase fear of crime, particularly for people
walking in darkness or outside construction hours. Fear of crime
can have a knock of effect of discouraging participation in social
and other activities. However it is anticipated that the
construction of the proposed scheme would be well managed and the
impacts of construction sites would be minimised.
11.5 Mitigation Measures
11.5.1 Operational Phase
The design of the proposed scheme has aimed to minimise impacts
on community severance by maintaining core paths and public rights
of way and minimising diversions and journey time increases. The
Disability Discrimination Act would be complied with in the design
of footpath diversions during both construction and operation.
These measures have been taken into account in the assessment of
11.5.2 Construction Phase
A CoCP has been developed for the project which includes a
section on Public Access and Traffic Management. This includes a
requirement on the Contractor to develop a Traffic Management Plan
including measures to maintain access and minimise severance. This
includes specific requirements for the standard of construction and
lighting of temporary diversions.
The CoCP also includes measures that would help to reduce fears
about crime and security during the construction process. These
include good housekeeping measures to ensure that all construction
sites are clean, secure and free from litter and vandalism.
Security measures would include the provision and use of lockable
site gates, security cameras and secure fencing. Working areas that
are no longer required would be cleared promptly.
11.6 Assessment of Health Impacts
The effects on health have been assessed according to the
criteria set out in the Merseyside Guidelines (see Section
Based on the available evidence (see Section 11.2), the degree
of certainty of links between social capital impacts and health is
considered to be speculative. The assessment of these impacts is
The proposed scheme has been designed to make best use of the
existing transport infrastructure where possible and therefore to a
large degree avoids the severance of existing communities. However,
some severance impacts have been identified at locations near the
Ferrytoll and South Queensferry junctions. The associated health
effects of severance include reduced opportunities for social
interaction for vulnerable individuals. These impacts are likely to
be increased during construction as a result of diversions to
existing footpaths and road traffic. The increased presence of
unknown people in the area during construction, change in routing
of footpaths and presence of construction sites may also give rise
to concerns regarding safety and security.
Overall, the associated health effects on social capital are
considered to be negative and of minor magnitude.
11.7 HIA-Specific Mitigation
Secured by Design principles (Secured by Design, 2009) will be
applied to the design of temporary and permanent footpaths, cycle
paths and underpasses to ensure that people are not deterred from
using either temporary or permanent routes due to safety