7. Recommendations

7. Recommendations

The following recommendations have been identified through analysis and are presented for consideration:

Safe Road Use – Education and Awareness

General recommendations

Recommendation 1

Encourage bus passengers (public and private) to wear seatbelts where they are fitted. (Page 60)

  • A campaign could be developed in collaboration with major bus providers operating both public and private hire vehicles in the East and West of Scotland, to encourage passengers to wear seatbelts where they are fitted.
  • Existing national campaigns around seatbelt use, such as those run by Road Safety Scotland, should be cognisant of including messaging aimed at bus passengers
Recommendation 2

Raise awareness of the dangers of mobile phone use while behind the wheel. (Page 48)

  • Continue campaigns such as Road Safety Scotland’s ‘Drive like Gran’s in the car’ to target young males
Recommendation 3

Provide access to relevant materials and support for drink and/or drugs misuse when taken into custody. (Page 27)

  • Drivers who are found to be under the influence of drink and/or drugs and taken into custody should be signposted to relevant materials and support for substance misuse issues.
  • Custody suites should ensure they have relevant materials available with information regarding appropriate local and national Third Sector Organisations.
Recommendation 4

Younger Drivers

Raise awareness of the importance of wearing a seatbelt to younger age groups and in areas of deprivation. (Page 60)

  • Campaigns should continue to be developed by Road Safety Scotland, Police Scotland, Transport Scotland and similar organisations which highlight the importance of wearing a seatbelt and the financial penalties incurred by those who don’t.
  • To reach this audience, the campaigns should be targeted both in person and virtually in locations such as gyms/leisure centres, fast food chains, TikTok, YouTube and using other media appropriate to the audience.
Recommendation 5

Older Drivers

Develop campaigns regarding eyesight and fitness to drive. (Page 41)

  • Campaigns should be developed to target older drivers’ eyesight. This will involve utilising different communication methods from other national campaigns as older people are less likely to be utilising the internet and social media. This may include adverts on TV or in print, in GP and optician surgeries, supermarkets etc.
  • Work in partnership with pharmacies should be considered, to develop a package which highlights important messages about fitness to drive.
Recommendation 6

Develop a campaign on when is the right time to give up driving. (Page 40)

  • A campaign could be developed in conjunction with organisations such as Age Scotland highlighting the signs to look for in older drivers regarding their fitness to drive.
  • A particular focus of any campaign should be on signposting resources and organisations that can be utilised for assistance.
Recommendation 7 (Page 40)
  • Police Scotland and Transport Scotland should work with DriveAbility Scotland to highlight the available services and encourage older drivers to self-refer.
Recommendation 8


Develop or continue to run campaigns on motorcycle safety (Page 19)

  • Targeted campaigns should continue to be cognisant of seasonal differences for motorcyclist fatalities.
  • Police Scotland’s Motorcycle Safety Campaign in 2022 ran from April to September, the findings of this report support this time period for future similar campaigns.

Recommendation 9

Consider young male riders when developing any messaging and campaigns for motorcyclists.(Page 47)

  • Campaigns highlighting the importance of motorcycle helmet use could be developed and targeted at young male riders.
Recommendation 10

Consider ways to reduce or manage speed for motorcyclists. (Page 57)

  • Improved training and education are required for motorcycle riders in addition to speed management measures, including speed limit reductions and the addition of Intelligent Speed Assistance systems, to address riding style and behaviour.

Recommendation 11

Pedal Cyclists

Continue to roll out the driver awareness training by Cycling Scotland, consider rolling this out further or developing further initiatives. (Page 32)

  • National Highways recently launched a new safety campaign aimed at educating drivers to ‘know the zones’, highlighting blind spots where HGV drivers have limited visibility. A similar campaign could be developed in conjunction with bodies such as the Road Haulage Association aimed at educating pedestrians and cyclists about blind spots and ensuring they remain visible to HGV drivers.
  • While a national campaign would be beneficial (particularly in busy, densely-populated areas), given a large percentage of collisions with these characteristics occurred in Aberdeen and Edinburgh, consideration should be given to targeted campaigns in these areas.
Recommendation 12

Consider cycle helmet use. (Page 61)

  • Police Scotland, Transport Scotland and relevant partners such as Cycling Scotland should encourage cyclists to consider wearing a helmet in line with the Highway Code recommendation.
  • Any communications should consider targeting child cyclists and older cyclists.
Recommendation 13. (Page 61)
  • Should The Child Safety (Cycle Helmets) Bill 2020 be passed, appropriate communications and campaigns should be developed to raise awareness.
  • Dedicated enforcement campaigns should run alongside any awareness campaigns.
Recommendation 14

Continue to raise awareness of the minimum passing distance vehicles should give to a cyclist. (Page 58)

  • Police Scotland could continue to raise awareness of the minimum distance a passing vehicle should give to a cyclist through Operation Closepass and encourage other road users to share the roads safely with pedal cyclists.
Recommendation 15

Foreign Drivers

Develop foreign driver materials and distribute at relevant locations. (Page 43)

  • Posters/display materials could be developed and displayed in various establishments on the A82 such as the Green Welly Stop.
  • Materials should reinforce the requirement to drive on the left and provide an overview of common road layouts and driving practices including giving way when joining traffic and the direction of travel of other vehicles.
Recommendation 16. (Page 43)
  • Transport Scotland and other relevant partners could work in partnership with major car rental companies to develop materials that can be disseminated to foreign drivers on obtaining a hire vehicle.
  • Hire companies should also have such materials available on their websites for foreign drivers when booking online.
  • Road Safety Scotland has a wealth of materials available in various languages that could be utilised.
Recommendation 17. (Page 43)
  • Transport Scotland could work in partnership with major UK airports and ferry ports to display materials aimed at foreign drivers.
  • Materials should reinforce the requirement to drive on the left and provide an overview of common road layouts and driving practices, including giving way when joining traffic, and the direction of travel of other vehicles.
  • Materials should also be available on ferries servicing many of Scotland’s islands which are popular with tourists, including Caledonian MacBrayne and Northlink Ferries.
Recommendation 18

Use technology to inform. (Page 43)

  • Road Safety Scotland has developed a video for foreign drivers prior to them travelling to the UK. The dissemination of this video should be supported by Transport Scotland and Police Scotland and further utilised where appropriate.
Recommendation 19


Develop material targeting socially deprives areas aimed at pedestrians. (Page 60)

  • Campaigns and safety interventions for pedestrians, particularly those aimed at children should be targeted towards more socially deprived areas.


Recommendation 20

Vehicle Safety, Drink and Drug Testing. (Page 44)

  • Increased policing patrols by Police Scotland officers to undertake roadside stops, breath tests and drug wipes.
Recommendation 21

Seatbelt Safety. (Page 46)

  • Enforcement and increased policing patrols by Police Scotland to both deter drivers and passengers from not wearing a seatbelt and to stop and issue fines to those not adhering to the law.
Recommendation 22

Mobile Phone and Distraction. (Page 48)

  • Continued enforcement by Police Scotland for drivers seen to be utilising a mobile phone at the wheel alongside ongoing public education around the relevant legislation and associated dangers.
Recommendation 23

Eyesight / License Removal. (Page 41)

  • Ensure that Cassie’s Law is referenced at Roads Policing officer training at the Scottish Police College
Recommendation 24. (Page 41)
  • A briefing should be prepared for Police Scotland’s intranet highlighting Cassie’s Law and the background to its implementation, highlighting the available legislation and associated processes to all officers across the force.
Recommendation 25

Mental Health. (Page 60)

  • Police Scotland should continue to refer cases involving possible mental health aspects to Partnerships, Prevention and Community Wellbeing (PPCW). This will allow for a multi-agency review of these collisions by a group of partners to identify various approaches to be considered and ultimately implement better practices for moving forward.
Recommendation 26

Driving Assessments. (Page 41)

  • Police Scotland should consider the development of a pilot project where suitable drivers are directly referred for DriveAbility Scotland driving assessments.
Recommendation 27

Young Drivers

Campaign - Drink and Drug Driving – Younger Drivers . (Page 44)

  • Consideration should be given to a drink and drug driving campaign aimed at younger drivers. This campaign should highlight both the dangers of the behaviour and the associated enforcement. Policing presence from both divisional and Roads Policing should be focused at the weekend during the hours of 10pm and 6am.
Recommendation 28

Focus Group – Young Drivers . (Page 37)

  • Police Scotland, Transport Scotland and appropriate partners should establish a ‘Young Drivers Working Group’ to ensure collaborative working to target and effectively prevent collisions amongst this group of drivers.
Recommendation 29

In-Car Technology. (Page 37)

  • Telematics or black box insurance for younger drivers is widely available and should be encouraged. Insurance companies should continue to advertise and incentivise their use, offering reduced insurance premiums for safer driving.
Recommendation 30


Community Engagement – Safety Initiatives. (Page 61)

  • Police Scotland should collaborate with motorcycle clubs and venues such as Knockhill Racing Circuit to develop roadshows and/or drop-in points where motorcycle helmets can be checked by a knowledgeable expert, ensuring they are correctly fitted and that riders are aware how to secure them correctly.
Recommendation 31

Road Safety Messaging – Foreign Drivers . (Page 43)

  • Liaison with ferry ports and airports in Germany and France to develop and display materials aimed at tourists travelling to Scotland with relevant road safety messaging.
Recommendation 32. (Page 43)
  • Vehicle familiarisation inputs should be available for all foreign drivers obtaining hire vehicles to ensure they are accustomed to left-hand drive and all vehicle controls. These should be facilitated by car hire companies.

Funding Grant Projects

Recommendation 33

Campaigns – Drink and Drug Driving – Initiatives. (Page 44)

  • The Scottish Government should consider funding for the development of awareness campaigns that involve the distribution of free portable breathalysers for drivers. This could be developed in conjunction with local licensing authorities and night-time economy establishments.
Recommendation 34

Pedal Cyclists - Safety Helmets – Initiative . (Page 47)

  • The Scottish Government should consider the development of a scheme in partnership with major retailers offering discounts on safety helmets.


Recommendation 35

Education (page 20)

  • Road Safety education could be included in the Curriculum for Excellence to ensure that high quality road safety information is shared at the earliest stages.
Recommendation 36

Fitness to Drive (Page 39)

  • Police Scotland, DVLA and relevant health professionals should discuss and evaluate the processes currently in place regarding licence revoking and subsequent enforcement; D751 form processing and DVLA medical assessments to ensure they are all fit for purpose.

Recommendation 37 (Page 39)

  • The introduction of mandatory reporting requirements for relevant medical professionals should be considered. Further research and discussions required with bodies including the DVLA, Royal College of General Practitioners and the General Medical Council around the benefits and challenges.

Recommendation 38

Seatbelts – Penalties. (Page 61)

  • Not wearing a seatbelt should be made an endorsable offence and the current financial penalties should be increased. This may act as a further deterrent, particularly for younger drivers who will lose their licence if they reach six or more penalty points within two years of passing their test.

Recommendation 39

Driving Standards. (Page 59)

  • Enhanced hazard perception training for drivers, directed particularly at the risk posed to Vulnerable Road Users (VRUs), should be incorporated into any discussions around altering and improving driver training standards.

Recommendation 40

Driving Offences – Young Drivers. (Page 37)

  • Further engagement is required with young drivers to identify more effective ways to engage with this cohort and assist in developing effective preventative measures. When a young driver is convicted of a road traffic offence, a sentencing condition could be participation in a national working group where they are able to share thoughts and experiences. Discussion will be required with COPFS

Recommendation 41

Restrictions – Young Drivers. (Page 37)

  • In light of the number of younger passenger fatalities in collisions involving younger drivers, consideration should be given to a Graduated Driver Licensing system that could place restrictions on driving times/number of passengers/zero tolerance approach to alcohol for new drivers

Recommendation 42

Older Drivers - Fit to Drive Assessment – Wider social Consideration for Older Road Users. (Page 40)

  • The introduction of a form of cognitive assessment when licence renewal is required at 70 (and at agreed intervals thereafter) should be considered. Further research and review will be required. However, it should be noted such an assessment would undoubtedly lead to a reduction in older drivers and, therefore, lead to an increase in older pedestrians, cyclists and public transport users. It is imperative, therefore, that appropriate measures be put in place to ensure fatalities amongst these groups do not increase and that suitable, fit-for-purpose public transport infrastructure is available.

Recommendation 43

Eyesight Requirements – Older Road Users. (Page 40)

  • The introduction of mandatory reporting requirements for relevant eyesight professionals should be considered. Further research and discussions required with bodies including the DVLA, Royal College of Ophthalmologists and College of Optometrists around the benefits and challenges.

Recommendation 44

Older Road Users. (Page 40)

  • The introduction of mandatory eyesight tests for older drivers should be considered.

Recommendation 45

Older Road User. (Page 40)

  • The processes and forms currently used for Group 2 licence renewals could be utilised and adapted to develop similar robust practices for older drivers.
Recommendation 46

Rider Standards – Motorcyclists. (Page 59)

  • Working in conjunction with the Driver and Vehicle Standard Agency and DVLA, the potential impact of the introduction of a minimum period of learning and a requirement to demonstrate experience in different driving conditions via log books for motorcyclists should be further researched and reviewed.

Safe Vehicles

Education and Awareness

Recommendation 47

Driving Conditions – Winter / Summer Campaign. (Page 33)

  • Police Scotland should continue ‘Get Ready for Winter’ campaigns and messaging to encourage drivers to ensure their vehicles are roadworthy and prepared for Winter driving conditions. However, consideration should be given to developing a similar national summer tyre safety campaign.
Recommendation 48

Enhanced Campaign - Car Seat . (Page 46)

  • An enhanced campaign should be developed between Police Scotland, Transport Scotland and Good Egg Safety highlighting the importance of an age and size appropriate car seat that is properly-fitted as well as the benefits of rear-facing for younger children. Consider an enforcement period by Police Scotland to run alongside the campaign with increased roadside stops to check car seats.
Recommendation 49

Car Seat . (Page 46)

  • Collaborative working between Transport Scotland, Police Scotland and Good Egg Safety to develop roadshows or drop-in points that parents and care givers can attend to ensure that they have an appropriate child restraint and to assist them with fitting


Recommendation 50

Campaign – Tyre Safety – Summer. (Page 33)

  • Increased policing patrols and roadside stops by Police Scotland Roads Policing officers in North East Division in conjunction with a summer tyre safety campaign with a particular focus on Aberdeenshire and Moray. Benefits may also be seen from a national campaign.
Recommendation 51

Tyre Safety. (Page 38)

  • Increased roadside stops by Police Scotland Roads Policing officers to check tyre conditions
Recommendation 52

Driving for Work. (Page 45)

  • Membership of the Scottish Occupational Road Safety Alliance (ScORSA) should be actively encouraged and promoted. Companies and employers who have responsibility for employees who drive as a part of their role must be reminded of their legal duty to ensure the safety of their employees. This includes ensuring vehicles are safe and roadworthy and employees are fit to drive.

Funding and Grant Projects

Recommendation 53

Car Seat. (Page 46)

  • The Scottish Government should consider the development of a grant project towards the cost of car seats. They are expensive items and the cost may mean some care-givers compromise safety as a result. This could be done in collaboration with major retailers.
Recommendation 54

Car Seat. (Page 46)

  • Transport Scotland should work in partnership with retailers to raise awareness of already available free in-store car seat fitting and safety demo. This could involve the development of a financial incentive programme offering discounts or monetary vouchers which can be redeemed towards car seats when they participate in a fitting and safety demonstration


Recommendation 55

Equality – In car Safety (Page 26)

  • The UK and Scottish Governments should remain aware of the developments and impacts of the ongoing safety testing around the use of a female crash test dummy. If requirements are introduced into EU legislation to use such a seat evaluation tool, the UK Government should also introduce this to ensure optimum safety of UK manufactured vehicles
Recommendation 56

Vehicle Technology. (Page 62)

  • The UK Government should adopt the vehicle safety provisions within the EU’s Vehicle General Safety Regulation which includes AEBS, ISA and distraction monitoring and alert systems. This will ensure all new vehicles manufactured in the UK meet maximum safety standards and ultimately assist in preventing a potentially large number of road deaths.
Recommendation 57

Older Vehicles. (Page 63)

  • The Scottish Government should consider the development of a pilot scheme similar to the Mobility and Scrappage Fund with a road safety focus on removing older and potentially less-safe vehicles from the roads.
Recommendation 58

Driving Standards. (Page 38)

  • Inclusion of tyre and vehicle maintenance training as mandatory for learner drivers should be considered. An understanding of the importance of ensuring a vehicle is roadworthy alongside practical training on practices such as checking and altering tyre pressure may have a positive impact. This could also form part of a theoretical and practical driving test.
Recommendation 59

In-vehicle Technology – Offences. (Page 64)

  • Consideration should be given to the mandatory installation of Alco-lock devices to the vehicles of those convicted of a drink-driving offence
Recommendation 60

Young Drivers - In-vehicle Technology . (Page 64)

  • Consideration should be given to mandatory installation of Alco-lock devices in vehicles of younger drivers. This could be established through requirements from insurance companies.

Safe Speeds

Education and Awareness

Recommendation 61

Speeding and Dangerous Driving Campaign. (Page 59)

  • Campaigns highlighting the dangers of speeding and other risky driving behaviours should be targeted in areas frequented by young males – both physically and virtually. This could include sporting events, fast food chains, YouTube and TikTok.
Recommendation 62

Speeding – Offence Initiative. (Page 28)

  • Development of a National Speed Awareness Course and referral programme which drivers who have been caught speeding must attend. Consideration should be given as to whether this would be offered as an alternative to prosecution or as a mandatory additional requirement.


Recommendation 63

Speeding – Penalties. (Page 28)

  • Consideration should be given to increasing the penalties for speeding offences (heavier fines and increased points) and increasing the time points remain on a driver’s licence.
Recommendation 64

Speeding / Dangerous Driving – Penalties. (Page 28)

  • Consider increasing penalties or bans for repeat offenders of speeding/careless driving/dangerous driving, such as a graduated endorsement system with increased points for each offence.

Safe Roads and Roadsides

Education and Awareness

Recommendation 65

Foreign Drivers Campaign / Material – Distraction. (Page 43)

  • Materials/advertisements should be developed that remind tourists to avoid becoming distracted by scenery. These could be situated within service stations on main routes utilised by tourists including the A82, A9 and the North Coast 500 route
Recommendation 66

Signage – VRU. (Page 65)

  • A review of signage on the A82 at Great Western Road should be conducted to ensure adequate signage is present relating to the presence of VRUs
Recommendation 67

Collaborative Approach to Roadside Safety. (Page 68)

  • Police Scotland Roads Policing and Transport Scotland should liaise with Police Scotland’s Counter Terrorism Security Advisor Team who carry out site visits to assess the requirement and feasibility of street furniture, bollards etc. to mitigate terrorist attack opportunities such as preventing a vehicle from mounting the pavement in a busy pedestrian area. Collaborative working may identify common areas of interest, resulting in cost saving and avoiding duplication of efforts.
Recommendation 68

Pedal Cyclists Infrastructure – Cycling. (Page 67)

  • Transport Scotland and Police Scotland should work in partnership with organisations such as Cycling Scotland and Sustrans to continue to develop and improve cycling infrastructure on Scotland’s roads.
Recommendation 69

Foreign Drivers Signage. (Page 43)

  • The installation of road signs in non-British languages including Polish should be considered
Recommendation 70

Signage. (Page 43)

  • A review of the signage on the A82 for foreign drivers/riders should be undertaken to ensure it is sufficient. Regular usage should be made of matrix signs to display messages reminding drivers to drive on the left. Consideration could be given to displaying this in different languages, particularly German and French

Post Crash Response

Recommendation 71

Data – Response times. (Page 51)

  • Consult with partners (Public Health Scotland, Scottish Ambulance Service etc.) to identify suitable datasets for analysis relating to post-crash response.