Appendix A: Case study examples
Appendix A: Case study examples
This chapter presents case study examples for each of the intervention types identified in Chapter 3. The case studies presented here have been highlighted in research documents or by road safety stakeholders contributing to this study, as being effective or of potential interest.
The extent to which the case study interventions have been evaluated varies. In a minority of cases evidence has been collected regarding the impact on the number of young drivers involved in collisions. Other evaluations have focused on the number of young people found to be committing driving offences before and after the intervention. More generally, a qualitative evaluation has been undertaken focusing on feedback from participants. It is important to note that positive feedback does not mean that the intervention has been effective in reducing collision rates. Other initiatives have yet to undergo any formal evaluation.
A.2 Intervention Type A – Education and training for younger children and pre-drivers
Crash Magnets (for pre-drivers)
Road Safety Scotland’s Crash Magnets39 resource and website for senior pupils aims to encourage responsible attitudes to driving before they get behind the wheel. The resource covers issues such as drink driving, speeding, seatbelt use and mobile phone use.
The Crash Magnets resource comprises a DVD with five programmes covering subjects such as; driver distraction, speed, the cruise culture and drink and drug driving. It delves into the role of the accident and emergency services and the harrowing aftermath of a serious crash. Young people from across Scotland are Vox Pop subjects in each programme, expressing opinions and talking about their experiences. This encourages students to feel confident about talking out in class about their opinions and experiences. Additional teaching materials stretching to ten lessons are also available.
A qualitative evaluation of the initiative, undertaken by Heriot-Watt University (2007) and based on feedback from participants, found that Crash Magnets: lowered intentions to speed in the future; lowered the acceptability of not wearing a seat-belt, speeding and drink-driving; and improved attitudes towards driving violations in general. Benefits were found to have a long-term and short-term effect. The evaluation did not look at actual impacts on collision rates.
Safe Drive Stay Alive (for pre-drivers)
Safe Drive Stay Alive is a hard hitting drama-based approach, run by the emergency services in partnership with private and public sector partners and delivered to young pre-drivers (aged 14 to 17) in some parts of Scotland.
The Safe Drive Stay Alive website40 describes the intervention as follows: "As the drama unfolds and the emergency services arrive on the scene, the faces on film literally step onto stage. Pausing the film for a moment, they speak to the audience about their experiences, the reactions of the driver and passengers, the medical implications and how seeing such trauma affects them personally. Until the end, the audience is unsure which of the car's occupants will make it."
The Safe Drive Stay Alive project has been successful in achieving a number of awards and accolades since its inception (including a Prince Michael of Kent International Road Safety Award).
Recent research, however, has raised concerns about the effectiveness of hard hitting approaches in the medium to long term, and has suggested that the emotional impact caused by these types of initiatives means that they are doing more harm than good41.
Driving Standards Agency (use of innovative approaches)
The DSA has made good use of Twitter and Facebook42, both of which receive a large number of hits. The ‘I can't wait to pass my driving test!’ page is regularly updated with driving tips and advice about learning to drive. There is also a discussion forum and links to YouTube. In January 2011, there were approximately 5,500 members.
Learning to Drive support materials, produced by the DSA, are available in a range of formats including books, CDs, computer games, etc. Others have produced mobile phone downloads based on DSA material.
Road Safety Scotland’s Xbox initiative (use of innovative approaches)
Road Safety Scotland’s Driver Behaviour Strategy aims to reduce crashes involving younger drivers. According to media experts, young people are unlikely to see advertising on traditional media channels, preferring satellite television or gaming consoles as evening entertainment. RSS therefore worked with Microsoft to tap into the live gaming market, in an award winning initiative. In a world first, Microsoft agreed to trial geographical marketing within the XBox environment. RSS has now run two campaigns, one on drink driving and one to support the rural road distraction cinema advert. Using ISP addresses, RSS was able to target only those with a Scottish-registered address and, while users from across the world continued to see adverts from global companies, Scottish gamers saw road safety adverts.
There has been no formal evaluation of the long term impact of this approach, as yet, however the immediate short term impact has been found to vary for under 21s and 21-25s.
A.3 Intervention Type B – Education, training and testing for learner and novice drivers
DSA’s Learning to Drive programme
Following the Learning to Drive Consultation in 2008, the DSA has developed a Competency Framework, to be used as a basis for driver training and assessment. The framework is based around five key driving roles and 37 competency elements setting out the standard of driving that a safe and responsible driver is expected to meet:
- Role 1: Preparing the car/light van and its occupants for the journey
- Role 2: Guiding and controlling the car/light van
- Role 3: Using the road in accordance with the Highway Code
- Role 4: Interacting appropriately with other road users, and
- Role 5: Reviewing and adjusting driving behaviour over your lifetime.
The Competency Framework forms the basis for driver training and assessment improvements being implemented through the DSA’s Learning to Drive Programme. The five components of the programme are:
- The Theory Test Project - Since September 2009 a case study component has been introduced to assess candidates' understanding of driving theory, and holders of the Safe Road User Qualification (SRUQ) have received a partial credit towards the theory test and been able to sit an abridged theory test
- The Pre-Driver Project – The Safe Road User Qualification (SRUQ) has been developed by the DSA and the Scottish Qualifications Authority (SQA). It is aimed at 14-16 year olds and comprises two forty hour modules covering knowledge and attitude in relation to road use. The course is designed to be taught in schools and colleges to pupils as part of, for example, their Personal, Health and Social Education (PHSE). The course is not compulsory so only a portion of school aged children will receive it
- The Practical Test Project – The Learning to Drive consultation acknowledged that the practical car test should focus less on manoeuvres and more on general driving. The Practical Test will be progressively strengthened over several years following trials for the various proposed developments. From April 2010, candidates have been given the choice of being accompanied by an observer who would sit in on the practical test and would ensure that the candidates get the most out of the post-test feedback. Since October 2010, an assessment of competence to drive independently has been introduced
- Modernising Driver Training Project – The DSA has launched a trial to assess a proposed new learning to drive syllabus and process (including an accompanying student workbook), and
- The Post Test Project – The DSA is working with employers and others to develop a post-test training and CPD qualification.
The DSA has also developed a tool to assess driver attitudes, called the Attitude Advisor. The Attitude Advisor identifies attitudes by asking drivers to give their reactions to 20 different driving situations. The assessment then provides feedback which highlights the respondent’s mix of safe and potentially risky driving attitudes, allowing the driver to review and reflect upon their own driving behaviour. The survey takes 15 to 20 minutes to complete. There is no pass or fail outcome.
The prototype version of the Attitude Advisor was first evaluated in a small scale trial in 2008. The results of the trial were sufficiently encouraging to develop the tool further. A major national trial of the next version of the Attitude Advisor, with over 3000 participants is currently in progress. The results of the trial will be used to validate and finalise the questionnaire and to decide its future use.
The DSA, with the help of insurers and the driving instruction industry, has developed Pass Plus. It is mainly aimed at new drivers in the first year after passing their test. The six training modules cover driving in different conditions: in town, in all weathers, on rural roads, at night, on dual carriageways, and on motorways. The course takes at least six hours to complete, with the majority of this time spent in the car. The cost is in the order of £150, depending on location.
Some local authorities in Scotland offer help with Pass Plus course fees by giving a subsidy for those residents who complete the Pass Plus programme. Fife was the first local authority to offer such a reduction. To date, over 4,000 new drivers in Fife have received training and a 27% reduction in collisions has been recorded.
To date, there has been no formal evaluation of the Pass Plus initiative. In January 2010, however, the DSA commissioned research on the development of the Pass-Plus scheme for newly qualified drivers following concerns about its continued effectiveness.
Kirklees’ Enhanced Pass Plus scheme
Kirklees Council uses a ground breaking driver training strategy to target high risk driver groups. Its subsidised Enhanced Pass Plus scheme aims to reduce crash involvement by:
- increasing the drivers’ awareness of human factors that affect driving performance and their particular impact on novice drivers
- improving their ability to analyse near misses and self-evaluate driving performance, thereby becoming self-improving, and
- improving attitudes towards the driving task.
Kirklees has enhanced the DSA’s six modules with three further enhancements. The scheme includes 8 hours of Pass Plus training plus a discussion group for £56. The main incentive for a novice driver is a reduced insurance premium.
Only 6% of the Kirklees Enhanced Pass Plus participants reported being involved in a collision three months post-course, compared to 23% of the control group (which consisted of clients from the standard pass plus scheme).
A formal evaluation of the scheme has been commissioned by the DSA, as part of wider research on the development of the Pass-Plus scheme for newly qualified drivers.
Staffordshire Pass Pus Extra
Pass Plus Extra is a scheme providing drivers with the opportunity of completing the DSA's Pass Plus scheme at a subsidised rate. All applicants must attend a compulsory two-hour interactive workshop to receive the subsidy.
At the time of the ‘Young Drivers Road Safety Audit’ of 2004 Staffordshire County Council was already subsidising participation in the Pass Plus scheme, being amongst the first to do so in England. In 2005 it was recognised that the Council were missing an opportunity to get added ‘value for money’ from funding the scheme, so ways of increasing the benefit received from providing the subsidy were investigated. As a result, the Shropshire decided to develop a road safety-based workshop to complement the scheme, which would provide the opportunity to engage with young and newly qualified drivers at a time when they would most benefit from road safety education.
The two-hour workshop was developed to be interactive and encourage participation, but most importantly it focused on the key areas where young drivers were most vulnerable. The aim was to focus on behavioural and attitudinal issues such as peer pressure, seat belt wearing and drink and drug driving, rather than increasing pure driver knowledge such as road signs and so on. Attendance at the workshop is compulsory, entitling the applicant to receive the Pass Plus practical lessons for £60 or less.
The workshop has no PowerPoint content, unlike other enhanced Pass Plus workshop schemes, although a few video clips are shown. Instead, there are interactive tasks that have to be completed by clients. All workshops have a maximum of 14 clients in attendance, all working in pairs, so as not to pressurise any young driver unnecessarily.
Following the initial evaluation of the workshop, changes were made and a professionally produced pack was introduced. Several packs have been sold to other road safety units around the country, including Shropshire, Powys and Herefordshire.
The Institute of Advanced Motoring (IAM) has recently introduced Momentum, a 60 minute (home-based) online assessment and an on-road driving assessment with a qualified examiner. The programme costs £40 and is seen as an entry point to subsequently taking the full IAM Advanced Test. It addresses high risks such as rural roads, carrying passengers in the car, night-time driving and bad weather.
A2om e-learning suite
Central Scotland and Fife Police are piloting an innovative and free computer-based e-learning training package, developed by a2om (and Dr Lisa Dorn). The package aims to influence attitudes and behaviour, in an engaging and interactive manner. It is currently offered to many schools in England, where it has been found to be effective. It is aimed at pre-drivers, those learning to drive and those wanting additional training.
The a2om e-learning suite is split into two sections: a2om highway and a2om mind:
- a2om highway is a fully interactive, on-line learning environment, which makes the theory of driving fun and stimulating. It seeks to develop knowledge and challenge attitudes in relation to driver behaviour, and
- a2om mind is designed to accelerate a new driver’s ability to manage risk. Users are able to practise key skills that will help them to identify and deal with all kinds of risky situations.
The suite also includes mock DSA practical theory and hazard perception tests.
The pilot is being funded by the Strategic Road Safety Group set up to develop and implement Scotland's Road Safety Framework to 2020. The Group is chaired by Stewart Stevenson MSP and includes health, police, fire and rescue, and Government representatives.
The e-learning suite will be offered to all 5th and 6th year students in Fife, while schools in Central Scotland will continue to receive training from road safety officers. The impact on casualty numbers will be compared after two years. Professor Steve Stradling is assisting the evaluation, to be led by Dr Paul Broughton of Owl Research.
BTEC in Driving Science
Fife Road Safety Unit and a2om have also developed a BTEC in Driving Science. This combines online learning with practical in-car tuition and is equivalent in level to a GCSE. The course has been developed in conjunction with leading universities including the Driver Behaviour Centre at Cranfield University and has been accredited by Edexcel. The Road Safety Unit is promoting the BTEC course through schools and colleges, and has also trained 26 local driving instructors to enable them to promote and run the course with their pupils. It is hoped that young people will take the course while learning to drive.
A.4 Intervention Type C - Graduated driver licensing and licence restrictions
Graduated licensing in Northern Ireland43
Northern Ireland has operated a form of graduated licensing since 1968, requiring newly-qualified drivers to carry an ‘R’ (Restricted) plate for one year, and limiting them to a maximum speed of 45 miles per hour. The effect on road safety has been inconclusive.
The only comprehensive study of the Northern Ireland scheme was commissioned by the Department of Environment (Northern Ireland) from Queen’s University, Belfast in 199244. A random sample of drivers was contacted between June 1992 and March 1993. The original sample contained equal numbers of R drivers and those with between two and five years experience. A follow up survey was held a year later, between June 1993 and March 1994, and questionnaires were sent to some of the original R drivers. The results were published in October 1994. The survey found that the R plates did not have any discernible effect on accident reduction.
However, the system was found to be popular with the public. Ninety-six percent of all respondents were in favour of applying restrictions to drivers during the period immediately after passing the driving test; and the majority thought that newly qualified drivers should be subject to special speed limits for a period of one year.
The apparent popularity may be linked to widespread flouting of the rules. Forty per cent of R drivers surveyed said that they exceeded 45 mph occasionally or often on roads subject to a 30 mph. limit, rising to 50% on single carriageway roads subject to a national limit of 60 mph.
Concerns have been raised that the law prevents driving instructors from teaching learners how to cope with the higher speeds which many young drivers will travel at once they have passed their test. Some young drivers have also reported that it seems dangerous to travel slowly on major roads.
Driver deaths are 40% more common in Northern Ireland than in the rest of the UK, notwithstanding these extra restrictions.
The authorities in Northern Ireland are currently considering what amendments might be made to the graduated licensing arrangements alongside reforms to driver training and testing. In recent years, political uncertainty and variant views of different ministers have prevented a public consultation on removing the 45mph restriction, but with added restrictions e.g. passengers, alcohol. There are new plans for an open-ended consultation on Graduated Licensing options in Spring 2011. This is likely to consider options about removing the 45mph restriction again coupled with other restrictions instead. However, there is and has been some nervousness of removing the 45mph restriction when accidents amongst young drivers remain high.
Austrian ‘Multiphase Education’ Approach
The Austrian multiphase programme started on 1 January, 2003 on an obligatory basis.
Once drivers have passed the ‘first phase’ theory and practical test, they must participate in three training modules during the following year. If the novice driver fails to attend one or more of these modules, he/she will receive an automatic warning from the authorities, and within four months his/her licence will be withdrawn.
The three training modules include:
- a feedback drive within 2 to 4 months consisting of two driving sessions of 50 minutes each
- a one day road safety and psychological (attitude) education event, within 3 to 9 months, and
- a second feedback drive within 6 to 12 months consisting of two driving sessions of 50 minutes each.
The purpose of the feedback drives (on-road) is to train more advanced skills than in the driving test: hazard perception, social interaction, observing other road users and discussion of their behaviour. Austria has a network of privately owned off-road training centres where elements of the course can take place.
The post-licence period in Austria includes a probation period of two years, during which novice drivers must not commit any serious offences such as speeding, drunk driving, overtaking where not allowed and driving through red lights. If this happens, the driver must undergo a psychological examination and is subject to a one year extension of his/her probation period.
During the first two years, the number of 18 and 19 year old car drivers involved in accidents causing personal injury reduced by 11%; with a larger reduction reported for young male drivers45. Between 2002 and 2006 a 30% reduction in road casualties was recorded46.
The cost of completing the three training modules is approximately â‚¬180, paid for by the novice driver. Note, Austria has a system of compulsory private tuition when learning to drive. This means it has always been expensive. The number of compulsory lessons required pre-test was dropped to help make the new approach more palatable.
A.5 Intervention Type D - Enforcement and restorative justice
Thames Valley Young Driver Scheme47
Thames Valley Police & Safer Roads Partnership pioneered the UK’s first driver offender rehabilitation scheme to target a particular demographic group rather than defining groups based on vehicle use or offending behaviour. Launched in April 2008, more than 9,000 young drivers passed through the scheme within the first two years.
The intervention takes the form of a group workshop and five e-learning modules developed by a2om, on the basis of scientific research. Participants have enforced ‘lock outs’ between modules ensuring a period of reflection. The modules include pass/fail assessments to ensure the participant has engaged with the learning material.
While there is a risk that offenders may ask a friend or family member to complete the e-Learning sessions for them, evaluation evidence shows that the Young Driver Scheme is proving to be nearly 60% more effective in reducing re-offending rates than issuing a Fixed Penalty Notice.
One limitation is the requirement for access to a computer. This may limit participation amongst those on low incomes in rural areas, where library facilities or similar are not available, if the approach was to be applied elsewhere.
A.6 Intervention Type E - Use of technology
Event data recorders
The European Commission may soon recommend that all European vehicles be fitted with an event data recorder (EDR) that monitors a vehicle's speed and the actions of its driver (including use of brakes, horn and indicators), following a three-year study called Project Veronica48 which investigated the feasibility of EDRs to increase safety and responsibility on the roads. The data could improve the ability of authorities and insurance companies to reconstruct the events leading up to a crash and consequently inform any legal action or insurance claims. There is also a presumption that awareness of the EDR will keep drivers honest and make them more risk averse, and hence safer. It is likely, however, that it would be left to the member states to decide whether to implement the recommendations.
Staffordshire Young Driver Coaching Programme – GreenRoad Safety Center
A number of insurers have trialled the use of continuous data recorders as part of a scheme to offer lower insurance premiums to young people. One example is the Young Driver Coaching Programme led by Staffordshire County Council.
The Young Driver Coaching Programme is a three way partnership involving learner drivers, their parents, the driving instructor and the road safety team.
A key feature of the programme is the installation of sensors and a GPS unit to monitor how the driver is handling their car. Any excessive manoeuvres which could be potentially dangerous, such as harsh acceleration and braking, erratic cornering or any combination of these are recognised and alerted to the driver via the LCD panel.
As soon as a journey has ended, detailed information on every inappropriate event is transmitted to a secure website where the driver and their parents can log in and view a journey log.
The following package of incentives seeks to encourage young drivers to install the units once they have passed their test:
- Use of the GreenRoad Safety Center costing £18 a month (12 month contract) plus a £30 installation fee. This price includes a subsidy from Staffordshire County Council Road Safety
- A 25% discount on any Admiral car insurance policy relating to the young driver, once the unit has been installed in the car
- The opportunity for the young driver to earn rewards worth over £10 a month by driving green, funded by Admiral Insurance, and
- Additional driver training support from the Staffordshire County Council Road Safety team.
Forty young drivers took part in the trial starting in April 2008. Overall drivers reduced the number of high-risk driving manoeuvres by an average of 58%. The number of high-risk manoeuvres while driving at night declined by 71%. Those drivers who started the pilot in the highest risk group reduced the number of risky manoeuvres by 65%.
Intelligent speed adaptation
Research commissioned by the DfT in 2008 confirmed that Intelligent Speed Adaptation has the potential to be an attractive road safety feature for drivers who wish to use it49. DfT will be working with motor manufacturers, local authorities, road safety groups and others to consider how future development of ISA technology should be encouraged50.
Alcohol ignition interlocks
Alcohol ignition interlocks are used in most parts of North America and have been trialled in Australia. Programmes are generally used for repeat offenders, either as an alternative to disqualification or to follow a disqualification. They are also widely used in Sweden. Early in 2009, approximately 750 offenders drove a car with an alcolock built-in, and almost 40,000 alcolocks had been installed in lorries, school buses, and taxis.
The DfT undertook research into the practicalities of an alcolock-based judicial programme51, and concluded that the costs of implementing and enforcing a scheme are likely to be disproportionate52. There was also concerns that a scheme might give those who could afford to take part the benefit of a discounted disqualification without evidence that participation achieves a long-term change in a drink driver’s behaviour.
Technologies that make cars safer
The Vehicle Safety section of the RoSPA website53 provides a range of information about vehicle safety technology including publications on Choosing Safer Vehicles (2002) and Satellite Navigation (Sat Nav) Devices (2007).
First Car Magazine, winner of the Prince Michael International Road Safety Award in 2008 provides young people with advice on buying, owning and driving their first motor vehicle.
Safety Halls in Sweden
In Sweden young people attend safety hall events at which they learn of the importance of safety features in the car. For example, the importance of seat belts is illustrated by the experience of a simulated crash on a seat belt sledge at a few miles per hour, and the benefits of correctly adjusted headrest by a similar experience. Overall, it has been demonstrated that knowledge and attitudes have changed as a function of attendance54.
McKenna (2010b) suggests that a key difficulty is in translating the information into action, and that if a similar intervention is introduced in the UK, measures should be in place to follow up this knowledge with future action. This might include ensuring seat belt use becomes a habit, getting young people to set the head rest in the vehicle that they use, and ensuring that young people can use websites providing information on the crashworthiness of vehicles and identify suitably crashworthy vehicles given different budgets.
A.7 Intervention Type F – Encouragement and leadership, including incentives and working with the private sector
Aviva ‘black box’ approach (insurance intervention)
Aviva trialled a ‘black box’ pay-as-you-go approach based on higher rates for driving at night when the accident risk is greatest, but found that the scheme was not economically viable. They now issue guidance to parents instead.
‘The road to success - Our guide to teaching your child to drive’ provides guidance on how to pick the best car for your son or daughter; getting the most out of insurance; setting an example; preparing for the road; mirrors, signal, manoeuvre; listening to the experts; and creating a parent/young driver agreement.
Aviva report public downloads and have authorised Focus Multimedia to include it in their learning to drive DVD pack sold in W.H. Smiths etc. which sells in tens of thousands per year. Aviva also encourages staff to e-mail it to customers adding young drivers to their insurance policy. The company has also allowed a couple of councils to print hard copies and dual brand for local distribution.55
NFU Mutual parent-young driver agreements (insurance intervention)
NFU Mutual has a good long-term relationship with many of its customers, and encourage families to enter into parent-young driver agreements56.
Young Marmalade (insurance intervention)
Young Marmalade specialise in getting young people into safer, new and nearly-new cars. They also offer driving lessons if required and insurance at competitive rates.
Young Marmalade is a combined car purchase and insurance scheme designed to keep young drivers safe. It enables them to get: cheaper car insurance; a larger no claims bonus; and a new or nearly new car with modern safety features such as airbags, anti-lock braking systems, a high EuroNCAP safety rating and stability control. Young drivers are also rewarded for undertaking more driver training.
Young Marmalade controls the risks for the insurance company, which means that the premiums for this sector are the lowest in the UK.
i-Kube incentivises young drivers to stay off the road when they are more at risk of being involved in an accident - between 11pm and 5am. i-Kube offers young drivers a discount on the standard premium offered providing they agree to the installation of an i-kube GPS device in their car and to limitations regarding driving the vehicle between 11pm and 5am. They also claim to offer a Pass Plus discount that is higher than many well known insurers; a claim which seems to be supported by customer feedback comments on various web-based forums.
If the vehicle is driven (by anyone) during 11pm and 5am, the insurance is still valid, but a charge of £100 per night is applied. The unit costs £249, which covers annual monitoring and installation.
RoSPA’s Young Drivers At Work resource (for employers)
The RoSPA Young Drivers At Work project was a two year project run between 2008 and 2010. The project was conducted with support from the DfT's road safety partnership grant and with the help of a working group including the DfT, DSA, Buckinghamshire and Lancashire County Councils, Birmingham City Council, Roadsafe, and Tesco.com.
The first phase was a research project designed to get a better understanding of the risks faced, and created, by young (17 to 24 years) drivers at work. The results were published in a report in March 2009.
- 60% of employers surveyed felt that the current system of driver training and testing was ‘not at all’ or ‘not very’ adequate for preparing young drivers to drive for work
- Three-quarters of employers surveyed reported that their young employees were driving in situations that were not covered by the current learner test, for example driving at night or in icy conditions
- More than half of employers surveyed would like to see a post-test driving qualification introduced. Accident reduction and compliance with health and safety legislation were the two main reasons why employers would find post-test training useful
- Developing safer driver attitudes, driving in different conditions, enhanced hazard perception, and motorway driving were the top issues employers would like a post-test qualification to include
- Employers preferred training for a post-test driving for work qualification to take place during work time. They wanted the qualification to be accredited to a national standard. Large-sized companies and non-commercial organisations would have the capacity to provide accredited driving training in-house. They could also provide facilities for others if established as national assessment centres, and
- Employers are using probation periods and restrictions on what young drivers can initially do, in order to structure their driving for work experience.
Based on this research RoSPA developed a Young Drivers at Work Workshop, which aims to:
- develop participants' knowledge about the specific issues to do with driving for work
- help young at-work drivers understand how they can develop the additional skills they need when driving for work, and,
- identify new ways that the employer can help their younger drivers use the road safely, by understanding the influence that they are having from the perspective of their young drivers.
To ensure the workshop can be used by as many people as possible, an online toolkit is freely available at www.rospa.com/roadsafety/youngdriversatwork .
The workshop comprises several activities, each with its own set of learning outcomes. An online Activity Guide sets out how each activity is designed to run, with information about what the facilitators and participants need to do at each stage, how long it will take, equipment is needed.
The workshop takes between two and a half and three hours to run, depending on the amount of discussion. It involves activities relating to beliefs, attitudes and knowledge; what is different with driving at work; what causes an accident at work; journey planning; the vehicle; young person’s occupational road risk policy; employer’ s activity; and scenarios.
Workshop Facilitator's Notes contain the practical experiences learnt from running 12 pilot workshops. They provide facilitator’s with an indication of the type of discussion which emerged from the activities and how to guide discussions towards the learning objectives for each session.
Grampian Police Road Safety Presentations (for employers)
In Grampian, the oil industry has been proactive in raising awareness of road safety issues amongst employees. Grampian Police deliver a 1 hour PowerPoint-based training session to employees.
RoSPAs Helping L Drivers website (for parents)
RoSPA has developed an online resource (www.helpingldrivers.com ) to help parents and carers to ensure that learner drivers get the most benefit from their learning period.
The website includes links to various free resources aimed at parents of learner drivers. These include:
- Helping Young People Learn To Drive - This small booklet summarises the information which can be found on the website about how best to supervise a learner during private practice. It also covers issues, such as how to prepare a car and a route and what happens after the test
- Safer Driving: Parents and Young Drivers - This give facts and information about risks to young drivers and how you can draw up an agreement between yourself and your son or daughter to ensure that they are safe by adhering to certain conditions. It includes an example agreement.
New driver evenings (for learners and parents)
Fife Police hold new driver evenings every fortnight and invite parents to attend, along with young drivers. Most young drivers bring one or two parents along, and the evenings typically attract an audience of 40 to 50. Organisers report that excellent feedback has been received from parents.
Staffordshire Young Driver Coaching Programme Resource Pack (for learners and parents)
The Young Driver Coaching Programme Resource Pack (YDCP) was devised by Staffordshire County Council’s Road Safety Unit and launched in August 2009. It consists of a learner driver’s record book and a supervising driver’s information guide. Both are intended to be used in conjunction with an Approved Driving Instructor.
The driver’s record book is broken down into ten key skills which the instructor dates and signs when in their opinion the learner is ready to cover that skill in private practice sessions.
The supervising driver’s information guide is divided into short colour-coded sections on specific skills ranging from moving off, to hazards, and eco driving techniques.
An evaluation of the early months of the project was commissioned by the Council’s Road Safety Unit58. In the first four months of the project, seventeen families signed up including eight male and nine female learners. The Resource Pack helped to more effectively structure private practice sessions as the driver’s record book gave parents a greater idea of their learners’ progress.
Only one-quarter of potential ADIs agreed to participate in the scheme. Some did not respond to approaches, others considered themselves too busy. Some learners were prevented from participating because they lacked a supervising driver or a suitable car for private practice.
The enthusiasm of parents was crucial to the recruitment process. Many parents were not interested in being responsible for teaching their learner to drive, or were interested in supervising but not in committing to the YDCP Resource Pack. Some parents reported that the overall size and apparent demands of involvement were a deterrent, but that, once involved, the scheme was considered manageable.
Cheshire’s ‘Going Solo’ website59(for parents)
Cheshire Safer Road Safety Partnership has produced ‘Going Solo’, an on-line resource for parents of newly qualified drivers. This highlights the risks facing young drivers and what parents can do to reduce the risk. It also provides guidance to parents on creating a Vehicle Access Agreement which allows parents and newly qualified driver to clearly set out conditions in the first 12-months for borrowing the family car, or for the newly qualified driver driving their own car. A template is provided which parents can download.
Fiat’s eco:Drive Initiative
Eco-driving involves driving in a way which reduces fuel consumption and emissions. As part of the practical driving test examines assess ability to drive in a way that shows eco-safe driving techniques. Examiners provide feedback and guidance at the end of the test, but candidates will not fail the test if they don’t demonstrate eco-safe driving techniques.
The principles behind eco - driving – planning ahead; preparing early for junctions, traffic lights and so on; and maintaining a consistent and steady speed – are all measures that make people safer drivers. They encourage drivers to be aware of their surroundings and to drive smoothly. The techniques taught in eco-driving training courses are similar to those taught in advanced driving courses aimed specifically at making people better, more aware, safer drivers.
Fiat’s eco:Drive initiative60 was developed as a tool to involve drivers in a process of understanding, reviewing and improving their driving performance over time. With eco:Drive, drivers use a USB stick to record information from their car’s inboard computer whilst driving, which is then analysed on through the eco:Drive computer programme.s