1. Data provided directly by Analytical Services, Transport
Scotland, December 2010. Detailed breakdown of data published in
Reported Road Casualties Scotland 2010.
2. Based on accident values for all hours, from WebTAG Unit 3.4.1D, 2008 prices. Costs include casualty related costs (medical, lost output and human) and those for associated damage to vehicles and property, police costs and the administrative cost of insurance. Vehicle damage only collisions are not considered.
3. Data provided directly by Analytical Services, Transport Scotland, December 2010. Detailed breakdown of data published in Reported Road Casualties Scotland 2010.
4. Data provided directly by Analytical Services, Transport Scotland, December 2010. Detailed breakdown of data published in Reported Road Casualties Scotland 2010.
5. For example, 17-18 year old men have around 70% more of their accidents following competition with other road users than 30-59 year old men.
6. RSIS Report 8A - Tests Conducted by Test Centre (Car practical driving test pass and fail statistics for Scotland, Driving Standards Agency website) (http://www.dft.gov.uk/dsa/category.asp?cat=760 )
7. Pass Rates by Candidate DTC, Age & Gender 16-25 (Static) (Car practical driving test by age (16-25) and gender for Great Britain, Driving Standards Agency website) (http://www.dft.gov.uk/dsa/category.asp?cat=760 )
8. Pass Rates by Candidate DTC, Age & Gender 16-25 (Static) (Car practical driving test by age (16-25) and gender for Great Britain, Driving Standards Agency website) (http://www.dft.gov.uk/dsa/category.asp?cat=760 )
11. OECD and ECMT included a comprehensive review of GDL schemes in 2006 in their report on Young Drivers – The Road to Safety (OECD and EMCT, 2006). The Transport Research Laboratory (TRL) also published a report on graduated driver licensing in other countries in 2002: Graduated driver licensing – a review of some current systems (TRL Report 529, 2002).
12. The survey was undertaken during December 2010, when heavy snowfall was experienced across much of Scotland.
13. Seven participants had recently passed their test, five were learning to drive and three had yet to start learning to drive.
14. Most interviews, however, did not address this issue.
15. This is likely to change over the next few years as the cost of units reduces.
16. There was considerable confusion about how a speed limiter would work in practice; what limits would apply on 30, 40, 50 mph roads; and whether the system could be overridden in an emergency. Some focus group participants assumed that this would not be possible and therefore considered this to be a dangerous intervention. Survey respondents may have had similar concerns.
17. Only 80% were supportive of cheaper car insurance, and only 65% were supportive of help with training fees, as incentives for undertaking further training.
18. Support relates to a minimum period of training or practice before taking the practical test.
19. Young females were supportive of graduated licence scheme involving a ban on driving high performance cars and a lower drink drive limit.
20. Draws on best practice and research to develop a short 3-5 day training course for driving instructors to allow them to develop their ‘coaching’ skills.full reference
21. At present, drivers found not wearing a seat-belt can only be fined, as this is not an endorsable offence.
22. http://www.roadsafe.com/programmes/work.aspx .
23. Accidents that occur on the public road are not currently reportable under the Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations 1995 (RIDDOR), even if they involve someone at work at the time, unless a vehicle is transporting dangerous goods.
26. http://www.roadsafe.com/programmes/work.aspx .
27. http://www.roadsafe.com/programmes/work.aspx .
28. At present, driving test examiners provide drivers with feedback on how eco-efficient their driving style has been during the test. However, a candidate will not be ‘failed’ because they haven’t demonstrated eco-safe driving techniques.
29. To encourage reflective learning and document the learning experience (including experience of driving in different conditions).
30. Wells et al. (2008) show that the experience of driving in challenging conditions (e.g. busy town centres and driving in the rain) for at least two hours when learning is associated with longer ‘survival times’ (in months or miles) before having a first accident. Age is also an important factor with older drivers ‘surviving’ accident-free longer than younger ones.
31. Reported in OECD and ECMT (2006), Young Drivers – The Road to Safety.
32. Quoted in OECD and ECMT (2006) and Husband (2010).
33. At present, young drivers can often find cheaper insurance offers, which do not require further driver training experience, through use of insurance comparison sites. To be effective in encouraging take-up of further training, the discount needs to be applied at ‘checkout’.
34. Currently the law permits a new driver to start driving immediately after a successful practical test and before a physical licence is delivered in the post to a candidate’s home address from the DVLA. The examiner takes a candidate’s provisional licence, scans the details and sends it electronically to DVLA.
35. Average annual mileage increases the longer a driver has been qualified, increasing exposure to risk. The risk of involvement in a drink drive accident remains high for a minority of male drivers until well beyond any conceivable probationary period.
36. The Thames Valley young driver offender scheme is reported to be 60% more effective at reducing re-offending rates than Fixed Penalty Notices, but the impact on casualty rates has yet to be reported (see Appendix A).
37. The approach can be treated as a form of voluntary graduated licensing by placing restrictions on exposure to high risk night time driving and restricting peer passengers. The approach signals the seriousness with which all parties view the topic, clarifies driving privileges, and controls exposure to risk during the first few months of driving when collision risk is high (McKenna, 2010b).
38. DfT and RoSPA have recently developed an online toolkit called E-VALU-IT (http://www.roadsafetyevaluation.com ), in collaboration with local authority practitioners, to help professionals to evaluate ETP projects. In addition, the DfT is leading the BURSE project (Better Use of Road Safety Evidence), which is aiming to help road safety professionals make better use of the road safety evidence that is available. The portal will provide an entry point to all major published and publically funded research, statistics, reports and good practice examples; and will provide advice to road safety practitioners about the relevance and importance of material to specific road safety challenges.
41. McKenna F (2010) Education in Road Safety: Are we getting it right? Report Number: 10/113 for RAC Foundation.
43. DSA (2008), Learning to Drive – A Consultation Paper.
44. Reported in House of Commons Library (2009), Driving: young and novice drivers, Standard Note: SN/BT/517. Updated 24 April 2009 by Louise Butcher.
45. Bartl and Esberger (2005), Multi-phase driver licensing - first analysis of effectiveness. Quoted in Cole (2008), United States Driver Training: A blueprint for the future, p20.
46. Information provided by Test and Training International, Austria – providers of post-test training modules and assessments.
47. http://www.a2om.com/software/police.aspx ; http://www.roadsafetyawards.com/
49. Carsten et al. (2008) Intelligent Speed Adaptation. Series of project reports available online at: www.dft.gov.uk/pgr/roads/vehicles/intelligientspeed adaptation/
50. Road Safety Compliance Consultation (DfT, 2008).
51. Beirness, D.J., Clayton, A. and Vanlaar, W. (2008) An Investigation of the Usefulness, the Acceptability and Impact on Lifestyle of Alcohol Ignition Interlocks in Drink-Driving Offenders. Road Safety Research Report 88. Department for Transport: London
52. Road Safety Compliance Consultation (DfT, 2008).
54. McKenna F (2010) The public health benefits of road safety education for teenagers. Think piece for Road Safety Scotland.
55. Information provided directly by the Association of British Insurers, Dec 2010.
58. A Process Evaluation of the Staffordshire Young Driver Coaching Programme Resource Pack (University of Keele and RoSPA, February 2010).
60. Fiat (2010) Eco-driving uncovered: The benefits and challenges of eco-driving, based on the first study using real journey time data.
61. RSIS Report 8A - Tests Conducted by Test Centre (Car practical driving test pass and fail statistics for Scotland, Driving Standards Agency website) (http://www.dft.gov.uk/dsa/category.asp?cat=760 ) AND Pass Rates by Candidate DTC, Age & Gender 16-25 (Static) (Car practical driving test by age (16-25) and gender for Great Britain, Driving Standards Agency website) (http://www.dft.gov.uk/dsa/category.asp?cat=760 )
62. Pupils in Scotland, 2009, Statistical Bulletin Education Series, Nov 2009 (Table 3.3).