S8 Footways, Footpaths and Cycle Tracks
S8.1 Reinstatement Methods
1) The Undertaker shall carry out reinstatement in accordance with one of the following methods and should achieve the greatest degree of permanent reinstatement as soon as possible. Reinstatement methods are listed in Appendix A2.10 Table A2.6.
2) In the event of prior notification by the Authority, where local custom and practice has been to surface footways, footpaths and cycle tracks with aggregates of a certain colour and/or minimum SRV, then the Undertaker shall provide equivalent aggregate, at the time of permanent reinstatement, subject to the requirements of Section S2.6.1.
3) Permitted materials and layer thickness are specified in Appendices A1, A2, A7, A9, A11 and A12. In all flexible reinstatements, the Surface Course material may also be used at Binder Course level, as shown in Appendix A7.1.
4) Cycle tracks that are part of the carriageway shall be reinstated to carriageway standards.
S8.1.1 Method A - All Permanent Reinstatement
The excavation shall be reinstated to a permanent standard at the first visit.
S8.1.2 Method B - Permanent Binder Course Reinstatement
1) In flexible structures, the backfill, sub-base and the binder course shall be reinstated to permanent standard at the first visit.
2) The permanent binder course material, or an alternative interim material, shall be extended to the running surface, with or without a thin separating medium at the binder course/surface course interface. The alternative interim material may be a bituminous mixture.
3) On the second visit, all interim surfacing materials shall be removed, to the top of the binder course, and an appropriate permanent surface course laid.
4) Where a sand separation layer is present, prior to the reinstatement of the permanent surface course, the sand shall be removed, to the top of the binder course, the surface brushed clean and a tack coat or bond coat applied.
S8.1.3 Method C - Permanent Base Reinstatement
S8.1.4 Method D - Permanent Sub-base Reinstatement
1) The backfill and sub-base shall be reinstated to a permanent standard at the first visit, with an interim surfacing.
2) For flexible or rigid structures, the interim surface course and some, or all, of the interim binder course may be a bituminous mixture. The lower portion of the interim binder course may be an unbound granular material.
3) For modular structures, the interim surfacing may be a bituminous mixture, paving modules or any combination thereof.
4) On the second visit, all interim surfacing materials shall be removed, to the top of the sub-base, and an appropriate permanent surfacing shall be laid.
S8.2 Sub-base and Binder Course Reinstatement
1) In a footway, footpath or cycle track, the sub-base is any layer of imported granular or cement bound material existing immediately below the surfacing materials. Where such a sub-base layer exists, a similar or equivalent material shall be laid to a thickness to match the existing, subject to a minimum of 100 mm of GSB Type 1 to clause 803 (Class A Graded Granular Material is a permitted alternative).
2) Permitted options are shown in Appendix A7, subject to the exceptions described in Sections S8.2.1, S8.2.2 and S8.2.3.
S8.2.1 Small Reinstatements
1) In small excavations and narrow trenches, the following options shall be permitted, regardless of whether the existing sub-base is a bound material:
a) A CBGM B sub-base of 100 mm thickness.
b) A 50/20 HRABC or 20mm DBC material of 40 mm thickness, laid in place of the granular sub-base layer.
c) Three equal layers of 15/10 HRASC, 6mm DSC or 6mm SMA material may be laid to a total thickness of 100 mm, as a combined sub-base, binder course and surface course.
S8.2.2 Alternative Reinstatement Materials
Alternative Reinstatement Materials may be laid at sub-base level, in accordance with Appendix A9.
S8.2.3 Reinstatements Adjacent to Roads
Where road construction layers, foundation platforms, structural courses, kerb beams and/or backing providing the edge support to the road structure are found to extend below an adjacent footway, footpath, cycle track or verge, any reinstatement therein shall take account of such provisions.
In such cases, the sub-structure of the footway, footpath, cycle track or verge shall be reinstated to match the existing layer thickness with similar or equivalent materials.
S8.3 Surface Reinstatement
Surface reinstatement options are shown in Appendix A7, subject to the following provisions:
S8.3.1 High Duty and High Amenity Areas
1) The Authority shall register all high duty and/or high amenity footways, footpaths or cycle tracks and shall identify a suitable source or supplier of reinstatement materials.
2) The Undertaker shall reinstate all registered High Duty/High Amenity footways, footpaths or cycle tracks with matching materials from the identified source or supplier.
3) Where aggregates of an especially distinctive colour are encountered and the local custom and practice has been to complete all previous surfacing in a similarly matching material, the reinstatement shall be in accordance with S220.127.116.11.
S8.3.2 Areas Surfaced with Asphalt Concrete
Footways, footpaths or cycle tracks surfaced with Asphalt Concrete shall be reinstated with an AC6 dense surf, unless the existing surface is an asphalt that is significantly finer than 6mm nominal size, in which case it may be regarded by the Undertaker as either Asphalt Concrete or Hot Rolled Asphalt and reinstated accordingly.
S8.3.3 Other Asphalt Areas
1) Where the Authority has maintained a policy of using and reinstating with a specific type of asphalt surfacing on footways (e.g. mastic asphalt, sand asphalt, etc.), unless otherwise agreed with the Authority, the Undertaker shall take all reasonable measures to reinstate excavations with such material.
2) The Authority, when requested, shall provide any details they have on suitable suppliers and specifications. In the absence of such a policy or where no practicable source of supply can be found the reinstatement shall be undertaken in accordance with Section S8.3.2.
3) All other asphalt footways, footpaths or cycle tracks shall be reinstated with 15/10 Hot Rolled Asphalt, chipped as necessary to match the existing surface.
S8.3.4 Areas Constructed in Concrete
1) Concrete footways, footpaths or cycle tracks shall be reinstated with C25/30 minimum strength concrete, to match the existing thickness. For small excavations, a site-batched concrete of equivalent strength may be used.
2) In general, reinstatements in a concrete footway, footpath or cycle track should match the existing surfacing as closely as is practicable.
3) Where the Authority knows of any site where air entrained concrete has been used it should be entered on the SRWR as a Special Engineering Difficulty for notification and coordination purposes.
4) Where the existing concrete has been air entrained, then air-entrained concrete, to SHW Clause 1001, shall be used. Air-entrained concrete may be used elsewhere, at the discretion of the Undertaker.
S8.3.5 Modular Footways, Footpaths and Cycle Tracks
1) Modular footways, footpaths and cycle tracks shall be reinstated in accordance with the permitted materials and layer thickness specified in Appendix A7.3.
2) The modular surface layer shall be reinstated in accordance with Appendix A12. The requirements and recommendations for the provision of replacement modules are shown in Appendix A12.
3) Specific to the reinstatement of natural stone modular surfaces, the following shall apply:
(i) Natural stone modules within the area to be excavated shall be removed and stored by the Undertaker for reuse.
(ii) Modules shall be reinstated in accordance with Appendix A12.
(iii) Pre-existing damage may have resulted in fragmentation or breakage of modules. Where the Authority has a policy which seeks to reuse damaged modules, the parts or fragments shall also be removed and stored by the Undertaker for reuse. The Undertaker shall notify the Authority and the method of reinstatement of these materials shall be agreed, including any limitation on the size of the fragments.
(iv) Where it has been agreed that damaged modules are to be reused as part of the permanent reinstatement, the surface profile at the end of the guarantee period is not required to be superior to that existing at the time of excavation.
(v) The Undertaker should match existing profiles and meet the tolerances specified in Section S2, but subject also to the limitations outlined in Appendix A12.
S8.3.6 Edge Requirements
1) For all footways, footpaths and cycle tracks, the edge regularity and any undercutting shall comply with the requirements specified in Sections S18.104.22.168 and S22.214.171.124, respectively.
2) For all flexible footways, footpaths and cycle tracks, the edge sealing shall comply with the requirements specified in Section S126.96.36.199 and any overbanding shall comply with the requirements specified in Section S11.7.
3) For all concrete footways, footpaths and cycle tracks, the treatment of any cracking shall comply with the requirements specified in S7.4.2 (3).
4) For all footways, footpaths and cycle tracks, where trim-lines for the reinstatement edges are within 150 mm of an edge, kerb, ironwork or other reinstatements, the trim-lines shall be extended to the interface of the edge, kerb etc. This additional reinstatement may be confined to the surface course provided lower courses have not been damaged. See Figure S8.1.
5) Fixed features in the footway such as sign posts, lamp columns, valve cover boxes, etc. that are less than 250mm diameter or 250 mm width on the side facing the reinstatement are exempt from the trim-line extension.
S8.3.7 Special Materials
Other specialist surfacing materials shall be reinstated in accordance with Section S188.8.131.52.
S8.4 Vehicular Trafficking
S8.4.1 Commercial Access
1) Where a recognised route for commercial vehicles crosses a footway, footpath or cycle track, including specified pedestrian areas and precincts, it shall be assumed that provisions for commercial vehicle loading were incorporated in the original design. The relevant area of footway, footpath or cycle track shall be deemed to be a Type 4 road, of flexible, composite, rigid or modular construction, depending on the existing structure.
2) The reinstatement of such areas shall comply with the relevant requirements of Sections S6 or S7, as appropriate.
3) Where a special construction has been incorporated within the original design to cater for expected traffic greater than the Type 4 limiting capacity, the Undertaker should consult the Authority.
S8.4.2 Domestic Access
1) Where a recognised domestic vehicle crossing or occasional emergency service vehicle access route crosses a footway, footpath or cycle track, including specified pedestrian areas or precincts, the existing structure may include thicker layers, higher quality materials or other strengthening measures.
2) The reinstatement of such areas shall match the existing layer thickness, with similar or equivalent materials.
S8.4.3 Other Trafficking
1) Where a footway, footpath or cycle track, including specified pedestrian areas or precincts, is subjected to regular vehicle overrunning or parking, the existing structure may include thicker layers, higher quality materials or other strengthening measures.
2) The reinstatement of such areas shall match the existing layer thickness, with similar or equivalent materials.
S8.5.1 Performance requirements and tolerances permitted in the reinstatement of footways, footpaths and cycle tracks shall be in accordance with the requirements of Section S2 and Appendix A2.