NG10 Compaction Requirements
Research has shown that failure to operate and maintain compaction equipment in accordance with manufacturer's schedules and recommended practices is likely to result in inadequate compaction with serious implications for the short term performance of individual structural layers and the long term integrity of the entire reinstatement.
NG10.2 Compaction of Materials
NG10.2.1 Unbound Granular and Cohesive Materials
For granular or cohesive materials, a vibrating roller may be unsuitable in small excavations because of the restricted manoeuvrability of large heavy rollers required to achieve adequate levels of compaction with an acceptable number of passes.
NG10.2.2 There are no Notes for Guidance
NG10.2.3 Bituminous Materials
1) With some combinations of compaction plant and certain types of bituminous materials if compaction is continued as the material approaches its maximum density the following may result:
a) The migration of fines or binder to the surface.
b) The development of shear surfaces and or crushing of aggregates.
2) Provided that the material has been laid and compacted within the appropriate temperature range, fewer passes will be required when any signs of distress become apparent.
3) Asphalt maximum density values, used in the calculation of air voids content, are specific to particular asphalt mixtures incorporating constituents from specific sources. Any variation in mix proportions or constituents requires the maximum density to be re-established.
4) Although consistent asphalt supply may allow an established maximum density for a particular mixture and source to be used for some time in routine situations, the definitive method to be used in the event of dispute will require the maximum density to be determined for the mixture actually used. The maximum density may be determined from bulk samples, if available, or from material obtained from additional core samples.
5) When taking cores near surface apparatus, Section S10.2.3(4) requires a minimum clearance of 75mm to avoid damaging the apparatus or structure it is bedded on. However it is possible that some surface apparatus may have wider than normal flanges and there may be instances where a greater clearance is required to avoid damage. If doubt exists, liaison with the owner of the apparatus should be undertaken in advance.
NG10.2.4 There are no Notes for Guidance
NG10.2.5 Modular Surfacing Materials
Depending on the size and type of paving module to be laid, and/or the extent of the area to be surfaced etc., the use of additional mechanical compaction may become necessary.
NG10.3 Equipment Operation and Restrictions
Small items of compaction plant will frequently be required and additional provisions must be considered for use in trenches of less than 200 mm width, small excavations and other areas of restricted access. In general, lightweight vibrotampers and poletampers are capable of achieving the same degree of compaction as the heavier items of plant specified in Appendix A8. However, small plant is usually not self-advancing and therefore more difficult to operate effectively.
NG10.3.1 Hand Rammers
1) Hand rammers may be used for initial tamping of fine fill material or immediately adjacent to street furniture, reinstatement edges etc.
2) In all cases, full machine compaction complying with Appendix A8 will normally be applied immediately after the required thickness of material has been built-up. However, hand ramming alone may be necessary around standpipes and other isolated fixed features.
NG10.3.2 Percussive Rammer
1) A percussive rammer is deemed to be a hand-held and/or pedestrian guided machine in which an electric, pneumatic or hydraulically operated reciprocating mechanism acts on a plate or 'foot'.
2) Percussive rammers may only be used to provide full machine compaction in areas where restricted access prevents the effective use of conventional compaction equipment.
1) A vibrotamper is deemed to be a free-standing, pedestrian guided machine in which a reciprocating mechanism, driven by an integral engine or motor, acts on a spring system through which oscillations are set up in a base plate or 'foot'.
2) Vibrotampers may be operated at reduced speed, for the first pass only, with cohesive materials.
3) Vibrotampers are not preferred for any permanent surface course application or any other application involving a layer thickness of less than 50 mm.
NG10.3.4 Vibrating Roller
1) A vibrating roller is deemed to be a self-propelled, operative steered machine with a means of applying mechanical vibration to one or more drums.
2) Vibrating rollers should be operated in the lowest available gear, except for the first pass, which should be at maximum forward speed.
3) All compaction passes should be carried out with full vibration, except for the first pass, which should be carried out without vibration in order to nip in the material adjacent to the reinstatement edges and to prevent uneven displacement of material within the remainder of the reinstatement area.
4) Vibrating rollers are the preferred method of compaction for all permanent surface courses.
5) The use of twin drum rollers is preferred to single drum for the compaction of bituminous mixtures and will improve the quality of the permanent surface course. However, single drum vibrating rollers are permitted, as detailed in Appendix A8.
NG10.3.5 Vibrating Plate Compactor
1) A vibrating plate compactor is deemed to be a pedestrian guided plate equipped with a source of vibration consisting of one or more rotating, eccentrically weighted shafts.
2) Vibrating plate compactors should be operated in the lowest available gear, except for the first pass, which should be at maximum forward speed.
NG10.3.6 Other Compaction Equipment
Compaction plant not referenced in Appendix A8, including machine-mounted, modified and other alternative compaction equipment, may be permitted for the compaction of reinstatement materials, in accordance with the following relevant requirements:
1) Machine-Mounted Compactors
A machine-mounted compactor is deemed to be any compaction equipment that is mounted, as an attachment or accessory, to the chassis or front or rear booms of an excavator, tractor, skid-steer vehicle or other proprietary vehicle, for the purposes of compaction.
All machine-mounted compactors, whether integral to the vehicle design or special attachments for front or rear mounting to the chassis or booms of any excavator, tractor or skid-steer vehicle etc. should be operated in accordance with the recommendations of the compactor or attachment manufacturer, to the relevant compaction procedure required by Appendix A8. However, other operational variables should also be considered prior to the operation of such plant as follows:
a) Compactor Downforce
The total downforce will vary depending upon the weight of the vehicle chassis or compactor frame, and any additional downforce applied by hydraulic rams etc. However, changes in the configuration of any vehicle, by the addition or removal of other accessories etc, changes in the width of the vibrating foot, roll or plate etc, movement of any boom resulting in a significant change of loading geometry or outreach etc, attaching of the compactor to other vehicles of differing types or weights etc, can all result in a significant reduction of compactive performance that is seldom apparent. All operators should be aware of the potential reduction in compactive performance resulting from such changes in configuration.
b) Applied Downforce
The mounting of compaction equipment to the front loader arms of an excavator, where the downforce is sensibly limited by the lifting of the front wheels, is preferred. All compactors mounted to the backhoe of an excavator should be fitted with a downforce-limiting device, correctly set, or with a simple indicating device allowing the amplitude to be estimated.
c) Compactor Set-up
Where vibration frequency or amplitude, or any other parameter affecting the dynamic output of a compactor, is expected to be adjusted on a routine basis, all parameters should be set in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations unless specific testing, meeting the requirements of Section NG1.6.3, has shown other settings to be at least as effective.
2) Modified Compaction Equipment
Modified compaction equipment shall include any proprietary vibrotamper, vibrating roller, vibrating plate compactor, percussive rammer or other compaction plant which has been adapted, converted, revised or otherwise changed from the original manufacturer's Specification, resulting in a significant change to the original configuration, dimensions, operational weight or power output.
Modified compaction equipment shall be permitted, provided it is operated in accordance with compaction procedures meeting the following requirements:
a) The original manufacturer shall provide written confirmation that the modified compaction equipment, operated in accordance with the original compaction procedure, is capable of achieving the same degree of compaction as any other option permitted in Appendix A8, or
b) A revised compaction procedure is developed in accordance with the requirements of Section NG1.6.
3) Alternative Compaction Equipment
Alternative compaction equipment shall include all other compaction devices not specifically permitted within Section NG10.3. Alternative compaction equipment may be permitted, provided it is operated in accordance with compaction procedures developed in accordance with the requirements of Section NG1.6 (3).