Appendix A Calendar of events affecting road traffic
1964-65: Road Traffic Act 1964 – Wider powers for speed limits. Trial 70 mph speed limit on motorway and other previously de-restricted roads. 50 mph speed limit on selected roads during summer.
1967: Seat belts compulsory on new cars – Permanent 70 mph speed limit on all roads. An offence to drink and attempt to drive with over 80 mg of alcohol per 100 ml of blood.
1968-69: Transport Act 1968 allowed regulations on length of drivers' working hours – 3 year old vehicles need test certificate.
1970: New regulations on lorry and PSV drivers' hours of work.
1973: Reorganisation of local government in Scotland, 9 regions and 3 islands areas and 53 districts.
1973-74: Safety helmets compulsory for 2-wheeled motor vehicle users – 50 mph national maximum speed limit, later motorway 70 mph, dual carriageway 60 mph – Vehicle lighting regulations.
1974: Road traffic act 1974 placed a duty on authorities to study road accidents and take measures to prevent them.
1975: Temporary 50 and 60 mph limits extended.
1976: Licensing Scotland Act 1976 – extension of licensing hours until 11pm – effective from 13 December 1976.
1977: 50 and 60 mph limits raised to 60 and 70 mph.
1977: Licensing Scotland Act 1976 – extension of Sunday opening – effective from October 1977.
1978: 60 and 70 mph limits permanent – New rules on maximum hours which may be worked by goods vehicle drivers.
1982: New 2-part motorcycle test from 29 March – Application of 2 year limit on provisional motorcycle licence took effect from 1 October.
1983: Transport Act 1981 introduced evidential breath testing and made seat belt wearing law for drivers and front seat passengers of most cars and light vans. Learner motorcyclists now only allowed to ride machines of up to 125 cc.
1984: Regulations introduced requiring spray reducing devices to be fitted to lorries and trailers.
1985: In December, Scottish Police Authorities introduced a policy of breath testing all drivers in an accident wherever possible.
1986: Deregulation of buses from 26 October 1986 as a result of the Transport Act 1985.
1986: All new cars manufactured from 1 October to be fitted with rear seat belts. Seat belt legislation made permanent. European Road Safety Year.
1987: Legal requirement introduced requiring all newly registered cars to be fitted with rear seat belts or child restraints from 1 April. Government sets a target to achieve a one-third reduction in road accident casualties by the year 2000.
1988: All coaches first used from 1 April 1974 using a motorway must have 70 mph limiters fitted by 1 April 1991.
1989: Penalty points increased for careless driving, driving without insurance and failing to stop after or to report an accident. Seat belt wearing by rear child passengers became law in cars where appropriate restraints have been fitted and are available. Accompanied motorcycle testing became mandatory.
1990: Compulsory basic training for motorcyclists introduced and learner drivers banned from carrying pillion passengers. High Risk Offenders Scheme for problem drink-drivers extended. New regulations requiring those accompanying learner drivers to be at least 21 years old and to have held a licence for 3 years. Scottish Road Safety Year.
1991: Seat belt wearing by rear adult passengers became law in cars where belts are fitted and available. New road hump regulations introduced to reduce traffic speed.
1992: Subsequent to the Road Traffic Act 1991, new road traffic offences and penalties came into force, including retesting of dangerous drivers. The Traffic Calming Act 1992 came into force enabling roads authorities to introduce a wide range of traffic calming measures. Requirement for minimum tread depth of 1.6 mm introduced for cars and light vans. All new goods vehicles over 7.5 tonnes fitted with 60 mph speed limiters.
1993: First speed enforcement cameras introduced in Scotland. The MOT test extended, including new checks on mirrors, windscreen condition, fuel tanks, seat and door security and number plates.
1994: First 20 mph zones introduced in Scotland. Traffic Calming (Scotland) Regulations came into force.
1995: Pass Plus scheme introduced for new drivers which encourages new drivers to take more lessons by offering discount on motor insurance.
1996: Local Government etc. (Scotland) Act 1994 implemented with the creation of 32 unitary authorities replacing the previous regions and districts.
1996: Driving theory test introduced from 1 July for car and motorcycle learners. Road Traffic (New Drivers) Act 1996 – requires newly qualified drivers to retake the driving test if they acquire 6 or more penalty points within 2 years of passing their test – effective from 1 June 1997. Requirement for coaches and minibuses to be fitted with seat belts when carrying children on organised trips, including journeys between home and school – effective from February, 1997. End of concession, where seat belts are fitted, whereby 3 children could share a double seat.
1997: New Zebra, Pelican and Puffin crossing regulations introduced, with Puffin crossings prescribed for the first time.
1998: New Road Humps regulations came into force giving local authorities wider powers to establish road humps.
1999: Amendment to the Road Traffic Regulation Act 1984 gave local authorities power to introduce traffic calmed 20 mph zones and 20 mph speed limits, with or without traffic calming measures, at suitable locations. Revised Highway Code published.
2000: The Government announced a new road safety strategy and casualty reduction targets for the period to 2010 in "Tomorrow's Roads – Safer for Everyone". A review of speed policy was conducted and reported in 'New Directions in Speed Management'.
2001: Amendment to the Road Traffic Regulation Act 1984 made it clear that school crossing patrols can stop traffic for children of all ages and adults and gave local authorities greater flexibility in the times that school crossing patrols can operate. Scottish Executive awarded nearly £15 million to local authorities for cycling, walking and safer streets projects, including safer routes to school schemes.
2002: New Home Zones (Scotland) Regulations came into force. These set out the procedures local authorities must follow when designating home zones.
2003: Revised guidance on school transport issued to local authorities. Scottish School Travel Advisory Group report published. Scottish Executive provided the funding to implement the report's key recommendation to create school travel co-ordinator posts within each Scottish local authority.
2004: Publication of the first three year review of the GB road safety strategy and casualty reduction targets, set out in "Tomorrow's Roads – Safer for Everyone".
2006: Road Safety Act passed. The Act made provision for a wide range of road safety matters, including drink driving, speeding, driver training and driver and vehicle licensing. Revised guidance on setting local speed limits issued to local authorities.
2007: Publication of the second three year review of the GB road safety strategy and casualty reduction targets, set out in "Tomorrow's Roads – Safer for Everyone". Publication of DfT Child Road Safety Strategy, which included measures by the Scottish Government to reduce child road casualties.
2008: GB consultation – Learning to Drive – published, on changes to the driver training and testing regime. GB consultation on Road Safety Compliance, covering speeding, drink driving, seat belts, drug driving and careless driving, published. Consultation on a road safety framework for Scotland published.
2009: Scotland's Road Safety Framework to 2020 published. The Framework sets Scottish specific targets for casualty reductions in the period to 2020, in line with an aspirational vision of a future where no-one is killed on Scotland's roads and the injury rate is greatly reduced.
2009/2010: ACPOS launched a Vehicle Forfeiture Scheme for Drink Drivers. This initiative, first launched as part of the festive campaign and continuing into 2010, uses existing legal powers to forfeit the vehicles of any drivers who are detected with a blood alcohol level greater than the legal limit and who also had a similar conviction in the previous five years or had a case pending for this offence.
2010: Have You Clicked? Year long campaign launched on 19 April. The campaign aims to encourage drivers and passengers in Scotland to put their seatbelt on every time they get in any vehicle. ACPOS agreed that all subsequent police campaigns would feature seatbelts as part of the campaign activity.
2010: 25 years of Road Safety Scotland. 2010 marks the 25th anniversary of Road Safety Scotland (RSS), previously operating as the Scottish Road Safety Campaign (SRSC)
2011: Launch of the United Nations Decade of Action for Road Safety 2011-2020. The Plan provides an overall framework for activities including: building road safety management capacity; improving the safety of road infrastructure and broader transport networks; further developing the safety of vehicles; enhancing the behaviour of road users; and improving post-crash care.
2011: Publication of National Debate on Young Drivers' Safety presenting the findings of a national debate on young driver issues undertaken across Scotland.
2011: Publication of the New Strategic Framework for Road Safety providing clarity to local authorities, road safety professionals and other stakeholders on their roles and responsibilities and setting out the role that the UK Government has in road safety and the measures it intends to take to decrease casualty numbers on Britain's roads.
2012: Devolution of powers from the UK Government to Scottish Ministers in relation to the Drink-Drive alcohol blood limit, and National Speed Limits
2013: UK Government introduced changes for drivers guilty of offences such as tailgating or middle lane hogging with fixed penalty notices of a £100 fine and three penalty points being issued. These measures are designed to free up court time. Existing fixed penalty fines for most driving offences, including mobile phone use and not wearing a seat belt, will rise from £60 to £100.
2013: A Review of the Guide to Improving School Transport was published in Scotland. This report details a review of A Guide to Improving School Transport (published in 2010) and its accompanying report which were issued to all local authorities in Scotland. The review's data analysis provided an in depth understanding of how the guide was perceived and used, how it could be improved, which recommendations were most and least useful and whether the guide had prompted or led to the implementation of policy.
2014: Transport Minister, Keith Brown, announced plans to legislate in the next Scottish Parliament in 2016 to ensure that seatbelts are provided on all dedicated school transport in Scotland (18 March 2014) by way of a phased roll out, to allow local authorities and bus operators time to adapt to the change. The measures will be introduced in 2018 for the transportation of primary school pupils and 2021 for secondary.
2014: following consultation that showed overwhelming support, Ministers reduced the drink drive limit from 80 mg per 100 ml of blood to 50 mg per 100 ml (4 December 2014).
2015: Publication of "Good Practice Guide on 20 mph Speed Restrictions" (8 January 2015). Written in conjunction with the Society of Chief Officers of Transportation in Scotland (SCOTS), this will aid greater consistency on setting 20 mph speed restrictions throughout Scotland while encouraging local authorities to introduce them near schools, in residential areas and in other areas of our towns and cities where there is a significant volume of pedestrian or cyclist activity.
2015: A 3 year pilot on the A9 began in October as part of the interim measures planned in advance of dualling the road. HGV speed limits also increased at this time from 40 to 50 mph on over a 136 mile stretch of single carriageway sections, alongside the implementation of Average Speed Camera System (ASCS) to mitigate risk.