International Comparisons

International Comparisons

1. Introduction

1.1 This chapter compares some statistics for Scotland with the 2007 27 EU member countries over a mixture of years. Due to the increased EU membership over the years overall comparisons with EU-15 and EU-27 countries are made.

1.2 Due to definitional variations across countries comparisons may not be exact (see Sections 3, 4 & 5), especially where noticeable difference exist between the UK figure and the UK/GB calculated on the same basis as the figure for Scotland. Scotland figures use 2012 mid-year estimates, compared to the 1st January 2012 population estimates given for EU countries.

1.4 In some cases, the EU countries' figures do not all relate to the same year. (See Section 5). Because of such differences, the commentary in Section 2 generally does not reference the year. As transport statistics tend to change slowly this shouldn't matter.

Key Points

  • Scotland has less road and rail network by area compared to the EU average.
  • Scotland has higher car use than the EU average but lower car ownership
  • The proportion of freight carried by road is lower than in the rest of the EU due to a high proportion carried by pipeline.

2. Main points

Population

2.1 Scotland has a low population: only eight of the EU-27 (Cyprus, Estonia, Ireland, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Latvia, Malta and Slovenia) have fewer people. Scotland also has a low population density (68 people per square kilometre) compared with the overall EU average (EU-15: 123; EU-27: 116). Only seven of the EU-27 countries (Bulgaria, Estonia, Finland, Ireland, Lithuania, Latvia and Sweden) have a lower population density than Scotland.

Road Network

2.2 For its area, Scotland has a short Motorway network (5.2 km of Motorway per thousand square kilometres), well below the overall EU figure (EU-15: 19.7; EU-27: 16.1). Seven of the EU-27 countries (Bulgaria, Estonia, Finland, Lithuania, Poland, Romania and Sweden) have a lower figure than Scotland. This does not include Latvia and Malta which have no motorway.

2.3 The total length of the Scottish road network relative to the area of the country is 16 per cent below the EU27 average when 'other roads' and unclassified roads in Scotland are excluded (Scotland: 367 km of road per thousand square kilometres; EU-15: 462; EU-27: 437).

2.4 Scotland has a short rail network for its area (35.4 km of route per thousand square kilometres) compared with the overall EU figure (EU-15: 47.1; EU-27: 49.4). Nine of the 27 EU countries (Estonia, Finland, Greece, Ireland, Latvia, Lithuania, Portugal, Spain and Sweden) have a lower value than Scotland. This does not include Cyprus and Malta which do not have a railway network.

Vehicles per Population

2.5 Scotland has few cars for the size of its population (435 per thousand population) compared with the EU as a whole (EU-15: 509; EU-27: 483). Eight of the EU-27 countries have lower figures than Scotland.

2.6 Scotland also has few goods vehicles relative to the size of its population (51 per thousand population) compared with the overall EU average (EU-15: 70; EU-27: 68). Of the EU-27, Eight countries have lower figures.

2.7 The number of new vehicle registrations in Scotland was relatively high (34 per thousand population), higher than the EU-15 and EU-27 averages - only four of the EU-27 countries had higher rates (Germany, Austria, Belgium and Luxembourg).

Distances travelled

2.8 Walking, cycling and motorcycles are excluded from the calculation of these modal shares, for consistency with the figures in the relevant table of the EU publication. That table shows just four modes (passenger cars, buses/coaches, railways and tram/metro) and gives their shares of the total for those four modes. Passenger cars account for a slightly higher percentage of the total travel by those four modes in Scotland (86.3%) than the EU as a whole (EU-15 83.0%; EU-27: 82.7%).

Air travel

2.9 Relative to the size of its population, Scotland has less international air passengers to or from the EU-27 countries (1.56 per head of the population, not counting internal UK traffic) than the overall EU figure (EU-15: 1.92; EU-27: 1.65).

Road Fatalities

2.10 Scotland's number of road deaths per million population is well below the overall EU average (Scotland: 35; EU-15: 52; EU-27: 60). Of the EU-27 countries, only three countries (UK, Netherlands and Sweden) had lower figures.

Freight

2.11 For freight transport, road has a low modal share in Scotland (61.3%) compared with the overall EU figure (EU-15: 73.3%; EU-27: 71.8%) due to the high modal share of pipelines (27.4%, higher than in any EU country). The modal shares of rail and inland waterways in Scotland are both below the overall figures for the EU-27.

3.1 Table Comparisons

Rates (per thousand population or per thousand square kms) are based on the countries' areas and populations presented in EU Energy and Transport in Figures. As figures are rounded to a few decimal places, results won't be as precise as they using exact figures. Therefore figures should be regarded as broad indicators;

Country figures may not be on exactly the basis due to the availability of data. There is plenty of scope for differences in interpretation or definition (e.g. should the surface area of inland lochs and lakes be included when calculating a country's area?);

Scotland figures may differ from those elsewhere in Scottish Transport Statistics in order to provide Scottish figures on the same basis as the GB or UK figures given in the final two columns.

GB and UK figures are on the same basis as the figures for Scotland. The closer that these figures are to the UK (or GB) figures from EU Energy and Transport in Figures (columns to the left of the EU-15 and EU-27), the closer that the Scottish basis is to the EU countries.

Many of the Scotland figures are derived from GB-wide surveys conducted by the Department for Transport and UK figures may not be as readily available. As Northern Ireland may account for a small percentage of a UK figure, there is likely to be little difference between figures for GB and UK, particularly for rates.

Some of the Scotland, GB and/or UK figures appear with more significant digits than the figures for the EU countries, increasing the precision of the rates.

4. Notes & Sources: EU countries

4.1 Most EU country statistics originate from the 2012 EU Energy and Transport in Figures, produced annually by the EC Directorate General for Energy and Transport with the assistance of Eurostat. The publication contains a range of detailed statistics and only a summary are presented in this chapter. Email tif@cec.eu.int or available at: http://ec.europa.eu/transport/facts-fundings/statistics/pocketbook-2013_en

5. Notes & Sources: Scotland, UK & GB

5.1 In general, notes on and definitions of the figures for Scotland (and, by implication, the figures on the same basis for the UK or GB as a whole) appear in the relevant chapters. Therefore, this section covers only matters which are not dealt with there.

5.3 Population, area and population density: The population figures for GB and UK are mid-2011 estimates (NB: the EU publication's figures are for 1 January 2012) based on Office for National Statistics release (published in June 2013), available at http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/search/indexl?newquery=mid-year+population. Scottish figures are taken directly from the General Registry Office of Scotland.

Areas figures relate to 2008 (no year is specified for the EU publication's figures) taken from Table 1.1 of the 2010 edition of the Annual Abstract of Statistics. Population densities were calculated by the Scottish Government using these area estimates.

5.4 Motorways: the figures for Scotland and for GB are for 2010 (the same year as most of the EU figures). They were taken from Table RDL0201 of DfT's road lengths statistics publication. The DfT's figure for Scotland was used in this table. As explained in paragraph 5.5 below the methodology used by DfT means that the figure for the length of motorways in Scotland (excluding slip roads) differs slightly from Table 4.1).

5.5 All roads: the figures for Scotland and for GB relate to 2010 (the same year as most of the EU figures), taken from Table RDL0201 of DfT's road lengths statistics. The DfT's figure for Scotland was used in this table which differs from the road length figure in Table 4.1, due to the DfT using a Geographical Information System (GIS) and Ordnance Survey data to produce estimates. Whereas (as explained in Chapter 4), most of the figures in Table 4.1 are produced from annual returns made by local authorities.

Some countries (Bulgaria, Denmark, Germany, Italy, Luxembourg, Portugal and Romania) did not have information for 'other roads' in the latest EU publication. Therefore the total road length figure for all countries excludes 'other roads'. In the case of Scotland and the UK, 'Unclassified roads' have been excluded.

5.6 Railways: the figures are for the route length at the end of the financial year 2010/11 (the EU figures are for 2011). The figure for Scotland is from Table 7.14 of this publication; the GB figure was taken from Table TSGB0601 of TSGB 2011.

5.7 Passenger cars: passenger cars figures for Scotland and GB are for 2011 (most EU figures are for 2011). They are taken from Table TSGB0901 of DfT's Transport Statistics Great Britain 2012 edition.

5.8 Powered two wheelers: the figures for Scotland and GB are for 2011 (the same year as most of the EU figures). They are taken from Table TSGB0901 of DfT's Transport Statistics Great Britain 2012 edition, which includes figures for motorcycles, scooters and mopeds and based on numbers of vehicles licensed at 31st December. The EU publication's figure (for the UK) is lower than the DfT figure for GB due to different methodologies. EU figures are based on national sources and definitions may vary.

5.9 Goods vehicles: the figures for Scotland and GB are for 2011 (the same year as most of the EU figures). The Scottish figure is taken from Table 1.2 of this publication, and the GB figure is taken from Table TSGB0901 of DfT's Transport Statistics Great Britain 2012 edition. They are the totals of the figures for the body types light goods and goods (the latter being heavy goods vehicles). The result of using the body type figures is slightly different from that which would have been obtained had taxation group figures been used.

5.10 New registrations of passenger cars: the GB and Scotland figures are for new registrations of all vehicles and are for 2012 (the same year as most of the EU figures). They are taken from Table VEH0152 of DfT's Vehicle Licensing Statistics.

5.11 Passenger transport - distance travelled and modal shares

5.11.1 The figures for Scotland and GB are for the two year period 2011/2012 (the EU figures are for 2011). Following the increase in its sample size with effect from 2002, the National Travel Survey can provide some figures for a single year for Scotland, but figures for the two year period should be less susceptible to sampling fluctuations. The figures for Scotland are taken from Table 11.2 of this publication and converted from miles into kilometres. The GB figures for 2011/2012 were calculated by simply averaging the figures from 2011 and 2012 for each relevant mode of transport shown in Table NTS0305 of DfT's National Travel Survey: 2012 bulletin, and converting the result from miles into kilometres.

5.11.2 The NTS figures relate to the mode of travel, not to the main mode that is used in some other analyses of NTS figures and use detailed mode breakdowns of NTS results as opposed to aggregate groupings. Also passenger cars category consists of car only - driver, car only - passenger and taxi / minicab; the buses and coaches category covers private hire bus, bus in London, local bus and non-local bus; and the tram / metro category relates only to the London Underground (the Glasgow Underground is not identified in the results of the NTS).

5.11.3 The NTS average for the total distance travelled per person in GB (covering all modes of transport) is 6,826 miles, or 10,985 kilometres in 2011/12 For the modes of transport shown in the table (which excludes, for example, air and ferry) the NTS average is 10,556 kilometres. This difference between the Uk and GB figures arises because the two sets of figures are on different bases:

  • the NTS figures relate only to personal travel within GB, and are produced from the results of a survey of households across GB;
  • the EU publication's figures have been derived by dividing estimates of the total volume of travel (passenger-kilometres) within the country by the total population of the country.

The kinds of travel which would be counted using the latter approach (but not by the NTS) include

  • travel within GB by foreign tourists and other non-residents;
  • travel for business purposes (e.g. to and from meetings);
  • and, possibly, some travel in the course of their work by the likes of lorry drivers, postmen and bus drivers.

Therefore, estimates produced using the latter approach will be greater than the NTS estimates, which cover only personal travel by residents.

5.11.4 There are no official estimates of the total passenger-kilometres travelled within Scotland: the only Scottish estimates of the average distance travelled per head of population are NTS ones, which cover only personal travel by residents.

5.11.5 Although the two methods produce markedly different average distances, they produce quite similar modal shares - e.g. the modal share for passenger cars is: NTS - 82.3%; shown in EU Energy and Transport in Figures - 85.6% (NB: in both cases, the modal shares are calculated excluding powered two-wheelers, walking and cycling, for consistency with the figures in the relevant table of the EU publication). Therefore, the modal shares for Scotland, calculated from the NTS results, should be comparable to the modal shares for the EU countries.

5.12 International air passengers (traffic between EU countries): the figures for Scotland and the UK are both for 2011 (the same year as the EU figures). The Scottish figure is taken from the Total EU countries in Table 8.3(a) of this publication. It is the number of passengers to and from the EU-27 countries for the main Scottish international airports (Aberdeen, Edinburgh, Glasgow and Glasgow Prestwick). The table shows figures for 21 of the EU member states: these are the countries for which the international air passenger route analysis table on the Civil Aviation Authority's Web site (from which the figures for Table 8.3(a) were obtained) shows passengers to/from Scottish airports (for example, the CAA table does not show any passengers between, say, Luxembourg and any Scottish airport in 2005). These figures will underestimate slightly the total number of international passengers between Scotland and EU countries because they do not include (a) passengers on charter only routes in cases where fewer than 5,000 passengers were carried between an airport and a particular country, nor (b) any passengers to and from EU countries at other airports in Scotland. The UK figure is taken from Table AVI0105 of DfT's Aviation Statistics publication, using the figures for EU-27.

5.13 Road fatalities: the figures for Scotland and GB are both for 2011 (as are most of the EU figures). The Scottish figure is taken from Table 2 of Reported Road Casualties Scotland 2012, and the GB figure is taken from Table RAS30003 of Reported Road Casualties Great Britain 2012.

5.14 Freight transport - modal shares

5.13.1 Both Scotland and GB relate to 2011 (as do the EU figures). The Scottish figures are derived from the tonne-kilometre figures for each mode of transport which appear in Table H2(b) of this publication. The GB figures are derived from the tonne-kilometre figures for each mode of transport which appear in Table TSGB0403 of TSGB 2012.

5.14.2 The figures for Scotland are based on the tonnage of goods lifted in Scotland and the distance on which they are carried on that journey, be it within Scotland or from Scotland to (say) England. For example, the tonne-kilometres for goods taken from Edinburgh to London would be calculated using the full distance between Edinburgh and London (over 660 kilometres) not just the distance between Edinburgh and the border (under 160 kilometres). Therefore, the figures do not represent the modal shares for freight transport within Scotland: they include tonne-kilometres outwith Scotland on journeys which started in Scotland, and they exclude tonne-kilometres within Scotland on journeys which started elsewhere.

6. Other data sources

Eurostat collect a range of Transport data for European countries and publish it on their website. It can be accessed at: http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page/portal/transport/introduction

United Nations Economic Commission for Europe also publish European Transport data: http://w3.unece.org/pxweb/

World Health Organisation collect data on road accidents from around the world and publish a comparison: http://www.who.int/violence_injury_prevention/road_safety_status/2013/en/indexl

Table 12.1 International comparisons
Year of data (most countries) Other year/issues (some countries) EU publication table Scottish figure (same or a similar basis) ( # ) Austria Belgium Bulgaria Cyprus Czech Republic Germany Denmark Estonia Greece (+) Spain Finland France Hungary Ireland Italy Lithuania Luxembourg Latvia Malta (+) Netherlands Poland Portugal Romania Sweden Slovenia Slovak Republic UK EU-27 EU-15 Scotland GB (same basis) UK (same basis)
SCOT AT BE BG CY CZ DE DK EE EL ES FI FR HU IE IT LT LU LV MT NL PL PT RO SE SI SK UK EU-27 EU-15 SCOT GB UK
General data
Population (at 1 Jan)
million 2012 1.1 5.31 8.44 11.04 7.33 0.86 10.51 81.84 5.58 1.34 11.29 46.20 5.40 63.46 9.96 4.58 60.82 3.01 0.52 2.04 0.42 16.73 38.54 10.54 21.36 9.48 2.06 5.40 62.99 501.74 398.93 5.31 61.88 63.705
Area
'000 sq km 1.1 78.0 83.9 30.5 111.0 9.3 78.9 357.1 43.1 45.2 132.0 506.0 338.4 544.0 93.0 70.3 301.3 65.3 2.6 64.6 0.3 41.5 312.685 92.1 238.4 450.3 20.3 49.0 243.8 4,324.82 3236.9 78.0 229.0 243.8
Population density (at 1 Jan)
people per sq km 2012 calc'd 68 101 362 66 93 133 229 129 30 86 91 16 117 107 65 202 46 203 32 1317 403 123 114 90 21 101 110 258 116 123 68 270 254
Infrastructure and vehicles
Motorways
km 2010 2.5.1 407 1,719 1,763 437 257 734 12,819 1,130 115 1,191 14,262 779 11,392 1,477 900 6,668 309 152 - - 2,651 857 2,737 332 1,927 771 416 3,673 69,468 63,763 407 3,558 3,672
km per '000 sq km 2010 calc'd 5.2 20.5 57.8 3.9 27.8 9.3 35.9 26.2 2.5 9.0 28.2 2.3 20.9 15.9 12.8 22.1 4.7 58.8 - - 63.8 2.7 29.7 1.4 4.3 38.0 8.5 15.1 16.1 19.7 5.2 15.5 15.1
All roads ( @ )
'000 km 2010 Excluding Other roads (U roads) 2.5.2 28.6 35.8 16.3 7.4 5.2 55.7 230.8 74.2 16.6 41.4 165.8 26.9 398.9 31.6 17.3 186.4 21.3 2.9 7.0 0.8 13.0 173.2 13.1 51.8 98.5 6.7 18.0 175.3 1,892 1,497 28.6 165.3 175.3
km per '000 sq km 2010 calc'd 367 427 535 67 562 707 646 1,721 366 313 328 79 733 340 246 619 326 1,114 108 2,687 313 554 143 217 219 332 367 719 437 462 367 722 719
Railways
km 2011 2.5.3 2,763 5,021 3,558 3,947 - 9,470 33,576 2,629 792 2,554 15,932 5,944 30,884 7,906 1,919 17,045 1,767 275 1,865 - 3,016 19,725 2,793 10,777 11,213 1,209 3,624 16,134 213,574 152,492 2,763 15,742 16,082
km per '000 sq km 2011 calc'd 35.4 59.9 116.5 35.6 - 120.1 94.0 61.0 17.5 19.4 31.5 17.6 56.8 85.0 27.3 56.6 27.1 106.3 28.9 - 72.6 63.1 30.3 45.2 24.9 59.6 73.9 66.2 49.4 47.1 35.4 68.8 66.0
Passenger cars
million 2011 2.6.2 2.26 4.51 5.41 2.70 0.47 4.58 42.93 2.20 0.57 5.20 22.28 2.98 31.88 2.97 1.91 37.11 1.71 0.35 0.61 0.25 7.86 18.13 4.71 4.33 4.40 1.07 1.75 29.38 242.24 203.11 2.26 27.04 27.91
per 1,000 pop'n 2011 calc'd 435 535 490 368 545 436 525 394 428 461 482 551 502 298 417 610 570 658 300 589 470 470 447 203 464 519 324 466 483 509 425 437 438
Powered two wheelers ( $ )
thousands 2011 02 & '04 2.6.5 66 743 434 132 40 944 6,004 201 23 1,535 5,027 516 3,439 147 37 8,935 60 43 39 16 1,675 2,102 497 90 578 92 64 1,267 34,682 30,933 66 1,105 1,132
Goods vehicles
thousands 2011 2.6.4 273 407 761 348 118 597 2,713 469 84 1,321 5,257 489 5,251 466 321 4,182 137 37 73 48 991 3,131 1,336 696 548 85 282 3,833 33,981 27,916 274 3,677 3,797
per 1,000 pop'n 2011 calc'd 51 48 69 47 137 57 33 84 63 117 114 91 83 47 70 69 45 70 36 116 59 81 127 33 58 41 52 61 68 70 55 59 60
New registrations of passenger cars
thousands 2012 2.6.6 183 336 487 20 11 174 3,083 171 19 58 700 107 1899 50 79 1402 12 53 11 6 503 271 95 72 279 50 69 2,045 12,063 11,297 183 2,011 2,047
per 1,000 pop'n 2012 calc'd 34 40 44 3 13 17 38 31 14 5 15 20 30 5 17 23 4 101 5 14 30 7 9 3 29 24 13 32 24 28 34 32 32
Passenger transport
Distance travelled (kilometres per person per year)
Passenger cars 2011 2.3.4 * 8,557 8,818 10,347 6,560 6,881 6,234 10,978 9,399 7,749 8,708 7,230 12,125 12,806 5,247 10,005 10,947 9,944 12,559 5,559 5,358 8,374 8,127 7,891 3,511 11,515 12,400 4,975 10,400 9,611 10,418 8,557 8,684
Powered two-wheelers 2002 prev. ** 55 198 100 n-a 0 0 217 144 0 2,013 334 171 201 0 93 1,188 0 130 0 0 55 0 754 n-a 111 0 0 85 n-a 405 55 58
Buses and coaches 2011 2.3.5 * 651 1,129 1,718 1,480 1,537 1,507 747 1,219 1,546 1,874 1,207 1,396 805 1,653 1,524 1,697 914 1,882 970 1,143 713 536 1,007 551 921 1,578 1,013 713 1,021 1,051 651 565
Tram / metro 2011 2.3.6 * 0 481 103 119 n-a 830 203 50 49 148 137 95 237 251 30 117 n-a n-a 61 n-a 93 114 109 331 247 n-a 57 173 185 172 0 117
Railways (excl. t/m) 2011 2.3.7 * 778 1,288 943 282 n-a 639 1,038 1,185 181 85 493 719 1,402 784 357 713 129 665 363 n-a 941 472 393 238 1,200 376 450 899 811 909 778 779
Cycling 2001 prev. ** 56 136 322 n-a n-a n-a 291 936 n-a 76 20 251 75 n-a 184 154 n-a 23 n-a n-a 848 n-a 29 n-a 271 n-a n-a 75 n-a 186 56 67
Walking 2001 prev. ** 288 419 380 n-a n-a n-a 372 431 n-a 389 368 386 404 n-a 368 410 n-a 457 n-a n-a 377 n-a 342 n-a 383 n-a n-a 355 n-a 382 288 286
Total these modes calc'd 10,385 12,469 13,913 8,441 8,418 9,210 13,846 13,364 9,525 13,293 9,789 15,143 15,930 7,935 12,561 15,226 10,987 15,716 6,953 6,501 11,401 9,249 10,525 4,631 14,648 14,354 6,495 12,700 11,628 13,522 10,385 10,557
Modal shares (% of total pass-kms for specified modes)
Passenger cars 2011 As distance travelled 2.3.3 (^) 86.3 75.3 78.9 77.7 81.7 67.7 84.7 79.3 81.3 80.5 79.7 84.6 84.0 66.1 84.0 81.2 90.5 83.1 79.9 82.4 82.7 87.9 83.9 75.8 82.9 86.4 76.6 85.4 82.7 83.0 85.7 85.6
Bus and coach 2011 2.3.3 7.8 9.6 13.1 17.5 18.3 16.4 5.8 10.3 16.2 17.3 13.3 9.7 5.3 20.8 12.8 12.6 8.3 12.5 14.0 17.6 7.0 5.8 10.7 11.9 6.6 11.0 15.6 5.9 8.8 8.4 6.5 5.6
Railways (excl. t/m) 2011 2.3.3 5.9 11.0 7.2 3.3 - 6.9 8.0 10.0 1.9 0.8 5.4 5.0 9.2 9.9 3.0 5.3 1.2 4.4 5.2 - 9.3 5.1 4.2 5.1 8.6 2.6 6.9 7.4 7.0 7.2 7.8 7.7
Tram / metro 2011 2.3.3 0.0 4.1 0.8 1.4 - 9.0 1.6 0.4 0.5 1.4 1.5 0.7 1.6 3.2 0.3 0.9 - - 0.9 - 0.9 1.2 1.2 7.1 1.8 - 0.9 1.4 1.6 1.4 0.0 1.2
Total pass km these modes 2011 calc'd 9,952 11,716 13,111 8,441 8,418 9,210 12,966 11,853 9,525 10,815 9,067 14,335 15,250 7,935 11,916 13,474 10,987 15,106 6,953 6,501 10,121 9,249 9,400 4,631 13,883 14,354 6,495 12,185 11,628 12,550 9,986 10,145
International air passenger traffic between EU countries (arrivals plus departures)
million 2011 2.4.1*** 8.14 17.37 17.11 5.08 5.61 8.86 113.25 18.84 1.59 27.74 141.37 12.84 84.86 6.87 20.48 95.34 2.31 1.51 3.66 3.17 31.86 16.41 22.35 8.61 24.17 0.81 1.47 135.63 829.19 764.74 8.02 114.3
per head of pop'n 2011 calc'd 1.56 2.06 1.55 0.69 6.50 0.84 1.38 3.38 1.19 2.46 3.06 2.38 1.34 0.69 4.47 1.57 0.77 2.87 1.79 7.61 1.90 0.43 2.12 0.40 2.55 0.39 0.27 2.15 1.65 1.92 1.54 1.79
Road fatalities
number 2011 2.7.1 185 523 858 657 71 772 4,009 220 101 1,141 2,060 292 3,963 638 186 3,860 296 33 179 21 546 4,189 891 2,018 319 141 324 1,960 30,268 20,861 185 1,900 1,960
per million pop'n 2011 calc'd 35 62 78 90 82 73 49 39 75 101 45 54 62 64 41 63 98 63 88 50 33 109 85 94 34 69 60 31 60 52 35 31 31
Freight transport: modal shares (Thousand million tonne-kms)
Road 2011 2.2.4c 12.7 28.5 33.1 21.2 0.9 54.8 323.8 16.1 5.9 20.6 206.8 26.9 185.7 34.5 10.1 142.8 21.5 8.8 12.1 0.3 73.4 207.7 36.5 26.3 36.9 16.4 29.2 153.0 1,734 1,303 12.7 153.0
Rail 2011 2.2.5 2.0 20.3 7.6 3.3 - 14.3 113.3 2.6 6.3 0.4 9.7 9.4 34.2 9.1 0.1 19.8 15.1 0.3 21.4 - 6.4 53.7 2.3 14.7 22.9 3.8 8.0 21.0 420 270 2.0 21.0
Inland waterway 2011 2.2.6 0.3 2.1 9.3 4.3 - 0.0 55.0 - - - - 0.1 9.0 1.8 - 0.1 0.0 0.3 - - 46.3 0.2 - 11.4 - - 0.9 0.1 141 122 0.3 0.1
Pipeline 2011 2.2.7 5.8 7.2 1.5 0.5 - 2.0 15.6 3.3 - 0.2 8.6 - 18.1 3.1 - 10.0 0.6 - 2.4 - 5.5 23.5 0.4 1.1 - - 5.0 10.1 119 81 5.8 10.1
Total these modes 2011 calc'd 20.7 58.2 51.4 29.3 0.9 71.1 507.8 22.0 12.2 21.2 225.2 36.3 247.0 48.6 10.2 172.7 37.2 9.4 36.0 0.3 131.6 285.0 39.1 53.6 59.8 20.2 43.0 184.2 2,414 1,777 20.7 184.2
Freight transport: modal shares (% of total tonne-kms)
Road 2011 2.2.4c * 61.3 49.0 64.4 72.4 100.0 77.1 63.8 73.3 48.5 97.2 91.9 73.9 75.2 71.0 99.0 82.7 57.8 93.7 33.7 100.0 55.8 72.9 93.1 49.2 61.8 81.4 67.8 83.1 71.8 73.3 61.3 83.1
Rail 2011 2.2.5 * 9.7 34.9 14.8 11.2 - 20.1 22.3 11.9 51.5 1.7 4.3 25.8 13.8 18.8 1.0 11.5 40.6 3.1 59.5 0.0 4.8 18.9 5.9 27.5 38.2 18.6 18.5 11.4 17.4 15.2 9.7 11.4
Inland waterway 2011 2.2.6 * 1.3 3.6 18.0 14.7 - 0.1 10.8 - - - - 0.2 3.7 3.8 - 0.1 0.0 3.2 - - 35.2 0.1 - 21.3 - - 2.2 0.1 5.8 6.9 1.3 0.1
Pipeline 2011 2.2.7 * 27.8 12.4 2.8 1.6 - 2.7 3.1 14.8 - 1.1 3.8 - 7.3 6.4 - 5.8 1.6 - 6.8 - 4.2 8.2 0.9 2.1 - - 11.5 5.5 4.9 4.6 27.8 5.5

 

( # ) These are the nearest available figures for Scotland, and comparable figures for GB or UK as a whole - information on sources is given in the text. These may be on a different basis from other countries.
( + ) All roads data relates to the end of 2005, except for motorway estimate.
( @ ) The definitions of road types vary from country to country.  Some countries' figures may include the lengths of some roads which do not have a hard surface.
( $ ) The notes on the sources of the statistics explain why there appears to be a large inconsistency between the EU publication's figure for the UK and the (DfT) figure for GB.
(^) UK figure is for GB only.
( * ) Calculated from the figures in that table, which gives the total number of passenger/tonne-kilometres for the country as a whole (in 100/1000 millions).
( ** ) As shown in (or as calculated from figures in) a previous edition - the 2012 edition does not provide any figures for powered two-wheelers, cycling or walking.
( *** ) Data calculated by adding together the total number of journeys across each row in Table 2.4.1
n-a or 0 In general, n-a is used where a figure is not available, and 0 is used where a figure is nil.  However, n-a may be treated as if it were 0 for the purpose of some calculations.