1.1 A safe, efficient and effective transport system is a key enabler of a successful and dynamic nation. We all use transport, or rely upon it for the movement of goods, services and people, as part of our daily lives.
1.2 The challenge for the Scottish Government is to bring forward proposals which, individually and in combination, support the Scottish Governmentâ€™s Purpose to create a more successful country, with opportunities for all of Scotland to flourish, through increasing sustainable economic growth. These proposals must ensure that each of us, no matter where we live, can share in the benefits, thus promoting cohesion and solidarity amongst our communities and citizens. They must give business the confidence to invest in Scotland, knowing that the Scottish Government will provide the support they need in terms of sustained transport provision. We must be adaptive and visionary, whilst being sensitive to the individual needs of our communities and the environment within which they sit.
1.3 Our use of transport is shaped by our choices as individuals and communities. Each of us has differing expectations and demands of our transport system. Scotland is a diverse nation, and our expectations and demands reflect this. Our outlying areas rely on road and rail connections to overcome their distance to international gateways and key markets. The Highlands and Islands, for instance, depend on the provision of safe, reliable and direct links on strategic corridors such as the A82, A835, A9 or the Highland Main Line.
1.4 Our main population centres have different requirements in terms of the volumes of traffic and the impacts this creates. Their rail and road links can be congested during peak periods; which creates economic and environmental problems, that together can undermine the role these centres play in supporting the nationâ€™s economy. Aberdeen and Inverness are key regional centres in their own right, but also require effective connections to each other, to the Central Belt and to the rest of the UK. Glasgow and Edinburgh are central to Scotlandâ€™s economic prosperity and together, they function as an internationally significant economic area. Effective transport links play a crucial role in achieving this.
1.5 At the same time, recent work on climate change has identified the challenges facing transport in securing the Scottish Governmentâ€™s commitment to reduce emissions by 80 per cent by 2050. It is recognised that the pathways identified for the major contributors to climate change are particularly difficult to achieve for transport, but that there is a clear requirement to draw from and respond to the current policy context in Scotland, the UK and internationally. However, it is also evident that a number of relevant transport policy levers are reserved outside the remit of the Scottish Government. Scottish transport policy and investment cannot address the issues on its own; but it must, so far as is practicable, support wider efforts to reduce emissions.
Improving Transport Provision â€” Progress so far
1.6 In meeting this challenge, the Scottish Government will be building on a solid foundation. Much of the strategic transport network currently performs well in terms of its objectives. In addition, key improvements are already being delivered.
1.7 The rail network provides competitive journey times and service frequency between Scotlandâ€™s two largest cities of Edinburgh and Glasgow, and provides the means by which many workers get to their jobs in the main city centres each day. After closure for almost 40 years, the Stirling â€” Alloa â€” Kincardine rail line has been reopened to passenger traffic, and planning is ongoing for the Edinburgh to Glasgow Improvement Programme, which, like the Forth Replacement Crossing, is a â€˜fast-trackedâ€™ element of STPR. Significant improvements have also been carried out at Edinburgh Waverley station, supporting wider service enhancements in the south east. Work to deliver the Airdrie to Bathgate rail line is well advanced, and the Waverley rail link is under development. Together, these will bring further improvements to the nationâ€™s public transport system.
1.8 Improvements to the Trunk Road network are also being delivered. The Clackmannanshire Bridge at Kincardine has recently been completed. Construction of the M74 Completion in Glasgow and of the M80 (Stepps to Haggs) are both underway and the M8 (Baillieston to Newhouse) upgrade has been to public inquiry. Both significant improvement and maintenance work has been carried out on existing roads (e.g. the A77, the A78 Ardrossan to Stevenston and the A830 Arisaig to Loch Nan Umah). Local schemes focusing on specific transport issues, such as the A9 Ballinluig junction, A9 Carrbridge 2+1 section and the A80 Auchenkilns roundabout have been implemented. As well as physical infrastructure improvements, demand management initiatives supported by intelligent transport systems are also being introduced.
1.9 These improvements to the transport network have already contributed towards delivering the Scottish Governmentâ€™s Purpose â€” promoting sustainable economic growth. They have provided additional capacity on congested parts of the network, improved accessibility along the affected corridors, provided journey time reductions and helped to improve safety on the network. Road accident casualties have fallen substantially over the past 10 years (by around 20 per cent, with numbers killed or seriously injured falling by 33 per cent1), even though demand for transport and road usage have grown significantly over the same time.
The Strategic Transport Projects Review
1.10 In spite of this progress, there continues to be many locations where the nationâ€™s strategic transport network can be improved through more effective operation and maintenance, making better use of existing capacity, or implementing targeted infrastructure enhancements. Transport schemes can take a long time to implement, even once a decision has been made to proceed. In order to ensure that Scotlandâ€™s transport system is fit for the demands placed upon it, plans must be made now for all types of future improvement.
1.11 Transport Scotland has undertaken the Strategic Transport Projects Review (STPR) to help this planning for the future. The STPR has identified strategic transport interventions which reflect the diversity of the country whilst addressing the issues that currently exist or are expected to exist in the future.
1.12 This Summary Report is based on the work undertaken and reported in a series of more detailed reports, setting out the STPR process. The purpose of this Final Report is to define the background against which the STPR has been conducted, to clarify points where necessary or reflect consultation responses and to provide an overview of the conclusions contained in the detailed reports, particularly in terms of:
- The key strategic transport issues that have been identified by the review process; and
- The transport investments which most effectively support the Scottish Governmentâ€™s stated Purpose by addressing these issues.
Scope of the STPR
1.13 The STPR identifies interventions to be delivered, designed or developed in the period beyond our current investment programme. Just as transport improvements have been, and are being made in advance of the STPR period, the delivery of the STPR will not mark the end point in improving Scotlandâ€™s transport network. The changing demands of the 21st Century and continued need to address important issues such as climate change, economic growth and social exclusion will demand continued action. In setting out interventions, the STPR marks an important step forward and establishes the basis upon which future action is taken.
1.14 The interventions within the scope of the STPR provide only a part of the overall transport investment in Scotland. In particular, the interventions proposed are additional to those schemes which have already been committed. There are also many other interventions which are outside the scope of the review, but which still constitute a commitment to the improvement of transport provision in Scotland. Examples include many local schemes for road and public transport enhancements, as well as initiatives to improve ferry services, or to improve provision for walking and cycling.
1.15 Local Authorities and Regional Transport Partnerships have responsibilities for relevant local and regional aspects of the nationâ€™s transport system, and the Scottish Governmentâ€™s concordat with the Local Authorities recognises that many transport interventions are best delivered locally. This has allowed the STPR to remain focused on the strategic transport network, leaving priorities for smaller scale improvement interventions which are not strategic in their scope or funding requirements to be developed and delivered by the Local Authorities and their Regional Transport Partnerships. The STPR has specifically excluded interventions that are the responsibility of Local Authorities and Regional Transport Partnerships to develop and deliver, although there may be occasions where the interventions proposed are complementary.
1.16 The STPR concentrates on those interventions that are within the current competence of the Scottish Government, or reflect the Scottish Governmentâ€™s aspirations for better connections to the rest of the UK. It is focused on land based interventions; ferries, other shipping links and air connections are addressed by other initiatives. Maintaining and improving rail and road links to ports and airports has, however, been an important consideration in the development of interventions identified in the STPR.
1.17 The STPR has been completed using the Scottish Transport Appraisal Guidance (STAG) 2. STAG advocates an evidence-based, objective-led appraisal framework which allows the identification and appraisal of interventions most likely to address identified issues. Importantly, STAG is a multi-modal appraisal framework (allowing rail and road based interventions to be considered on a common basis), and has multiple appraisal criteria (covering environmental, safety, social and policy issues as well as economic performance).
Assessment of Issues, Opportunities and Objectives
1.18 The process of identifying interventions started with an assessment of current and future demand, in the context of the Scottish Governmentâ€™s Purpose and Strategic Objectives. This was followed by the identification of gaps, shortfalls and opportunities in the current and anticipated performance of the strategic road and rail systems.
1.19 The assessment was undertaken in the context of 20 route corridors, the urban networks of Aberdeen, Dundee, Edinburgh and Glasgow, and the strategic nodes of Perth and Inverness.
1.20 A set of transport-specific objectives was developed from a number of evidence-based sources, including the Government Economic Strategy3, the National Transport Strategy4 and the National Planning Framework5 (along with the then developing second National Planning Framework7).
1.21 Based on the particular characteristics and future transport issues identified for each of these study areas, and the associated goals outlined in Chapter 4 of this Report, a number of specific objectives were derived for each corridor, urban network and strategic node (these are listed in Annex B).
Shortlisting Interventions in the STPR
1.22 A range of interventions was developed to address the identified goals and objectives. These were initially derived from sources including Regional Transport Strategies, workshops with key stakeholders and other research. The interventions were specified to include all types of possible improvement and were categorised accordingly â€” including:
- Action plans to optimise the effectiveness of existing transport networks;
- Measures to achieve greater operational efficiency of these networks; or
- Investments in services or infrastructure to provide additional capacity, where this might be necessary.
1.23 Those potential interventions which were assessed as contributing significantly towards the identified objectives were then appraised against the STAG criteria; Environment, Safety, Economy, Integration and Accessibility and Social Inclusion. The shortlisted interventions outlined in this report represent those schemes which are:
- Consistent with meeting national Strategic Objectives and wider Scottish Government policy;
- Strategic in nature (e.g. meeting national rather than local needs);
- Assessed as providing the most effective and economic means of addressing identified strategic transport issues;
- Assessed to be feasible, deliverable and offering value for money, so far as it is practical to state; and
- Deliverable by, or require significant support from, the Scottish Government.
1.24 An important consideration is that the interventions should support the Scottish Governmentâ€™s Purpose, and the individual interventions have been assessed in terms of the level at which this is achieved.
1.25 In identifying the interventions presented in this report, it is important to recognise that the results of the appraisals reflect the differing roles and issues of the individual corridors, nodes and networks. This makes it difficult to directly compare the results of the appraisals on a cross corridor basis. An economic benefit arising from an intervention in a remote area may, for instance, be less in absolute terms than that of improving a route in a more populous area. It may well be proportionally more significant, however, for the community it serves.
Strategic Environmental Assessment and Appropriate Assessment
1.26 Transportâ€™s potential impacts on the environment have been critical to the development and consideration of the STPR. The Scottish Governmentâ€™s Purpose has a clear emphasis on sustainability and the supporting Strategic Objective of a Greener Scotland focuses on improving the countryâ€™s natural and built environment and the sustainable use and enjoyment of it.
1.27 A key part of the process of the STPR process â€” from identifying the issues through to developing and assessing the range of interventions â€” has been the undertaking of a Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA). The STPR has been subject to a SEA, as required under the Environmental Assessment (Scotland) Act 2005. This SEA has included the following activities:
- Consideration of the views of the Scottish Environment Protection Agency (SEPA), Scottish Natural Heritage (SNH), the Scottish Ministers (Historic Scotland) and Health Scotland regarding the scope and level of detail that was considered appropriate for the Environmental Report (ER);
- The definition of a methodology allowing an ER to be developed on a national scale, addressing the 20 transport corridors and 6 nodes and networks defined under STPR, across a common set of appraisal criteria and to a common standard:
- Preparation of a draft ER on the likely significant effects on the environment of the STPR, which included;
- identification and consideration of the baseline data relating to the current state of the environment over most of the Trunk Road and rail networks;
- Links between the STPR and other relevant strategies, policies, plans, programmes and environmental protection objectives;
- Reviewing the STPRâ€™s objectives to improve their consideration of, and focus on, environmental issues;
- Identifying existing environmental problems and constraints in the area likely to be affected by interventions;
- Identifying the STPRâ€™s likely significant effects on the environment (positive, neutral and negative);
- Considering the measures envisaged for the prevention, reduction and offsetting of any significant adverse effects;
- Providing an outline of the reasons for selecting the alternatives chosen; and
- Monitoring measures to ensure that progress is being made and any unforeseen environmental effects are being identified, so allowing for appropriate remedial action to be taken.
- Consultation, which generated 55 responses from a variety of sources;
- Consideration of the ER and consultation responses in making decisions regarding the STPR recommendations; and
- Preparation of a programme to monitor the significant environmental effects of the implementation of the STPR. This also aims to identify unforeseen adverse significant environmental effects and enable appropriate remedial action to be taken.
1.28 A Post Adoption Statement has been prepared for the STPR in line with the various requirements of the Environmental Assessment (Scotland) Act 2005. This has been published separately and an addendum to the Environmental Report has also been published, outlining those areas where the ER has been updated or amended. The Post Adoption Statement should be referred to for an understanding of its content and impact on the STPR.
1.29 In addition to the SEA, an Appropriate Assessment was also undertaken to support STPR and published as an Appendix to the draft ER. This addresses the requirements of the Habitats Directive. This protects Natura 2000 sites, including Special Areas of Conservation (SACs) and Special Protection Areas (SPAs), that are designated as being of sufficient importance to warrant significant protection The Appropriate Assessment is important in that its conduct ensures that only those interventions identified as not adversely affecting designated sites proceed.