Appendix D – Interventions retained after Detailed Appraisal

Appendix D – Interventions retained after Detailed Appraisal

Please click on the intervention title for further information

Ref No

Title of Intervention

Description of Intervention

Approximate
Cost of
Intervention

Summary: Rationale for selection

Level 1: Maintaining and Safely Operating the Network

D1

Strategic Road Safety Plan

The Scottish Government is prioritising road safety, through funding for Road Safety Scotland, Safety Camera Partnerships and other initiatives. A strategic direction to road safety has been developed through Transport Scotland’s recently published ten year Strategic Road Safety Plan. In addition, the Government intends to publish its Road Safety Strategy.

This intervention relates to a key objective of the STPR which is to continue the delivery of the Strategic Road Safety Plan, through the period 2012-2022. Building on this, the relevant proposed measures would be implemented on the strategic road network in order to reduce the rate and severity of road accidents on Scotland’s trunk roads.

£10m - £50m

The intervention is specifically aimed at reducing accident rates and achieving the national targets for casualty reductions in the UK. These targets envisage, by 2010: a 40 per cent reduction in the number of people killed or seriously injured; a 50 per cent reduction in child deaths and serious injuries, when compared with the 1994-8 average, and a 10 per cent reduction in the slight casualty rate.

D2

Maintaining and Safely Operating Scotland’s Rail Network

This intervention represents the day-to-day management and maintenance of the rail network, carried out by Network Rail in line with the requirements of the Scottish Ministers.

£3bn (over 10 years)

The total rail assets in Scotland are valued at approximately £5 billion. Network Rail receives more than £300million of direct grant every year to manage the rail network and to maximise its capacity. The funding allocated to Network Rail is for the operation, maintenance and renewal of the rail infrastructure network. This work links directly to this first level of requirement for the STPR in maintaining and safely operating the network.

D3

Part 1

Targeted Programme of Measures to Reduce Accident Severity on the A9 North of Inverness

This intervention supports the objective to reduce the fatal and severe accident rates on the A9 north of Inverness. The intervention would include measures such as:

  • Physical works at locations such as Tore Roundabout;

It is envisaged that bespoke measures would be delivered in a targeted programme to address identified high severity accident clusters along the route.

In addition, speed enforcement measures could be considered at appropriate locations.

<£10m

Local realignment on the A9 north of Inverness and junction improvements are expected to improve road safety. Evidence suggests that the introduction of climbing lanes can result in a significant reduction in accidents - of up to 50 per cent - on single carriageway routes.

The introduction of appropriate speed enforcement measures could also result in the safer operation of the road network, due to greater compliance with speed limits. Evidence from trials indicates that a reduction in average speed results in significant reductions in accidents and accident severity.

The introduction of these measures is likely to bring the proportion of serious and fatal accidents closer to the national rate.

D3

Part 2

Targeted Programme of Measures to Reduce Accident Severity on the A9 and A835 between Inverness and Ullapool

This intervention supports the objective to reduce fatal and severe accident rates on these routes. This intervention would include measures such as:

  • Physical works on the A835 aimed at providing safer overtaking opportunities, local realignments and localised widening of the carriageway.

It is envisaged that individual measures would be delivered in a targeted programme to address identified high severity accident clusters along the routes.

In addition, speed enforcement measures could be considered at appropriate locations.

£10m - £50m

The local carriageway realignments and junction improvements are expected to improve road safety on the A835. Evidence suggests that the introduction of climbing lanes can result in a significant reduction in accidents - of up to 50 per cent - on single carriageway routes.

The introduction of appropriate speed enforcement measures could also result in the safer operation of the road network, due to a greater compliance with speed limits. Evidence from trials indicates that a reduction in average speed results in significant reductions in accidents and accident severity.

The introduction of these measures is likely to bring the proportion of serious and fatal accidents closer to the national rate.

D3

Part 3

Targeted Programme of Measures to Reduce Accident Severity between Inverness, Fort William, Mallaig and Skye (A82, A87, A830, A887)

This intervention supports the objective to reduce the accident rate on these routes. This intervention would include measures such as:

  • Physical works aimed at providing safer overtaking opportunities, hard strip provision for agricultural vehicles, local realignments and junction improvements.

It is envisaged that individual elements would be delivered in a targeted programme to address identified accident clusters.

In addition, speed enforcement measures could be considered at appropriate locations.

£50m - £100m

Local carriageway realignments and junction improvements are expected to improve road safety on the routes. Evidence suggests that the introduction of climbing lanes can result in a significant reduction in accidents - of up to 50 per cent - on single carriageway routes.

The introduction of appropriate speed enforcement measures could also result in the safer operation of the road network, due to a greater compliance with speed limits. Evidence from trials elsewhere indicates that a reduction in average speed results in significant reductions in accidents and accident severity.

The introduction of these measures is likely to bring the proportion of serious and fatal accidents closer to the national rate.

D3

Part 4

Targeted Programme of Measures to Reduce Accident Severity on the A96 between Aberdeen and Inverness

This intervention supports the objective to reduce the accident and severity rates on this route. This intervention would include measures such as:

  • Physical works aimed at providing safer overtaking opportunities such as: 2+1 sections; climbing lanes and overtaking lay-bys; hard strip provision for agricultural vehicles; local realignments and junction improvements.

It is envisaged that individual elements would be delivered in a targeted programme to address identified accident clusters and locations of accident severity.

In addition, speed enforcement measures could be considered at appropriate locations.

£50m - £100m

The local realignment of the A96 and junction improvements are expected to improve safety. Evidence suggests that the introduction of climbing lanes can result in a significant reduction in accidents - of up to 50 per cent - on single carriageway routes.

The introduction of appropriate speed enforcement measures could also result in the safer operation of the road network, due to a greater compliance with speed limits. Evidence from trials elsewhere indicates that a reduction in average speed results in significant reductions in accidents and accident severity.

The introduction of these measures is likely to bring the proportion of serious and fatal accidents closer to the national rate.

D3

Part 5

Route Management between:
Aberdeen and North East Scotland (A90), Edinburgh and Dundee (A92), Ayrshire and Dumfries (A76) Edinburgh and North West England (A68/A7/A702), Edinburgh and North East England (A1), the A83, A85, A828

These routes generally perform well, and as such no objectives have been established to address corridor specific issues.

However, there is a need to maintain and operate these safely in the context of a route management strategy. This intervention would include a variety of localised improvements that would be undertaken in tandem with, and driven by, the trunk road maintenance contracts.

£100m - £250m

There are a number of corridors where no strategic issues relating to network performance have been identified, however there is an ongoing need to maintain and operate the network safely. These route action plans would perform this role.

These interventions would therefore address isolated constraints, and although the immediate benefits would be felt at a more local level, for example through isolated junction improvements, the programme of works would contribute towards the need to maintain and safely operate the network.

D4

Implement Targeted Programme of Measures to improve links to the Loch Ryan port facilities from the Trans European Network

This intervention supports the objective to have efficient and effective linkage to the port facilities at Loch Ryan. This intervention would include measures such as:

  • Physical works aimed at providing safer overtaking opportunities such as 2+1 sections, climbing lanes, overtaking lay-bys and improvements to the operation of junctions around Dumfries;
  • Improvements to the strategic access around Stranraer (A751); and
  • Driver information System

It is envisaged that individual elements would be delivered in a targeted programme to improve journey time reliability for travel to the port facilities at Loch Ryan.

£10m - £50m

The physical aspects of this intervention would improve journey time reliability, by addressing additional constraints along the route. This would result in efficiency gains for freight traffic travelling to and from the Loch Ryan ports. In addition the physical aspects would be complemented by the introduction of intelligent transport systems on the A75, to provide driver information; which would provide a significant contribution towards the objective of efficient and effective links to the ports.

D5

Targeted Programme of Measures to improve road standards between Glasgow and Oban/Fort William(A82)

This intervention supports the objectives to provide a significant improvement in road standard along the A82 and to reduce the accident severity rates on various routes. In addition to a general upgrade of the route, the intervention would include measures such as:

  • Carriageway widening at selected locations between Tarbet and Inverarnan;
  • Carriageway widening at selected locations between Corran Ferry and Fort William; and
  • Physical works such as climbing lanes at Loch Tulla, overtaking lay-bys aimed at providing safer overtaking opportunities and improving journey time reliability and safety targeted measures such as hard strips, junction improvements and local realignment.

It is envisaged that individual elements would be delivered in a targeted programme to address identified accident clusters and points where the routes have significant constraints on achieving consistent journey times.

In addition, speed enforcement measures could be considered at appropriate locations.

£100m - £250m

This is a key route for tourism and as such has a high proportion of infrequent users; the provision of a consistently high standard of carriageway would be of particular significance to the improvement of road safety.

The introduction of physical works to provide safer overtaking opportunities, in conjunction with speed enforcement measures, is expected to improve road safety along the route, and reduce both the accident and fatal accident rates closer to the national levels.

The environmental impacts this intervention has on designated sites, valued habitats, protected species and water quality have been identified at the strategic level as part of the Strategic Environmental Assessment and Appropriate Assessment. Appropriate mitigation and avoidance measures have been identified and will be further refined should this intervention be taken forward.

Level 2: Making Better use of Existing Capacity

D6

Using Intelligent Transport Systems on Parts of the Road Network to Enhance Capacity and Operations

This intervention supports the objectives of improving journey time reliability and journey times for prioritised users. It would involve the introduction of enhanced Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS), principally Active Traffic Management (ATM), on the motorway and trunk road network in Central Scotland:

  • The M8;
  • The M90 and A90 approaching Edinburgh;
  • The A720 around Edinburgh; and
  • The M74, M77 and M80 approaching Glasgow.

Phase 1 would consist of variable speed limits, variable message signs, ramp metering at key junctions and average speed enforcement measures as appropriate.

Phase 2 would consist of additional functionality through further provision of ramp metering and hard shoulder running within the existing road space.

Phase 3 would consist of improved functionality through targeted use of the hard shoulder as an additional ‘managed lane’ for priority vehicles – e.g. High-Occupancy Vehicles (HOVs), buses and, HGVs. In some cases, road widening could be used to generate an additional lane for this purpose.

Phase 1

£250m - £500m

Phase 2

£100m - £250m

Phase 3

£100m - 250m

The implementation of an Intelligent Transport System (ITS), based on an expansion of the existing capabilities of the Traffic Scotland system, would have significant benefits for the movement of people and goods.

This would contribute to objectives on a number of corridors that link into the urban networks of Edinburgh and Glasgow, and in particular would contribute to the objective to improve the operation of the urban Glasgow motorway network.

This intervention would have moderate environmental benefits by minimising congestion and stationary traffic and safety benefits by reducing the potential for collisions.

This system would also be able to support the operation of the strategic Park-&-Ride / Park-&-Choose intervention by providing opportunities to use the hard shoulder on approach to the urban networks for priority vehicles.

D7

Further Electrification of the Strategic Rail Network

Rail electrification can contribute to emissions reduction by allowing train power to come from more environmentally friendly sources. There are operational benefits compared with diesel powered trains both in terms of reduced journey times and operating costs. It also gives the opportunity for interoperability and more efficient use of rolling stock, particularly in the West of Scotland where running through low level stations is generally restricted to electric rolling stock.

It is envisaged that electrification would be delivered on a phased basis. In the short term, this would include:

  • Phase 1 - Committed improvements as part of the Edinburgh to Glasgow improvements, comprising Edinburgh to Glasgow via Falkirk route, Diversion Routes 1 (Haymarket) and 2 (Falkirk Grahamston), and electrification on the route via Cumbernauld and to Dunblane / Alloa; and
  • Phase 2 - Electrification of the remaining routes in the Central Belt (Shotts, Whifflet, Paisley Canal, Glasgow North Suburban, East Kilbride and Kilmarnock).

In the longer term, extending into the period beyond STPR, this would include:

  • Phase 3 - Electrification of routes between Edinburgh, Perth and Dundee including the Fife Circle;
  • Phase 4 - Electrification from Dunblane to Aberdeen; and
  • Phase 5 - Electrification from Perth to Inverness.

Phase 1: £250m - £500m

Phase 2: £250m - £500m

Phase 3: £250m - £500m

Phase 4: £250m - £500m

Phase 5: £250m - £500m

This intervention supports the Key Strategic Outcome to reduce emissions in pursuit of a Greener Scotland by providing cleaner, more efficient traction for rail services.

Currently 23 per cent of the Scottish rail network is electrified and this intervention would see the expansion of this over the greater part of the network. Electrified services would reduce energy consumption by 15 per cent for inter-urban and 20 per cent for stopping services. There are a number of areas where objectives to reduce emissions would be supported by this intervention.

This intervention would also allow greater flexibility and benefits for the operation of services while electrification would support other rail interventions as part of an overall strategy for ‘step-change’ performance across parts of the system, particularly in Fife.

D8

Enhancing Rail System Capacity through Targeted Improvements

This intervention is over and above the day-to-day maintenance of the rail network which is the responsibility of Network Rail.

There are parts of the rail network that are operating close to or at capacity during peak periods, with limited or no opportunity for additional services. Much of the existing signalling infrastructure is not fit-for-purpose. This intervention would cover operational and relatively small scale infrastructure measures such as:

  • Replacement of Radio Electronic Token Block signalling in the Highland region;
  • Provision of additional signal blocks in heavily used parts of the network;
  • Replacement of two-aspect signals with three or four aspect signals in heavily used parts of the network;
  • Replacement of single lead junctions with double lead junctions as appropriate to improve efficiency; and
  • Replacement of low speed junctions and crossovers as appropriate to improve efficiency.

This intervention provides upgrades for rail signalling, as well as track and junction layouts to reduce headways and allow more trains to use the network.

£100m - £250m

This intervention would have the effect of improving operational performance and would also lead to reduced journey times where trains times are currently constrained by limited capacity and a mix of train speeds. These benefits by themselves would encourage some modal shift from car to rail, hence reducing traffic emissions. In many areas of Scotland, additional rail services could contribute towards objectives where localised rail constraints have been identified. This intervention would provide a strategy to systematically address these constraints.

The main benefits of this intervention include:

  • Reducing conflict between services;
  • Improving efficiency;
  • Reducing journey time variability;
  • Improving reliability and resilience; and
  • Providing room for growth.

D9

Integrated Ticketing

This intervention involves the development of a national, integrated ticketing system for all modes of public transport and would support the objectives to promote seamless travel, improve the competitiveness of public transport and improve overall perception of public transport.

It is likely that this would be delivered through smartcard technology, similar to schemes operating in London and other European cities, but probably using the ITSO standard (Integrated Transport Smartcard Organisation). The card would allow interoperability across different public transport services over all of Scotland, and would provide a robust, secure system for revenue allocation to operators.

Such a system would require investment in fixed validation equipment at terminals and on buses/trams, sales facilities and smartcards and back office systems to undertake revenue allocation and provide management information. Further detailed consideration would be required to determine the type of product used.

£50m - £100m

Integrated ticketing is not an end in itself but a means of achieving the wider policy objectives of the Scottish Government.

This intervention would provide greater integration and use of public transport as a real alternative to the car, in line with Scottish Government Key Strategic Outcomes. This intervention also offers the potential to reduce boarding times on bus services, since there would be a reduced requirement for drivers to sell tickets. Evidence suggests that upwards of 80 per cent of bus journeys in London are now made using a smartcard; this may be largely due to significant cost savings to the users of the card.

From an environmental stand point, this intervention is expected to have a small positive impact. However, taken together with other proposed interventions there is the potential to reduce the overall level of emissions by encouraging car drivers to use public transport.

This intervention could be taken forward in conjunction with those addressing service enhancements and the provision of strategic Park-&-Ride facilities.

D10

Reconfiguration of the National Rail Timetable

Several objectives have been identified to reduce journey times by public transport, particularly between Aberdeen/Inverness and the central belt. At present, the Scottish Rail Network has no significant hierarchy, with many services performing multiple roles in linking cities and intermediate stops, resulting in some cases of uncompetitive journey times.

This intervention would address these issues by re-casting the rail service timetable to provide fast, limited-stop trains which would serve longer distance journeys between the cities and replace some of the existing semi-fast services. Intermediate destinations would be catered for by stopping services.

It is likely that this intervention would be undertaken on a phased basis, in conjunction with other interventions, particularly any programme of network-wide minor improvements.

There would, of course, be a requirement to ensure that an adequate number of fill-in semi-fast or stopping services remained in place for the intermediate locations. These may be supplemented by additional local bus services. This intervention is predicated on the basis of no requirement for new infrastructure or rolling stock.

<£10m

This intervention supports the objective to reduce inter-urban journey times on public transport by reducing journey times between Aberdeen/Inverness and the Central Belt by up to 20 minutes.

Forecasts show a relatively small overall increase in rail passengers, however, the majority of this increase is related to a transfer from longer distance car traffic, resulting in reduced emissions from road based vehicles.

While the benefits in terms of growth in passenger-kilometres are relatively modest, there are significant benefits to those already using the services through a reduction in journey time, for example a reduction of around 20 minutes to journeys between Aberdeen/Inverness and the Central Belt.

The costs of providing this intervention are low with the largest benefits accruing to longer distance travellers. However, there could be an adverse impact on shorter distance trips that currently use main line services, although these could be addressed through the provision of local bus services.

D11

(Strategic) Park-&-Ride/Park-&-Choose Strategy

This intervention supports the objectives to make public transport more competitive against the car. Located on major commuting routes, these sites would also assist in maintaining and enhancing the labour catchment areas in the city regions and reducing CO2e emissions. It would deliver a series of strategic Park-&-Ride / Park-&-Choose sites using common branding / marketing across Scotland. The sites would be served by either rail services or express bus links to and from the city centres and areas of economic activity, including appropriate bus priority measures at congested locations. These would interface with existing urban bus priority systems. Proposed sites for this strategy include creation of new facilities:

  • Serving Aberdeen from Dyce (A96) and Charleston;
  • Serving Dundee: Invergowrie, Forfar Road, A92 and Forgan;
  • Serving Edinburgh: Halbeath, Lothianburn, Pitreavie, and Tranent;
  • Serving Glasgow: Bargeddie (M8), St James (M8), Glasgow Southern Orbital (M77), Fullarton (M74) Robroyston (M80) and outside Ayr (M77);
  • At Bannockburn, serving Edinburgh, Glasgow and Stirling; and
  • A new station at Dalcross with Park-&-Ride facilities and interchange facilities with Inverness Airport.

In addition, this could incorporate expansion and complementary branding at existing sites at Bridge of Don, Hermiston, Ingliston and Todhill (Sheriffhall), with increased frequency for current bus services from these sites.

£50m - £100m

This intervention would help to keep the city centres moving by reducing road congestion in the peak periods. It would also assist in maintaining the labour catchment and reducing emissions. In the case of Edinburgh, where this is a key objective, the proposed measures would increase the number of people able to commute to areas of economic activity, particularly central Edinburgh. It is a similar picture for Glasgow where sites are proposed on all major radial roads.

This could be taken forward in conjunction with interventions aimed at providing priority vehicle lanes on sections of the strategic road network (D6 - Using Intelligent Transport Systems on Parts of the Road Network to Enhance Capacity and Operations).

Level 3: Targeted Infrastructure Improvements

D14

A9 Upgrading from Dunblane to Inverness

The Government is committed to the dualling of the A9 between Dunblane and Inverness. This intervention considers the full dualling of the A9 between Dunblane and Inverness within the STPR period.

This intervention supports the objectives to promote journey time reductions between Inverness and the central belt, improve the operational effectiveness of the A9, reduce the severity of accidents and address driver frustration.

The first phase of this intervention would consist of :

  • Grade separation of all junctions on the A9 from Keir Roundabout to south of Broxden Roundabout;
  • Dualling the A9 between Perth and Blair Atholl;
  • Grade separation of Broxden Roundabout and Inveralmond Roundabout; and
  • Implementation of climbing lanes, 2+1 sections and junction improvements between Blair Atholl and Inverness.

The subsequent phases of this intervention would consist of :

  • Dualling the A9 between Aviemore and Inverness; and
  • Dualling the A9 between Blair Atholl and Aviemore.

First Phase - £500m-£1bn

Subsequent Phases - £1.5bn-£3bn

Many of the accidents on the A9 between Dunblane and Perth in recent years have occurred at the at-grade junctions. These accidents are often serious or fatal and removal of these would significantly reduce the accident rate and accident severity on this route.

The grade separation of Broxden and Inveralmond Roundabouts would remove the congestion at these locations contributing to reduced journey times, improved journey time reliability and improved road safety.

The A9 between Perth and Blair Atholl is the most heavily trafficked stretch of the A9 north of Perth. Dualling this section would have the most significant impact on reducing journey times and improving journey time reliability. This would also contribute to a consistent carriageway standard along this section of the A9.

The introduction of climbing lanes is also expected to improve safety since evidence elsewhere suggests that the introduction of climbing lanes can result in a significant reduction in accidents, of up to 50 per cent, on single carriageway routes.

Dualling the A9 between Blair Atholl and Inverness would further reduce journey times and improve journey time reliability between Perth and Inverness, as well as provide a consistent carriageway standard along the whole of A9 between Perth and Inverness. This is a lightly trafficked section of the A9 and is therefore considered in subsequent phases. Aviemore to Inverness is more heavily trafficked than Blair Atholl to Aviemore and would therefore take priority in future phases.

This intervention is expected to provide a significant contribution to the Government’s Purpose of increasing sustainable economic growth. In addition to this, the national objectives of promoting journey time reductions between the Central Belt and Inverness and the reduction in accident rates are contributed to by this intervention. This intervention also addresses the corridor specific objectives of improving the operational effectiveness of the A9, on approaches to Perth, and addressing issues of driver frustration.

The environmental impacts this intervention has on several biodiversity sites and designated landscapes have been identified at the strategic level as part of the Strategic Environmental Assessment and Appropriate Assessment. Appropriate mitigation and avoidance measures have been identified and will be further refined should this intervention be taken forward.

D15

Rail Enhancements on the Highland Mainline between Perth and Inverness

This intervention supports the objectives to reduce journey time, increase travel opportunities between Inverness and Perth and more effectively link Inverness to the central belt.

Improvements to the Highland Mainline are proposed:

  • An increase in service frequency (minimum of hourly between Inverness and Perth with additional peak express services); and
  • A reduction in journey times of approximately 35 minutes, resulting in Edinburgh to Inverness journeys of under three hours, with similar reductions for services to Glasgow.

Journey time reductions to benefit passenger services would be delivered through line speed improvements, additional loops, dynamic loops or lengthening of double track sections, signalling improvements and more powerful traction. It is envisaged that this could be delivered in two phases.

Phase 1 would comprise the recognised Highland Mainline improvements as proposed in the Highland Room for Growth Study.

Phase 2 would comprise a more significant enhancement to allow faster services to operate.

Additional freight improvements: The passenger enhancements could be optimised to also benefit freight operations. It is envisaged that this would include:

  • Provision of bi-directional signalling to reduce the impact of engineering works on the route (permitting the route to remain open for freight throughout the day and week);
  • Increased length of freight loops (allowing longer freight trains); and
  • Removal of speed limits below 75mph Permanent Speed Reductions (PSRs) for freight trains.

Included within this intervention is the capability to operate low floor wagons that are currently becoming available for use on the network. These would allow standard containers to be carried on existing infrastructure with minimal physical works, such as targeted gauge enhancements at appropriate structures.

Passenger improvements

Phase 1: £50m - £100m

Phase 2: £100m -£250m

Additional freight improvements

£50m - £100m

This intervention would provide journey time improvements between Inverness and Perth and onwards to the Central Belt, contributing to objectives relating to these issues. Increasing the frequency of services would provide further benefits through additional opportunities to travel.

The reduction in journey time of around 20 per cent is significant and would make the rail service more competitive with the current car journey.

The environmental impacts this intervention has on designated biodiversity and landscape sites have been identified at the strategic level as part of the Strategic Environmental Assessment and Appropriate Assessment. Appropriate mitigation and avoidance measures have been identified and will be further refined should this intervention be taken forward.

The freight improvements would make it considerably more attractive for freight hauliers to move containers and other goods by rail, by reducing journey times.

D16

Upgrade A96 to Dual Carriageway between Inverness and Nairn

This intervention supports the objectives to reduce the accident rate and severity rate on this route and improve connectivity between Inverness and communities to the east. It would include a new dual carriageway on the A96 corridor between Inverness and Nairn, giving improved access to Inverness Airport and the future growth areas in the A96 corridor.

A new link connecting the A96 and the A9 (south of Inverness) would provide relief for Raigmore Interchange.

£250m - £500m

Upgrading the A96 to dual carriageway between Nairn and Inverness is expected to reduce accident rates (around 40 per cent) by providing a higher standard of road. It would also reduce journey times along this section of the corridor, improving connectivity between Inverness and communities to the east (including the planned developments in this corridor at Tornagrain), and helping to increase the labour catchment area for Inverness. Improvements would also be felt on longer distance road journeys between Aberdeen and Inverness.

The link between the A9 and A96 would further reduce congestion by allowing traffic between the A9 and A96 to avoid local traffic congestion at Raigmore Interchange. These benefits are reflected in the economic analysis, which suggests that the intervention offers good value for money.

The environmental impacts this intervention has on the surrounding natural and historical features have been identified at the strategic level as part of the Strategic Environmental Assessment and Appropriate Assessment. Appropriate mitigation and avoidance measures have been identified and will be further refined should this intervention be taken forward.

D17

Rail Service Enhancements between Aberdeen and Inverness

This intervention supports the objectives to reduce journey time and increase opportunities to travel, particularly by public transport, between Aberdeen and Inverness.

The improvements to the railway between Aberdeen and Inverness would allow:

  • An increase in service frequency (minimum of hourly service over the full route);
  • A reduction in journey time by about 20 minutes between Aberdeen and Inverness;
  • Extra rail services between Nairn and Inverness to provide two trains per hour over this section; and
  • A new station at Dalcross with Park-&-Ride facilities and interchange facilities with Inverness Airport.

Phase 1 would involve the introduction of new loops in the area and line speed improvements.

Phase 2 would involve more comprehensive improvements to line speed, journey times and the provision of some double tracking on approaches to Inverness and Aberdeen.

Total Cost: £250m - £500m

Phase 1 £50m - £100m

Phase 2: £100m - £250m

This intervention would reduce journey times between Aberdeen and Inverness and improve connectivity between the cities and the communities along the corridor. It would also increase opportunities to travel by providing a more frequent service at regular intervals throughout the day.

At the Inverness end of the route, this intervention would improve connectivity by public transport between Inverness City Centre and the growth area to the east, including Inverness Airport.

Within Aberdeen, this intervention would improve access to the Dyce area and, if combined with improvements to the connections between Aberdeen and the Central Belt (D18 Rail Enhancements between Aberdeen and the Central Belt), would also provide greater opportunity for cross city travel by rail.

The journey time savings of approximately 20 minutes are significant and this, coupled with an increased frequency, would make rail travel a genuine alternative to car travel. There would also be benefits from emissions reduction resulting from the ability to capture a higher share of inter-city travel.

The cost of this intervention is driven by the need to provide double track on the approach to Aberdeen. However, the improvements to journey time of around 20 per cent would be significant both for existing users and for those transferring from car and it is therefore considered to offer value-for-money.

D18

Rail Enhancements between Aberdeen and the Central Belt

This intervention supports the objectives to improve public transport competitiveness between Aberdeen and the Central Belt and provide enhanced opportunities to move freight by rail.

It would involve:

  • Recasting of the passenger timetable on the Aberdeen – Dundee – Edinburgh / Glasgow corridors to provide express and stopping services;
  • Providing one express train per hour to Glasgow (two hour fifteen minute journey time);
  • Providing one express train per hour to Edinburgh (two hour journey time); and
  • No stops at intermediate settlements (except Dundee) for express services.

Phase 1 would include line speed improvements, additional loops to allow passing of freight trains and upgraded signalling along the entire length of the line to reduce headway times.

Phase 2 would involve the removal of the single track at Usan, including a new bridge over Montrose Basin.

Additional freight improvements:

The passenger enhancements could be optimised to benefit freight operations. It is envisaged that this would include:

  • Provision of bi-directional signalling to reduce the impact of engineering works (permitting the route to remain open for freight throughout the day and week);
  • Increased length of freight loops (allowing longer freight trains); and
  • Removal of speed limits that are below 75mph for freight trains.

Included within this intervention is the capability to operate low floor wagons that are currently becoming available for use on the network. These would allow standard containers to be carried on existing infrastructure with minimal physical works, such as targeted gauge enhancements at appropriate structures.

Total Cost: £250m - £500m

Passenger improvements

Phase 1: £100m - £250m

Phase 2: £100m -£250m

Additional freight improvements

£50m - £100m

This intervention would help to reduce journey times between Aberdeen and the Central Belt by around 20 minutes, the majority of which would be delivered under Phase 1. This intervention would assist in allowing travellers to achieve an effective working day when travelling between Scotland's four largest cities. These improvements would lead to an increase in demand for rail travel, and modal shift from private car use.

The freight improvements would make it considerably more attractive for freight hauliers to move containers and other goods by rail, by reducing journey times.

The improvements required to facilitate the improved passenger services are relatively modest compared with the works required for freight. This gives the passenger service improvements a good performance in terms of value for money, with the freight improvements being more marginal. However, the potential benefit from this in terms of reduced emissions control would make the overall improvement worthwhile.

The environmental impact this intervention is forecast to have on biodiversity and water quality have been identified at the strategic level as part of the Strategic Environmental Assessment and Appropriate Assessment. Appropriate mitigation and avoidance measures have been identified and will be further refined should this intervention be taken forward.

D19

Dundee Northern Relief Road

This intervention supports the objectives to reduce conflict between strategic and local traffic in Dundee, and to improve the connectivity of Aberdeen to the Central Belt.

Improvement to the A90 at Dundee could take the form of:

  1. A new Northern Peripheral Bypass road around Dundee from the A90 west of Invergowrie to the A90 north of Dundee; or
  2. Upgrading of roundabouts and associated junctions on the A90 Kingsway.

Both options could incorporate a package of associated bus priority, cycle lanes and pedestrian measures on or across the Kingsway.

£100m - £250m

A new outer bypass would contribute significantly to the objective of reducing journey times between the Central Belt and Aberdeen, with an approximate reduction of 10-15 minutes, by reducing the conflict between long distance and local traffic through removing up to 50 per cent of traffic from the Kingsway. This would have consequential environmental benefits to those living and working adjacent to the A90, and would enable the Kingsway to perform a role as a regional distributor road with potential for the introduction of bus priority measures.

The outer bypass would have a potentially moderate benefit to Air Quality in Dundee’s Air Quality Management Area (AQMA) by moving 50 per cent of the traffic away from the A90.

Alternatively, grade separation of all or some of the at-grade roundabouts on the A90 Kingsway would contribute to the two objectives above, albeit to a lesser extent.

Although this option would avoid any environmental impact north of the city, provision of grade separated junctions in an urban area would have adverse impacts on the communities adjacent to the A90.

The bypass route is expected to provide more value for money than the on-line upgrade.

D21

Grangemouth Road and Rail Access Upgrades

This intervention supports the objective to improve access to Grangemouth port and the freight hub, by improving access for both road and rail freight.

Improved road access from Grangemouth onto the motorway network would be provided through upgrades to Junction 6 on the M9. The A801 would be upgraded between Grangemouth and the M8 (including carriageway improvements and a new viaduct) to serve developing industrial and distribution facilities along the M8 corridor.

Improved rail access would be provided through capacity enhancements at and around Grangemouth Junction, to allow more trains to access the freight facilities at Grangemouth, such as:

  • Committed improvements to the Edinburgh and Glasgow route;
  • Electrification between Coatbridge and Grangemouth;
  • Increased loading gauge to W12 to allow larger containers to be carried;
  • Improved access from the west; and
  • A new curve to permit direct access from the east.

£100m - £250m

Improving the direct road link from Grangemouth to the developing industrial and distribution facilities along the M8 via an upgraded A801, would make it more suitable for the role that it is currently performing and allow for increased economic growth on this corridor.

In addition, it would offer significant journey time improvements and a reduction in the accident rate of around a third on the A801. Provision of this high quality route would also offer the opportunity for existing HGVs which use the M8 and M9 to reduce their current journey times by a minimum of 20 minutes.

This intervention would deliver a small positive impact on the environment as a result of the removal of some HGVs from parts of Grangemouth and rail improvements that include electrification, both of which are envisaged to contribute to reduced emissions. This intervention would, however, impact on the designated environmental sites along the route and this would need to be considered further in the development of any proposed alignment of a new road crossing of the Avon Gorge.

The economic analysis of this intervention would suggest that overall the intervention offers value for money.

The rail element would allow more freight trains to run into Grangemouth freight terminal without conflicting with passenger services, which in turn would improve journey time reliability. Electrification would allow freight trains to be operated from the West Coast Mainline by faster electric locomotives. Increasing the loading gauge would allow larger containers to be carried to and from Grangemouth. All of these improvements would also help make rail freight more attractive for hauliers.

D22

Edinburgh to Glasgow Rail Improvements Programme

This intervention was identified early in the STPR and brought forward in a study which considered improvements to the capacity, frequency and journey time of rail services between Edinburgh and Glasgow.

This intervention supports a number of objectives relating to access to jobs from the perspective of both employers and employees, emissions and public transport capacity on the corridor between Edinburgh and Glasgow.

A number of potential packages of infrastructure and service enhancements were examined. The Minister announced to Parliament in Autumn 2007 that the preferred strategy would be to provide:

  • An electrified railway between Edinburgh and Glasgow Queen Street (including diversion routes), the line via Cumbernauld and lines to Dunblane and Alloa;
  • A new station at Gogar to serve Edinburgh Airport (via tram) and a new curve at Dalmeny to allow Edinburgh to Glasgow services to access the new station;
  • Six trains per hour between Edinburgh and Queen Street with the fastest journey time of around 35 minutes and a mixture of stopping patterns to serve intermediate stations;
  • Access to Edinburgh Park station for Edinburgh to Glasgow services; and
  • Three trains per hour between Edinburgh and Glasgow Central (one stopping service and two semi-fast services) serving both the Shotts and Carstairs routes.

£500m - £1bn

This intervention would provide an increase in capacity between Edinburgh and Glasgow as well as reducing the journey time between the two cities. These combined would help maintain, and in some cases enhance, the labour market catchment area that can commute into the two cities within 60-minutes, counteracting the forecast decrease in labour market catchment caused by forecast increases in congestion and journey times on the road network. The improvements would encourage travellers to choose to travel by rail instead of private car. Electrification of the lines would also further help to reduce emissions within the corridor between Edinburgh and Glasgow. The intervention also provides a key linkage from the rail network to Edinburgh Airport, through the provision of a new station at Gogar and interchange with the tram.

The enhancement to services between Edinburgh and Glasgow via Shotts or Carstairs would improve public transport capacity between Edinburgh and Livingston / Glasgow. It would also improve connectivity and interchange opportunities (via Glasgow Central) between Edinburgh and Inverclyde / Ayrshire, further helping to maintain the labour market catchment area for the two cities, and encouraging rail use in place of private car.

This intervention, as a committed scheme, has a strong business case, offering value for money.

D23

Rail Enhancements in the East of Scotland

This intervention includes an increase in service frequency on rail services across the east of Scotland.

This intervention would include services such as:

  • West Calder to Haymarket (in addition to the committed service improvements as part of the Edinburgh to Glasgow Rail Improvements Programme, D22);
  • Edinburgh to Newcraighall (two trains per hour as an extension to existing Dunblane services and two trains per hour to Glasgow and the west of Scotland via the committed Airdrie to Bathgate line. This would replace the existing two trains per hour from Newcraighall to Dunblane and from Bathgate to Newcraighall);
  • Edinburgh to Dunbar (as an extension of services from Glasgow and the west of Scotland via the committed Airdrie to Bathgate line);
  • Edinburgh to Cowdenbeath semi-fast (as an extension of services from Tweedbank via the committed Borders Rail Link); and
  • Haymarket to Kirkcaldy semi-fast (additional service on top of existing services).

This intervention would include additional rolling stock and facilities to support and maintain these services.

There is limited capacity available at Waverley Station and therefore capacity improvements would be required or alternatively, more efficient use of Waverley would have to be developed (which may include terminating some trains at Haymarket north platform or an equivalent on the south side provided as part of the committed Edinburgh to Glasgow improvements).

This intervention would include remodelling of various parts of the network to enhance capacity for these services, such as Portobello Junction to Newcraighall and Dunbar station. Additional capacity enhancements such as resignalling and loops would also be included where necessary.

£250m - £500m

This intervention would contribute towards the objectives for Edinburgh and the corridors serving the city, particularly in providing access to areas of economic activity. The increased provision would increase the labour market catchment that can commute into Edinburgh within 60-minutes by 5-10 per cent

This intervention would contribute towards the objectives for Edinburgh and the corridors serving the city, particularly in providing access to areas of economic activity. The increased provision would increase the labour market catchment that can commute into Edinburgh within 60-minutes by 5-10 per cent.

This intervention would provide additional rail capacity on some of the busiest rail lines in Scotland, resulting in a transfer of up to 5 per cent modal shift from car to rail. The reduction in car journeys could positively contribute towards improved air quality within air quality management areas.

This intervention is forecast to capture trips from car travel, with an increase of over 1,100 new rail passengers during each peak hour period, approximately half of whom are expected to transfer from car.

D24

 

Targeted Road Congestion / Environmental Relief Schemes

Part 1
Part 2
Part 3
Part 4

On a number of corridors throughout Scotland, objectives have been identified to reduce conflicts between strategic and local traffic. Reducing these conflicts would support road safety, journey time reliability, reducing emissions and reducing severance.

This intervention targets specific locations on the road network where improvements would address these issues and includes measures such as:

  • Upgrade of the A77 from single to dual carriageway around Ayr, grade separation of key junctions and enhancements south of Ayr (part 1);
  • Enhancements on the A737 such as a bypass around Dalry (part 2);
  • Junction improvements for the A720 Edinburgh City Bypass such as at Sheriffhall Roundabout (part 3); and
  • Enhancements to the A96 such as a bypass at Nairn (part 4).

Part 1: £100m - £250m

Part 2: £10m - £50m

Part 3: £10m - £50m

Part 4: £10m - £50m

The grade separations on the A77 between Whitletts Roundabout and Bankfield Roundabout, would remove the conflict between local and strategic traffic, as well as reducing journey times by approximately 10 minutes. Upgrading the A77 to the east of Ayr would also provide additional capacity for traffic that is likely to be generated as Ayr expands to the south east. These interventions would also improve access to the ports at Loch Ryan with benefits for freight and passenger traffic.

Providing improvements on the A737 such as a bypass of Dalry would help to reduce the conflict between local and strategic traffic that occurs along this route, thus improving road safety and journey time reliability on the A737.

The A720 improvements would help to maintain the 60-minute commutable labour market area around Edinburgh, and would provide benefits for journeys to or between two of Edinburgh's areas of economic activity, West Edinburgh and the Shawfair development. Journey time reductions of approximately 5 minutes are forecast with this improvement for all elements.

Enhancements to the A96 such as a bypass around Nairn would reduce the conflict between local and strategic traffic and improve journey times and journey time reliability along the route.

The environmental impacts this intervention has on cultural heritage and landscape have been identified at the strategic level as part of the Strategic Environmental Assessment and Appropriate Assessment. Appropriate mitigation and avoidance measures have been identified and will be further refined should this intervention be taken forward.

D25

West of Scotland Strategic Rail Enhancements

This intervention supports the terminal capacity issues in Glasgow, which significantly constrain the future ability of the rail network in the West of Scotland to respond to challenges and facilitate change. This intervention supports the objectives to address rail capacity issues in central Glasgow and increase public transport access to areas of economic activity. It also assists in contributing to objectives within corridors that serve Glasgow. The detail of the strategy to address this includes some or all of the following components, recognising the opportunity for early wins and an incremental and scalable solution:

  • The provision of a new city centre surface station to the east of Glasgow Central linking the rail network to the south and east of the city;
  • The provision of a new city centre sub-surface station as part of a tunnel below the city centre linking the north and south rail networks; and/or
  • The development of a Metro network across Glasgow comprising a mixture of conversion of heavy rail (e.g. part or all of the Cathcart Circle), lines on existing redundant infrastructure (e.g. Great Western Road / Botanic Gardens), new lines (e.g. Clyde Waterfront) and some on-road or next-to-road sections.

Both of the new city centre station options would provide additional platform capacity in the city centre and permit cross-city services to be provided.

A Metro system could include new stations, improved service frequencies and improved access to and across central Glasgow.  The system would be rolled out on a phased basis.  The operational concept for the system using proven technology could be expanded to include a new crossing of the Clyde to around the Southern General Hospital and other lines to link areas not currently served by the heavy rail network.

£1.5bn – £3bn

Existing Glasgow rail terminal capacity will be at capacity within the timeframe of STPR. The lack of future rail terminal capacity places a significant constraint on the provision of additional rail services to meet future growth.

The analysis has identified that previous development of the rail network in the West of Scotland has been successful in making best use of the network by implementing small scale interventions and targeting individual constraints. The issue of terminal capacity cannot be addressed in this way, meaning that a ‘step-change’ is required in order to meet predicted future demand. This ‘step-change’ will be supported by some smaller scale interventions and enabling works. Some of these may be deliverable earlier than the major component(s) and allow some interim relief to be gained.

Detailed analysis of the problems has been undertaken to understand the function of the terminal capacity issues within the wider West of Scotland context. This analysis in conjunction with the objectives has allowed the identification of three broad core elements, each of which could form the basis of the strategy to address the objectives:

  • New surface station east of Glasgow Central;
  • New sub-surface station between Glasgow Central and Glasgow Queen Street; and
  • Development of a Metro network.

Development of these core elements has been undertaken to a level to confirm that each could provide a workable solution. This has included consideration of phasing and interaction both within and beyond the STPR period to deliver a meaningful solution.

The elements identified vary in terms of cost, risk, phasing, potential benefits, delivery timescale and in the way that they address the objectives. The elements are also not exclusive, so the strategy could for example include a new city centre station and the development of certain Metro lines.

The strategy will provide a level of ‘step-change’ that permits a fundamental restructuring and realignment of services across the West of Scotland and potentially beyond. The details of this are undefined, meaning that the potential benefits that could be gained are not yet fully understood. Similarly, the extent to which the Metro network would be developed is not a fixed proposal, but a number of phases have been identified and considered. It is however understood that the additional capacity provided by the overall strategy would be such that it would provide for a variety of potential service enhancements, including other interventions identified within STPR.

This intervention would complement the development of Intercity rail operations, giving an expanded public transport hierarchy.  Metro could provide for inner suburban movements, leaving heavy rail to cater principally for outer suburban and links to surrounding towns.  By providing cross-city routes, the Metro network could connect across Glasgow and also take pressure off the existing interchange facilities focused in the city centre.

D27

Rail Enhancements between Inverclyde/Ayrshire and Glasgow

This intervention would provide four trains per hour each between Glasgow and Ayr, Glasgow and Kilmarnock and Glasgow and Gourock, with each route served by two semi-fast services and two stopping services.

The Paisley Canal line would be reconnected to the Ayrshire line with four trains-per-hour between Glasgow and Johnstone. This would also provide an alternative route for passenger and freight services to and from Ayrshire. The intervention would also provide two trains-per-hour between Glasgow and Wemyss Bay.

As well as additional rolling stock, this is likely to require the following infrastructure enhancements:

  • Signalling upgrades between Kilwinning and Paisley;
  • Reinstatement of the line from Elderslie to Paisley Canal, provision of double track and electrification on the existing Paisley Canal branch and increased track capacity between Paisley and Glasgow;
  • Provision of turnback facilities at Johnstone;
  • Extension to the Lugton loop and a new loop between Kilmaurs and Stewarton;
  • Additional platform capacity at Glasgow Central as described in Intervention D25 (West of Scotland Strategic Rail Enhancements); and
  • Improvements to stations to enhance the environment for passengers and increase car park capacity (e.g. Prestwick, Ayr, Troon, Glengarnock, Kilwinning).

£250m - £500m

This intervention would provide a ‘step-change’ in rail service provision to the west and southwest. This would result in a significant contribution to the objectives to increase rail capacity to Ayrshire and capacity and journey time to Inverclyde.

The feasibility of this intervention is dependent on being able to provide more platform capacity in central Glasgow to accommodate the services, as proposed in Intervention D25 (West of Scotland Strategic Rail Enhancements).

The improved services provide relief for the identified overcrowding issue on the southwest electric services and give an opportunity for modal shift from road to rail particularly from Kilmarnock where the increased service frequency is high.

This intervention is expected to have a moderate positive environmental impact on air quality as modal shift from road to rail is envisaged to reduce congestion and subsequently reduce emissions.

D28

Upgrade Edinburgh Haymarket Public Transport Interchange

This intervention is targeted at a number of objectives for Edinburgh relating to improvements in public transport interchange, connections to the airport and providing for enhanced rail capacity.

This intervention would consist of:

  • Improvements to platform level access; and
  • New at-grade concourse.

£50m - £100m

This intervention would provide a significant contribution towards two of the objectives for Edinburgh, ‘to maintain the 60-minute commutable labour market area at the current level, with a particular focus on linking areas of economic activity’ and ‘to enhance public transport interchange opportunities, where feasible to do so’, by providing a step change in interchange facilities in Edinburgh. There is a forecast 50 per cent increase in rail demand between 2005 and 2022, as well as the growth in bus and tram passengers. By providing the opportunity for transfer between heavy rail, light rail and bus, opportunities for travel to areas in West Edinburgh, including the airport, would be greatly enhanced.

This intervention would complement measures to maximise the use of the station and reduce pressure on Waverley Station and the link between the two, such as the additional bay platform.

D29

Enhancements to Rail Freight between Glasgow and the Border via West Coast Main Line

This intervention would allow an increase in the number of freight paths on the West Coast Main Line (WCML) between Glasgow and the Border by enhancing the rail infrastructure. This would include measures such as:

  • Lengthening of loops;
  • Removal of speed limits that are below 75mph for freight trains;
  • Increasing the loading gauge on the route; and
  • Increasing freight terminal capacity.

This intervention may also include a new line between Mossend and Coatbridge, which would involve providing an overbridge across the A8 and M8 when works are complete.

Widening of the track may require land take or the construction of earth retaining structures where space is limited.

£250m - £500m

This intervention would improve capacity for rail freight between Scotland and England by providing enhanced facilities on the WCML. This would contribute to the freight objective identified on Corridor 18 (Glasgow to North West England and the Border) to transfer freight from road to rail.

There would be environmental benefits, as rail would be expected to capture a greater proportion of cross-border freight traffic, thereby reducing road-related emissions. New rail infrastructure could adversely affect the environment; however, it is possible that any such impacts could be mitigated at project design level.

This intervention could interact with similar proposals developed by the Department for Transport on the WCML south of Carlisle.

D30

Light Rapid Transit connections between Fife and Edinburgh

This intervention supports the objectives to increase public transport capacity between Fife and Edinburgh and supports connections to the proposed national developments at Rosyth, the Forth Replacement Crossing and Edinburgh Airport identified in the NPF2.

It would consist of a bus based rapid transit service over the replacement Forth Crossing, providing improved connections across the Forth Estuary.

In particular, it would connect the communities in Fife with the business and commercial opportunities in Edinburgh and West Lothian.

£10m - £50m

This intervention would ease congestion by offsetting the forecast decrease in capacity for road users and would result in a slight increase in the 60-minute commutable market area for Edinburgh.

This intervention could provide an efficient means to access West Edinburgh, including Edinburgh Airport, from Fife complementing the heavy rail connections via the new committed interchange at Gogar (as part of D22 – Edinburgh to Glasgow Rail Improvements Programme).

Overall, the proposed intervention performs strongly against the stated objectives and could be implemented in conjunction with D11 ((Strategic) Park-&-Ride / Park-&-Choose Strategy) and the provision of priority vehicle lanes.

D31

Inverkeithing to Halbeath Rail Line

This intervention supports the objective to maintain the 60-minute commutable labour market within Edinburgh at the current level and improve access to the port of Rosyth national development. It would also support the objective of promoting public transport journey time reductions between Aberdeen Inverness, Perth and Edinburgh by reducing journey times between Inverkeithing and Ladybank.

This intervention would consist of a direct double track rail link between Halbeath and Inverkeithing, including new junctions at Inverkeithing and Halbeath.

£100m - £250m

This intervention would reduce journey times between Edinburgh and Perth, and Inverness, Aberdeen and the central belt, although the reduction is unlikely to be significant. The greater journey time saving would be for freight, by providing a more effective link to Rosyth Port from the south, helping to support future development there.

This would provide the ability to run more direct services to Edinburgh in conjunction with a strategic Park-&-Ride facility at Halbeath. It would also enable the segregation of local and intercity services and provide more efficient freight access to the port of Rosyth.