Appendix E – Interventions not retained after Detailed Appraisal

Appendix E – Interventions not retained after Detailed Appraisal

Please click on the intervention title for further information

Ref No

Title of Intervention

Description of Intervention

Approximate Cost of Intervention

Rationale for not recommending


Suburban Rail Services Across Dundee

This intervention supports the objective to improve public transport accessibility and competitiveness to the west of Dundee. It includes:

  • A 30 minute frequency service from Arbroath to Perth;
  • A new station at Dundee West and services calling at all intermediate stations;
  • Additional suburban rolling stock; and
  • Changes to track layout and signalling to allow for the increased service frequency and construction of the new station.

£50m - £100m

Analysis shows that providing suburban rail services across Dundee would result in a negligible modal shift from car and therefore the intervention would not have a strategic impact.

The potential for improved public transport service provision for Dundee is better captured within the Interventions D10 (Reconfiguration of the National Timetable) and D18 (Rail Enhancements between Aberdeen and the Central Belt).


Co-locate Dundee Bus Station with Rail Station

This intervention supports the objective to improve bus/rail interchange opportunities in Dundee.

It consists of re-locating the existing bus station adjacent to the existing rail station, with associated improved pedestrian access to the city centre.


Moving the bus station would improve the interchange between these strategic bus and rail services. However, there is unlikely to be a significant number of people making this interchange. The more frequent bus to rail interchange would be between local buses and rail services. These bus services would be expected to continue using the on street bus stops and would not be expected to use the proposed bus station. Critically, many strategic bus journeys currently integrate well with local bus services on the existing site. The proposed re-siting of the bus station would make it difficult to make this transfer as some local bus services would not connect with the proposed station.


Construction of Glasgow Crossrail

This intervention supports the objectives to address rail capacity issues in central Glasgow and increase public transport access to areas of economic activity.

Glasgow Crossrail consists of a range of infrastructure measures that could be implemented in phases over time. For the purposes of this assessment, the intervention consists of the reopening of the Glasgow City Union Line over the Clyde to passenger trains, with two new spurs:

  • The Strathbungo Link from Muirhouse to the City Union Line allowing trains from East Kilbride and Kilmarnock to access the City Union Line; and
  • The High Street curve from the City Union Line to the North Electric Line heading west at High Street.

Additional services would be provided, such as Ayr to Edinburgh and Croy to Barrhead, with a new turnback facility at Croy.

Some services that currently operate into Central High Level would be diverted to Charing Cross via Queen Street Low Level, such as East Kilbride services, with a new turnback facility at Kelvinhaugh.

£100m - £250m

On balance, as a ‘stand alone’ intervention, Glasgow Crossrail performs reasonably well, however, it does not make best use of the rail network or integrate well with the menu of schemes required to satisfy the objectives of the STPR. The interventions set out in D25 (West of Scotland Strategic Rail Enhancements) offer better opportunities to enhance connectivity for the heaviest rail demand patterns in and around Glasgow, and could use elements of this intervention.

The committed improvements on the rail network between Edinburgh and Glasgow also provide a ‘step change’ in the connectivity of Glasgow Central to Edinburgh, resulting in enhanced connections for those travelling to and from the south and south west of Glasgow. This is likely to negate much of the potential benefit of Glasgow Crossrail.


New Busway between Glasgow City Centre, Clydebank and Glasgow Airport

This intervention supports the objective to directly connect areas of economic activity and provide links to Glasgow Airport.

It would provide a busway system along the River Clyde corridor, connecting to the Clyde Fastlink scheme and continuing west to serve Clydebank, Renfrew and Glasgow Airport. The system would generally run on a segregated alignment although some on-street operation is likely to be required at key pinch points on the route.

£100m - £250m

The introduction of a busway along the River Clyde corridor, west of the city centre, would link areas of economic activity with the urban network and would bring local benefits, but not of a scale that could be considered nationally significant.

The reduction in emissions would be limited, both in terms of scale of impact and the area of impact within the urban network.

The intervention relies on connectivity in the city centre, which is likely to result in additional trips to connection points, such as Glasgow Central Station. This would exacerbate an existing problem. It does not contribute effectively to resolving the issues with cross-Glasgow trips.

This intervention largely impacts at a local and regional level and does not contribute as effectively as other interventions such as D25 (West of Scotland Strategic Rail Enhancements). It is also noted that the Glasgow Airport Rail Link will provide a high frequency public transport service between the airport and Central Station, which would reduce the business case for connecting this intervention to the airport.


Inverness Southern Bypass from the A9 to A82

This intervention supports the objective to reduce the conflict between longer distance and local traffic in Inverness, by allowing long distance traffic to bypass the city. It consists of an Inverness bypass from the A9 to the A82, building on the suggested link road from the A96 at Smithton to the A9 at Inshes proposed as part of the upgrade of the A96 between Inverness and Nairn (Intervention D16). The extension to the A96-A9 link road would comprise:

  • Upgrade to dual carriageway of the existing B8082 between Inshes and Dores Roundabout; and
  • New crossing of the Caledonian Canal and the River Ness (by bridge over the River Ness and either a high level opening bridge over the canal or a tunnel / aqueduct crossing of the Caledonian Canal) between Dores Roundabout and the A82 at Torvean.

£100m to £250m

This intervention generally performs well against the set of defined objectives but is a high cost, road based intervention which largely provides local benefits for local traffic.

The environmental impacts this intervention has on designated sites, valued habitats, protected species and water quality have been identified at the strategic level as part of the Strategic Environmental Assessment and Appropriate Assessment.

The bypass would affect the landscape of the urban fringe of Inverness and may intersect with the Torvean landform which is noted for its landscape value. There are also potential adverse effects on noise and biodiversity.

The most technically challenging aspect of this proposal is the crossing of the River Ness and Caledonian Canal which is likely to have a potential major adverse impact on cultural heritage, soils and geology. High capital costs and relatively low benefits represent poor value for money.


Rail Freight Enhancements between Mossend, Grangemouth and Aberdeen/Inverness

This intervention supports the objectives to reduce emissions and improve operations on the road network.

It would provide enhancements to the existing rail network between Mossend, Grangemouth and Aberdeen/Inverness to allow more freight services to operate. Quality improvements would include measures such as:

  • Increased length of freight loops (allowing longer freight trains);
  • Removal of speed limits that are below 75mph for freight trains;
  • Increased loading gauge to permit larger containers to be carried; and
  • Provision of bi-directional signalling along the route to reduce the impact of engineering works (permitting the route to remain open for freight throughout the day and week).

£1.5bn - £3bn

The intervention would provide a step change in the provision of rail freight, encouraging modal shift from road to rail thereby reducing the volume of longer distance goods vehicles and the related CO2e emissions.

However, the costs of providing the enhancements are high compared with the benefits, particularly as the proposed improvements to the line to Aberdeen via Dundee would include bi-directional signalling to provide system resilience, thereby limiting the need for an alternative route via Inverness.

Depending on the form and location of works required, this intervention has the potential for moderate adverse effects on the natural environment, including biodiversity, cultural heritage, soils and geology and the landscape.


New Rail Line between Perth and Inverkeithing

This intervention supports the objective of promoting public transport journey time reductions between Inverness, Perth and Edinburgh.

The intervention would consist of a direct dual-track rail link between Perth and Inverkeithing, providing a more direct rail service to Edinburgh.

£500m - £1bn

A direct line between Perth and Inverkeithing would reduce the distance between Edinburgh, Perth and Inverness by approximately 25 per cent resulting in a journey time saving of 35 minutes. However, forecasts show a limited transfer of trips from road to rail in this corridor.

There are potential adverse effects on the water environment, biodiversity, and notably cultural heritage, where there could be a major adverse impact to the setting or integrity of nationally important sites such as Scheduled Monuments and Historic Gardens and Designed Landscapes.

The cost of this intervention is relatively high compared to the benefits. This intervention would therefore not provide value for money. In addition, there are significant technical and environmental constraints which would impact on the delivery of this intervention. Intervention D31 (Inverkeithing to Halbeath Rail Line) represents greater value for money through improved access to Rosyth and journey time reductions between Inverkeithing and Halbeath, north Fife and beyond.


Rail Freight connections to Rosyth Port

This intervention supports the objective to promote efficient and effective transport links to support the development and implementation of developments at Rosyth, identified in NPF2. The proposed improvement in rail access to Rosyth, would consist of:

  • A direct freight line (together with associated infrastructure enhancements) between the Dunfermline to Longannet line and Rosyth, allowing services from Stirling and the West Coast Main Line to access Rosyth directly, by-passing Inverkeithing station and junctions.

£50m - £100m

The proposed option performs only moderately well against planning objectives and has a potential major adverse environmental impact on biodiversity. This is in part due to the need for new rail track and the impact that this may have on the environmentally sensitive shoreline of the Firth of Forth. This intervention is also anticipated to have potential moderate adverse effects on cultural heritage and landscape.

Although this intervention would provide a direct freight line to Rosyth, Intervention D31 (Inverkeithing to Halbeath Rail Line) has the added advantage of providing benefits to rail passengers, as well as making better use of the existing rail connections to the port.


Improved Road Links to Edinburgh Airport

This intervention supports the objective to promote efficient and effective links to Edinburgh Airport, one of the proposed national developments identified in the draft NPF2. The intervention would consist of:

  • A new road link from the M8 between Junction 1 and 2 directly into Edinburgh Airport.

£50 - £100m

Many of the objectives of the STPR for the Edinburgh Urban Network and surrounding corridors are better addressed in a more sustainable manner by the other interventions such as the new rail interchange serving Edinburgh Airport and the tram links to the airport.

There is a potential major adverse effect on cultural heritage, as the intervention could impact on a Scheduled Monument.

Any road based interventions necessary to support the West Edinburgh Planning Framework should be taken forward by the planning authority as part of the infrastructure intervention required to serve the land use developments in the area.


Inverclyde Road Improvements

This intervention supports the objectives to improve the operation of the A8/M8, improve road safety and improve access to Greenock Port.

The intervention would include measures such as:

  • Average speed enforcement cameras on the M8/A8; and
  • Grade separation of junctions at Langbank, Woodhall and Port Glasgow.

£100m - £250m

The proposed intervention would contribute to the objectives to improve the operational efficiency of the A8/M8, improve safety on the A8 and enhance access to Greenock Port. However, the ability of the intervention to resolve these objectives fully is limited by the number of junctions that can feasibly be grade separated, given the constraints of the current road alignment and the urban areas through which it passes.

Due to the constrained nature of the junction locations, the proximity of the Inverclyde railway line and the need to maintain traffic flow during construction, this intervention has a high cost relative to the level of benefits that would be achieved. The intervention would provide poor value for money.

There is a potential major adverse impact on cultural heritage, namely the Grade A listed Ropeworks in the vicinity of Port Glasgow Roundabout.

Improvements to the operation of the trunk road through Intervention D6 (Using Intelligent Transport System to Enhance Capacity and Operations) could more effectively contribute to the relevant objectives for this corridor.


New Light Rapid Transit Line to Southeast Edinburgh

This intervention supports the objective to maintain the 60 minute commutable labour market within Edinburgh at the current level, with a particular focus on linking areas of economic activity by extending the Edinburgh Light Rapid Transit network to the south east of the city. The proposed scheme would follow the previously identified "Line 3" route from Edinburgh City Centre to the New Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, and then east to Newcraighall Station. The scheme would require construction of the tram route, as well as new rolling stock, stations and car parking. The scheme could be extended to serve Queen Margaret University and Musselburgh.

£100m - £250m

Although this intervention performs well against some of the planning objectives, the benefits would be largely at local and regional level.

There are potential moderate adverse environmental impacts associated with cultural heritage and landscape.

The other interventions considered, particularly D23 (Rail Enhancements in the East of Scotland) and D11 ((Strategic) Park-&-Ride/Park-&-Choose Strategy) would provide a greater benefit to the communities to the east of Edinburgh.


Augment Far North Line Rail Services with Express Coach Facilities

This intervention supports the objective of enhancing public transport accessibility and reducing journey time to and from Inverness.

The intervention would consist of:

  • Coach stop facilities to augment railway stations on the Far North Line, with additional stops to serve the Black Isle and Dornoch; and
  • Targeted infrastructure improvements to address constraints on the A9 (in conjunction with D3 (Targeted Programme of Measures to Reduce Accident Severity on the A9 north of Inverness)).


Currently the rail services north of Inverness carry the lowest levels of passengers on the Scottish rail network. Consequently a high level of subsidy is required. Provision of infrastructure to facilitate express coaches would adversely impact on the already low rail patronage levels and could affect the viability of this section of the rail network as an increase in the level of subsidy would be required. This intervention would not have any measurable modal shift from car to public transport. Therefore the costs of this scheme far outweigh any benefits that may be accrued.


Rail Freight Access Enhancements to Greenock Port

This intervention supports the objectives to improve access to Greenock Port and improve the operation of the A8/M8 by transferring freight from road to rail.

It would re-open the closed branch line between Container Base Junction (on the Wemyss Bay branch) and Greenock Container Base. Additional capacity may be required between Paisley and Shields Junction depending on the volume of rail freight that would serve the container base, although the provision of improvements associated with Ayrshire/Inverclyde may provide alternatives for freight services on the western approaches to Glasgow.

£100m - £250m

The level of expenditure required to re-open the rail access to Greenock Port is high in comparison to the potential benefits. Intervention D27 (Rail Enhancements between Inverclyde, Ayrshire and Glasgow) is likely to limit the movement of freight trains through the Paisley to Shields section of route, thus limiting the benefits of this intervention.

These rail constraints, in addition to the significant costs, mean that this intervention provides poor value for money and limited impact on the wider objectives.


Extension of Glasgow Southern Orbital from East Kilbride to M73/M74

This intervention supports the objectives to improve the efficiency of the M8 in Glasgow. It would provide a new dual carriageway link between the current eastern end of the Glasgow Southern Orbital at East Kilbride with the M73/M74 junction at Maryville. Intermediate junctions would be provided with the A749 (East Kilbride to Glasgow) and the A724 (Hamilton to Rutherglen).

£250m - £500m

This intervention duplicates much of the provision and has the potential to undermine the benefits being brought forward under the M74 extension project.

This intervention would require substantial new land take from the urban fringe. There are likely to be adverse effects on cultural heritage resources, the water environment and air quality. There are also likely to be adverse effects on local biodiversity, local landscape and visual setting and local noise levels. It is considered that the potentially substantial adverse environmental impacts outweigh the benefits of this intervention.


Suburban Rail Services Across Aberdeen

This intervention targets the objective to improve accessibility along the corridor linking the areas of economic activity at Dyce (including Aberdeen Airport), Aberdeen City Centre and South East Aberdeen.

It would consist of:

  • A regular cross-Aberdeen service, generally at half-hourly frequency, between Inverurie and Stonehaven, which would require additional rolling stock and track layout changes;
  • New stations on the route (e.g. Cove, Kittybrewster and Kintore); and
  • Provision at each station on the route for Park-&-Ride car park facilities, bus stops and access for cyclists and pedestrians.

£250m - £500m

This intervention would provide local and regional benefits through more frequent and direct cross-city rail services. However, a combination of Intervention D17 (Rail Service Enhancements between Aberdeen and Inverness) and D18 (Rail Service Enhancements between Aberdeen and the Central Belt) would greater enhance cross-city services, as well as providing significant additional benefits at the national level in terms of improving better connections between the cities.


Glasgow Subway Upgrade and Modernisation

This intervention targets the objectives in Glasgow to increase rail capacity and improve connectivity between economic growth areas and areas of regeneration.

The intervention would consist of:

  • Upgrading and modernisation of rolling stock to permit driverless operations;
  • Additional rolling stock to allow for an increase in frequency; and
  • Station upgrades.

£250m - £500m

This intervention consists of improvements to rolling stock, frequency of service and station facilities and would therefore not provide a step change in benefit to existing users. In addition it is anticipated that any transfer from road to rail as a result of this intervention would be negligible.


New Motorway Link between the M73 and Coatbridge

This intervention targets the objective to facilitate a reduction in road based freight and to promote a reduction in accident rates.

This intervention consists of a new link road from the M73 to the Freightliner terminal at Coatbridge (Gartsherrie).

£10m - £50m

While this intervention would improve road access to the Freightliner terminal at Coatbridge, thereby reducing delays for road freight using the terminal, the benefits would be felt largely at the local level.

In addition, although improved access would result in modal shift from road to rail for longer distance trips, the impact would not be significant at a national level.

A combination of D15 (Rail Enhancements on the Highland Mainline between Perth and Inverness), D18 (Rail Enhancements between Aberdeen and the Central Belt) and D29 (Enhancements to Rail freight between Glasgow and the Border via West Coast Mainline) would better facilitate freight movement and greatly improve accessibility of the freight network.