SQUIRE Inspections have been suspended since March 2020 due to COVID-19 restrictions and will resume when Government guidelines allow.

SQUIRE performance measuring

Monitoring performance is a key aspect of the franchise. Transport Scotland monitors the franchisee's quality of service through the Service Quality Incentive Regime (SQUIRE), which is a customer-focused scheme that measures the qualities of facilities at stations and on trains.

Previous SQUIRE ScotRail percentage performance figures


Quarter 3 2019-20 - Quarter 2 2019-20 - Quarter 1 2019-20


Quarter 4 2018-19 - Quarter 3 2018-19 - Quarter 2 2018-19 - Quarter 1 2018-19


Quarter 4 2017-18 - Quarter 3 2017-18Quarter 2 2017-18Quarter 1 2017-18


Quarter 4 2016-17 - Quarter 3 2016-17Quarter 2 2016-17Quarter 1 2016-17


Quarter 4 2015-16 - Quarter 3 2015-16Quarter 2 2015-16

Previous SQUIRE Caledonian Sleeper percentage performance figures


Quarter 3 2019-20




SQUIRE has seen several changes within the framework of the new ScotRail franchise, most notably the widening of parameters of the payments and penalties. Additionally, there have also been changes to some benchmark levels, methodologies and the introduction of new aspects within the audit.

The Scottish Government’s commitment to deliver continued customer improvements is reflected in tougher measurements, benchmarks, financial penalties and incentives which inhibit direct comparisons between the SQUIRE results of the previous franchise and the new one.

One key factor introduced with the new franchise is that all penalties from SQUIRE are retained in a fund for re-investment into the Scottish Rail Network. This fund is not used for repairs but for qualitative improvements or new facilities by agreement between both Transport Scotland and ScotRail.

The new and improved SQUIRE system is designed to lead to improvements across facilities, services and fault repairs.

The ScotRail franchise agreement has one of the most stringent passenger facing requirements with both SQUIRE and NRPS targets to be met, ensuring passengers receive a quality service. Both requirements provide a quantitative and qualitative service requirement that ensures a high quality of service is delivered for passengers. Transport Focus recently reviewed the NRPS with assistance from Transport Scotland to make it more effective and we were pleased to assist Transport Scotland in a review of SQUIRE based on our passenger priorities research to point out the schedules and sub-component parts of schedules that are of most importance to passengers."

SQUIRE 2018 review

Service Quality Incentive Regime – Franchise Agreement – Schedule 7.3 – para 15.2


Early in 2017 the Transport Minister instructed Transport Scotland to meet with ScotRail to discuss potential revisions to the measurements and methodologies of the Service Quality Incentive Regime (SQUIRE). The main issue was to ensure there was a greater focus on issues which had an actual impact on passengers. This was raised as a concern by ScotRail as they advised of issues which would correctly fail within the SQUIRE criteria but had little or negligible impact for passengers. There is provision within the Franchise Agreement, Schedule 7.3, para 15.2, SQUIRE Regime Review,  to review and revise the regime to ensure it was still focused on the best service deliverable.

The simplest method would have been to adjust the penalties within each Service Schedule, however this did not resolve the specific issue that each failure component within Schedules has a different level of importance and impact for passengers. For example; a Ticket Office being closed currently attracts the same penalty as the Passenger Charter not being available for passengers to view at staffed stations.

New methodology

Transport Scotland and ScotRail met on several occasions to devise a new approach with input from Transport Focus, the transport watchdog body and passenger champion. These discussions resulted in Transport Scotland suggesting and developing a process which initially would identify and categorise all aspects inspected within the regime into 3 main areas of high, moderate and low passenger impact. The current correlation is an inflexible binary calculation which requires every asset to be recorded either as a pass or a fail. There isn’t an opportunity to consider the severity or impact for passengers. The new process will now see each individual element being “weighted” based on perceived passenger impact. The weighting attributed can range from x 0.25 up to x 1.5.

This initiative was agreed as the most practical and fair method as it would result in failures recorded against more important passenger services or facilities being exposed a heavier weighting with minor issues attracting a lesser weighting. It must be emphasised that it is not a sliding scale of weighting within each schedule, each component was judged on its own merits and weighted accordingly.

Both parties had the opportunity in isolation to attribute their own weighting to each element within the Service Schedules and it is noteworthy that the vast majority, when compared, were actually identical. Those which differed were negotiated to agreement.

It is important to note everything which currently fails for SQUIRE will continue to do so, the revisions will only change the weight which each fail influences the overall score


Transport Scotland commissioned Leidios (previously Lochhead Martin), to develop an enhancement to the automated system it had already provided for the start of the new Franchise. This will provide a dual methodology for recording the weighted calculations based on either a pre-determined weighting or an assessed weighting considered at the time of inspection based on the severity of the issue. Transport Scotland have been conducting in depth user acceptance testing for several months. Due to the complexities of the new system it the intention to manually calculate the first 3 rail periods data in parallel with the new system to enable an exact cross reference to check the new system is fully operational and calculates as expected.

SQUIRE investment fund

Unlike previous Franchises all penalties accrued from the Service Quality Incentive Regime are retained within the SQUIRE Investment Fund. The initial process requires ScotRail to make proposals of projects and initiatives for Transport Scotland’s consideration. The criteria required for proposals are outlined below.

If on the occasion ScotRail do not make representation of proposals by the end of the financial year Transport Scotland can direct ScotRail to use the fund to make improvements as TS direct.

The process

All business areas within ScotRail should be advised of the fund and proposals sought from those areas where the fund could be utilised to directly or indirectly improve qualitative aspects which would provide a better service or facility for passengers at stations or on-train.

The fund should not however be utilised to fund repairs or replace facilities which would normally be repaired or replaced within normal maintenance processes. However proposals could include part or proportional funding for wider scoped projects for improving the quality of, or replace time expired assets and facilities.

The fund should not be used to directly affect/reduce SQUIRE penalties.

Each proposal should be considered on its own merits by the panel.

The panel

The panel will consist of:

  • three Senior ScotRail nominated attendees
  • three Senior Transport Scotland nominated attendees.

The panel will meet quarterly to consider and recommend projects to progress.

Each project will be presented to Transport Scotland Head of Rail Franchise and Rail Director to be agreed and signed off.

Monitoring of projects

Transport Scotland and ScotRail would nominate representatives to report on and monitor the progress of individual projects. These would be the most appropriate individuals dependant on type of project and relevant area.

The fund

All proposals submitted to Transport Scotland should include a cost to deliver each project on a fixed price basis.

If the fund is not spent each financial year and the remaining funds are carried over, January RPI will be applied to the remaining balance.

SQUIRE investment fund projects and initiatives

Examples of projects funded through the SQUIRE Investment Fund

Body cameras

Video badge

250 body cameras and associated infrastructure for use by on-train staff. This initiative has been fully endorsed by ScotRail, Transport Scotland, RMT and BTP after a successful trial which seen a reduction in both physical and verbal abuse of staff.

InterCity service introduction station facility enhancements

Supporting the wider InterCity service introduction programme, including waiting facility and customer information enhancements, toilet refurbishments and signage.

ScotRail lounges

Linlithgow station waiting area

Former waiting areas at Croy, Falkirk High, Polmont, and Linlithgow have been transformed into new ScotRail lounges.

Customer information screens

Installation of Customer Information Screens throughout the ScotRail network to replace and enhance the existing facilities and introduce new facilities at stations which previously did not have Information screens.

Completed projects

Leuchars station


Help points

Renewal of Help Point facilities throughout the network.


Installation of toilet pod.

Fares initiative 2017

Use of the fund to support of the Fares initiative announced by Minister in December 2016.

Shelter roof panels

This proposal has been signed off by ScotRail commercial sub-board. And work commenced to replace 47 shelter roofs being replaced at 31 stations throughout the network.

Class 156

Wheelchair space improvements.

Mosspark Station

Safety & Security Enhancements to lighting and bridge surface renewal.

Proposals in progress


Installation of Defibrillator equipment throughout network

Ticket Vending Machines (TVM)

Recovery and installation of 79 TVMs throughout ScotRail network.

Far North Line

Investment ring fenced actual projects TBC

Hamilton station

Several minor works agreed to tackle anti-social behaviour within station.

Catering services

On-board hospitality Electronic Point Of Sale.

Hull Class 170

Removal of the galley are to provide an additional 14 seats which allows these trains to be included in full diagrams without attracting penalties for short forming as these trains do not currently meet the seating requirements.

Customer Information Screens

Departure countdown screens – fitted at Glasgow Queen St and Glasgow Central as a pilot which if successful could be expanded to other stations.

Public Announcement Systems

Stand Clear Information and Announcements at 180 Stations.

New proposals for consideration

Investment in the Far North Line

Options being confirmed with TS, HITRANS and Far North stakeholder group. Match grant funding for Press & Ride Facility, (TBC).

Lost Property Missing X

Effective lost property system that will repatriate at least 50% of lost property – 6400 customers a year on current numbers. Protection of staff and property through an effective audit trail, and reduction of complaints.

Smart Initiatives – Stations

Smart enablement of all (or agreed additional) ticket offices to enhance the programme of top 20 stations already delivered.

Quarterly highlights

The SQUIRE regime, the toughest of its kind in the UK, is a fundamental part of our efforts to improve the passenger experience. Any penalties are disappointing, however this highlights the robust and detailed audit methodology employed.

Key messages

  • The SQUIRE regime is currently suspended as our focus is on tackling the current COVID-19 pandemic.
  • As across the UK rail industry, we are ensuring key workers can access public transport services while making sure staff and rail users alike are kept safe.
  • We remain informed by the current scientific advice and will review the suspension of the SQUIRE regime where and when services are reintroduced in a phased and controlled manner.
  • ScotRail has introduced several measures to ensure safety at this time including enhanced cleaning.
  • The SQUIRE regime, the toughest of its kind in the UK, is a fundamental part of our efforts to improve the passenger experience.
  • Where penalties apply, while disappointing, this highlights the robust and detailed audit methodology employed.
  • Initiatives introduced on trains such as the 'etiquette' campaign resulted in train cleanliness performing strongly with an average score of 98%, a 1% rise from Quarter 3.
  • We recognise that, prior to the current COVID-19 pandemic, some service schedules fell below the required benchmark. As such ScotRail is providing action plans outlining the steps it will take to improve the performance in areas of concern. In particular: station CCTV; surface related issues within Litter and Contamination schedule; station timetables; station toilets; car parks; on train refreshments and train posters.
  • We continue to work with ScotRail to identify other areas for improvement and agree steps to improve performance.
  • As part of an internal ScotRail performance improvement plan, CIS monitors are being replaced with modern screens plus Network Rail have now completed long line PA upgrades on the North Clyde route resulting in a 3% improvement for public address/customer information screens.
  • Performance of station clocks has seen an improvement of 2% in Quarter 4 when compared to Quarter 3.
  • Landscaping and vegetation has also seen a 3% rise when compared to Quarter 3 with an average score of 93.3%
  • We are encouraged that Wi-Fi has performed strongly at stations and on trains with an average of 100% performance on train and 99% at stations.

Areas identified for further improvement / steps being taken to improve performance

  • Station shelters – ScotRail have introduced measures to upskill their maintenance teams to allow them to repair faults quicker to resolve shelter panel issues throughout the network.
  • Station lighting - the SQUIRE investment fund has supported improved LED lighting at stations such as Glasgow Central, Charing Cross and our Edinburgh to Glasgow stations.
  • Station CCTV - ScotRail and the SQUIRE Investment fund contributed investment to modernise control centres in Paisley and Dunfermline and there is currently a trial of new technology for PTZ cameras. ScotRail have also implemented a more robust reporting system for fault management.
  • Litter and contamination - ScotRail continue to work with Network Rail to manage Network Rail faults through a 4 tier meeting process. The SQUIRE investment fund supported the installation of winter storage units at stations.
  • Station timetables/information – ScotRail is now producing a new customer information poster to combine and replace up to four outdated posters. This poster has been reviewed by key stakeholders and the first of its kind is now being displayed at Robroyston with the aim to roll out to all other stations soon. The decline in performance was due to a delay in updating the our routes poster with the new Robroyston Station, this issue has now been rectified.
  • Station toilets - the majority of the fails have been due to technical faults and ScotRail are working with their contractors to repair such faults when identified as quickly as possible.  However, there are some locations which require a more permanent repair such as Paisley Gilmour Street and Stirling, and ScotRail are working with Network Rail to find a permanent solution for repair.
  • Smartcard - ScotRail identified the need to replace station cabling either due to vermin eating the cables or third party projects damaging the wires. A programme is underway to replace the cabling.
  • TVM - ScotRail completed a renewal of the USB control boards across the entire fleet which has reduced errors considerably and are currently testing software to be uploaded to remove any minor errors which remain. Additionally, the TVM recovery/installation programme supported through the SQUIRE fund, nearly £1.5m which included refurbishing TVMs and purchasing additional TVMs, increased self-service capacity at 33 stations including the 5 E&G Express Route stations. This will reduce ticket queues, and improve customer facing retail reliability.
  • Train toilets - CP5 funding has seen the improvement on the CET equipment at Yoker Depot, which will allow for more regular tanking and de-tanking of trains. Additionally, there is now a dedicated role within ScotRail who monitors and investigates train toilet faults daily.
  • Train posters - the decline in performance was due to a delay in updating the our routes poster with the new Robroyston Station, this issue has now been rectified.
  • Train doors – ScotRail identified issues with internal doors on the 334 fleet and are now in a process of overhauling all the internal doors for this fleet.
  • On train catering – staff employed in these posts are at entry level into ScotRail. Staff are encouraged to progress within the organisation which has created an issue with sustaining the appropriate number of staff for these roles. A recent recruitment drive for on train catering staff will help improve performance.
  • Ticket inspection on train - portable ticket machines are driving the decline in performance. ScotRail are currently trialling new mobile on train ticket equipment, which will be rolled out within the business.

SQUIRE Investment Fund

Any penalties accrued are reinvested in the franchise through improvements to the Scottish Rail Network. Examples already delivered include installation of winter working storage units, which will allow for quicker access to necessary equipment to tackle weather related issues such as snow and ice treatment, upgraded waiting areas on the Edinburgh to Glasgow route as well as funding for staff body worn cameras.

New proposals agreed and either in progress or at final planning stages include, replacing lighting at stations on EnG route, Charing Cross and Glasgow Central with energy efficient LED lighting, trial of enhanced CCTV equipment for early warning trespass and the refurbishment of Montrose Station.