4 Vessel Specification

4 Vessel Specification

4.1 Introduction

4.1.1 This chapter contains our considered view on the requirements with respect to vessel specification on the Gourock-Dunoon town centre ferry route for the purposes of cost and revenue modelling.

4.1.2 Our incremental approach to this issue means we have had to specify foot-passenger only and passenger and vehicle ferries.

4.1.3 This specification required for the study needs to be proportionate to the task, ie we are not designing vessels but attempting to establish outline specifications and associated broad and typical costs. The key requirement was to determine a credible set of vessel related costs for the purposes of financial modelling and the calculation of likely subsidy requirement. Given the level of uncertainty attached to the process, we have given a broad 'level of confidence' attached to each cost element.

4.1.4 Our methodology was to first establish how the existing route operated and the class of vessels currently in service. Secondly, meetings were held with all stakeholders to glean their views and ideas (this included operators and Masters of ferry vessels in the Upper Clyde). Thirdly, meetings were also held with customer groups and in particular with members of the DGFAG.

4.1.5 Existing ferry services were researched throughout the world of a similar operational parameter to the Gourock-Dunoon ferry route.

4.1.6 In establishing the optimum dimensions and specifications of the ideal vessel, navigational and regulatory restrictions were looked at including: the general weather conditions for the area; the tidal range, flow and rate; significant wave heights; wave frequency, wave length and period; and the existing infrastructure at the ports.

4.2 Service Restrictions

4.2.1 The jurisdiction of the whole of the Upper Clyde (apart from parts of the Gareloch, Loch Long and Loch Goil, which are designated Naval dockyard ports and are under the jurisdiction of the Queen's Harbourmaster) is covered by Clydeport Limited, based in Greenock. Local regulations on safe navigation and emergency are published in Clydeport's local Byelaws.

4.2.2 The area of the Clyde estuary where the service operates has a speed restriction for all vessels of 12 knots, imposed by Clydeport under their health and safety management system. Below a line drawn between Cloch Point and Dunoon Pier the restriction is 19 knots. It is questionable if the speed restriction of 12 knots is legally enforceable, not being enshrined in Byelaws and is more a mutually agreed speed limit by local fishermen, yachtsmen, local harbour authorities and the Royal Navy. Speed is restricted within harbour limits by local harbour authorities and enshrined in their own byelaws, to limit wash damage to harbour installations and moored vessels and craft.

4.2.3 The area (both Category C & D waters) is designated as a 1.5 metre significant wave area by the Marine and Coastguard Agency (MCA), for issuance of certificates. Category C waters apply to tidal rivers and estuaries and large, deep lakes and lochs where the significant wave height could not be expected to exceed 1.2 metres at any time. Category D waters are tidal rivers and estuaries where the significant wave height could not be expected to exceed 2.0 metres at any time5. The Cat C area for the Upper Clyde is between Cloch Point and the Dunoon Pier northwards, thus making the Dunoon Linkspan and breakwater just in Cat D waters. This line however, moves southwards in summer between 1 April and 31 October (to a line from Bogany Point, Isle of Bute to Skelmorlie Castle and a line from Ardlamont Point to the southern extremity of Ettrick Bay inside the Kyles of Bute6), allowing the Argyll Flyer and Ali Cat vessels to trade as Class V vessels. Both existing vessels have a Class IV and Class V designation, though when in Class IV mode the vessels operate with a dispensation from carrying a Rescue Boat and operate with crews of three (instead of four). The Master has a weather restriction placed on him and can only proceed to sea in 'favourable weather', taken to mean 'fine, clear, settled weather, such as to cause only moderate rolling and pitching'7. The MCA has placed this restriction as the vessel itself will have to act as a rescue craft should a 'man-over-board' situation occur, there being no Rescue Boat fitted.

4.2.4 The distance between Gourock and Dunoon linkspans is 3.90 nautical miles, indicating that with the 12 knot speed restriction and allowance for manoeuvring, berthing and unberthing, the minimum time berth to berth would be 22 minutes, thus allowing four minutes to embark and four minutes to disembark passengers / vehicles at each end on a 30 minute service schedule. By contrast the Western Ferries route between McInroy's point and Hunter's Quay is shorter at 2.30 nautical miles, allowing that company to run their vessels more slowly within a 30 minute service.

4.2.5 Clydeport issues all Masters of ferries in the Upper Clyde with a pilot's Exemption Certificate (PEC). The Masters are certified as Boatmen by the MCA on the Ali Cat and Argyll Flyer. RoPax vessels may be required to have the Master certificated to a higher level.

4.3 Upper Firth of Clyde Weather

General Weather

4.3.1 The weather on the West Coast of Scotland is very variable at any one time, being influenced by the passage of depressions from the Atlantic, and rapid changes can frequently be experienced. The prevailing wind is between South and West, with a higher proportion of Northerly and Easterly winds in May and June, when an anticyclone is more likely to become established to the North of Scotland. Except in September and the winter months, gales are not common, although they may occur at any time. Fog as such is rare and visibility of less than two nautical miles is unlikely on more than three days per month in summer. Low cloud however, may more often obscure the tops of hills and heavy rain may reduce visibility for a time. On the whole, the best weather may be expected during May and June and October is often found to have better weather than August8.

Gales

4.3.2 Gales (Beaufort Force 7 and above) in the Upper Clyde region are infrequent. The nearest Meteorological recording station is Greenock9. This gives an average recording taken over 21 years as being 14 days per annum, viz:

January

3.3 days;

February

2.9 days;

March

1.6 days;

April

0.5 days;

May

0.3 days;

June

0.2 days;

July

0.1 days;

August

0.3 days;

September

0.5 days;

October

1.3 days;

November

1.4 days;

December

1.6 days; and

Total

14 days.

4.3.3 HMS Gannet at Prestwick reports 15 days per year taken over a 19-year recording, supporting the above figures.

4.3.4 The predominant wind is S through SW though gales can usually be expected from SW through to W but are known from all quarters. The average duration of a gale depends on exposure and may last between five and seven hours in exposed places. Gales from S and SE are usually short lived. Storm force winds (force 10 and above) in the Clyde area are very infrequent and are only 2-3% (less than 10 hours per annum) of all winds above Force 7. Wind speeds in the Upper Clyde may vary greatly within very short distances due to the different degrees of shelter and the distance from a leeward shore. Thus a SSW Force 7 may affect berthing at Dunoon but be relatively sheltered in Gourock. Conversely a NE gale will affect berthing in both Dunoon and Gourock.

Visibility

4.3.5 Fog occurs in Greenock an average of eight days a year (stats over a 21 year period), mainly in December.

Rainfall/Snow

4.3.6 Precipitation is high, averaging 232 days over a 19-year period. Although evenly distributed throughout the year, precipitation occurs more in winter months than summer. Considering the latitude of the Upper Clyde, there is relatively little snowfall at lower levels.

4.4 Tides and Tidal Flow

4.4.1 Spring Tides are about 1.6 times Neap Tides. Spring Tide Range is 3.0 metres and Neap Tide Range 1.9 metres. This is not excessive, but could be significant when looking at embarkation / disembarkation of passengers other than from a linkspan.

4.4.2 Tidal flow seldom reaches more than 1 knot at just before High Water Spring tide (HWS) in both directions, generally flowing up or down the line of the Firth. The stream does however split one nautical mile north of Cloch Point, one stream following the river and the other flowing into Loch Long.

4.5 Significant Wave height

4.5.1 The enclosed nature of the Firth of Clyde with its characteristic narrow fjords has a dampening effect which limits the wave field affecting the coastline of this area. Wave climate modelling10 indicates that the majority of the waves in the region come from the southwest and west. Significant wave height in the off shore zone rarely exceeds 1.6 metres in height whilst in the inshore zone they rarely exceed 1.25 metres in height. The Firth of Clyde is therefore not greatly affected by swell waves since they rarely extend into the area from the Irish Sea. The fjord coastline within the Firth of Clyde has inherently low wave magnitudes due to the shelter afforded by the surrounding landscape. Shelter will in effect reduce wind speed that in turn lessens wave fetch, resulting in a marked reduction in wave energy in comparison to more open areas of the Scottish coastline, outside the Firth of Clyde11. The assumption that significant wave is seldom above 1.25 metres seems to be borne out in interviews with route ferry Masters.

4.5.2 Significant wave height for a SSW force seven wind near gale (28kts) is recorded as being 1.542 metres off Cloch Point.12

4.5.3 The highest recorded significant wave height between Cloch Point and Dunoon is about 2.5 metres during Southerly Storm Force winds.13

4.6 Wave Frequency, Period and Length

Wave Frequency, Period and Length

4.6.1 Wave period (or frequency) (x) can be described as the time it takes for two successive wave crests to pass a given point. The wavelength of a sinusoidal wave is the spatial period of the wave - the distance over which the wave's shape repeats. It is usually determined by considering the distance between consecutive corresponding points of the same phase, such as crests, troughs, or zero crossings, and is a characteristic of both travelling waves and standing waves, as well as other spatial wave patterns. Wavelength is commonly designated by the Greek letter lambda (λ). The frequency (x) is the velocity that the wave crests pass at a given point. The combination of these two wave phenomenon, plus the significant wave height (y), directly affects the motion of displacement vessels. The wave height can also be affected by the depth of water, proximity of adjacent landmasses or shallow water and a funnelling effect such as is found in fjords and estuaries. Shoaling water has a significant dampening effect on frequency, significant wave height and wave period. Likewise a funnelling effect can dampen frequency by friction and this phenomenon is sometimes recognised by having high winds and relatively low wave frequency and height. This is generally known in enclosed waters as the 'fetch' of the sea.

4.6.2 There is no data on wave period and frequency for the Upper Clyde region, though it can be safely assumed that it will not have a frequency above five seconds. However with professional experience and knowledge of other areas we can comment as follows.

4.6.3 It is known that the upper reaches of the English Channel usually produces wave periods of seven to 10 seconds in SW gales. The frequency can and will shorten if the tide direction is against the wind direction, which tends to 'heap' the sea. Conversely, wind and tide from the same direction tend to 'flatten' the sea and make frequency longer. A wave period of nine seconds usually equates to a wavelength of about 70 metres. By extrapolation, wave frequencies of seven seconds equate to about 60 metres and 10 seconds to about 85 metres. It thus follows that a period of about three or four seconds would produce a wave length of about 20 to 30 metres and a five second frequency about 40 metres.

4.7 Vessel selection for the Gourock-Dunoon Ferry Route.

4.7.1 The criteria and assumptions used here in considering suitable vessels, both passenger only and passenger and vehicle (RoPax), are as follows:

  • the service requires vessels of high availability and reliability (the target being to provide a weather related reliability rating of 99.5% or better - the reliability performance achieved with the previous Streaker vessels);
  • the vessels should be of proven design suitable for service in fairly open estuarial waters;
  • the service across the Clyde estuary should be compared with vessels operating a similar essential service and in similar sea conditions;
  • the vessel type and design should be capable of operating all year round in the prevailing Clyde estuary weather and sea conditions. This applies to vessels specially built for the service or existing vessels acquired for the service;
  • the vessels must be capable of maintaining the service speed of 12 knots in all but the most extreme weather conditions experienced on the route;
  • propulsion systems fitted in the vessels will provide high manoeuvrability in the worst expected weather, especially for berthing at Dunoon and Gourock linkspans; and
  • the vessels will be able to use the berthing facilities at both Gourock and Dunoon.

4.7.2 In consideration of the above factors, other ferry operations in the UK and overseas have been analysed. Together with our own extensive experience in ferry operations globally, we it has been concluded that as an example, the ferry crossings to the Isle of Wight (IoW) operate comparable services in similar (or slightly worse) sea conditions to those of the Upper Clyde, (recognising that traffic numbers, numbers of passengers and operating restrictions with regard to vessel speeds are different to those required for the Dunoon Gourock service).

4.7.3 The data provided for the passenger only Gourock-Dunoon service which has been operating on the route since July 2011 was analysed and the many comments, qualified and unqualified, regarding the service performance have been noted. We have travelled the route on both vessels and reached the conclusion that vessels of a more suitable design and specification would provide a better sea keeping performance and more comfort for passengers. It should be noted though, that if a new, more suitable passenger only vessel was operating the route but this vessel was also subject to the MCA's service restrictions mentioned above regarding weather limits on sailing, these restrictions would undermine the new vessel's technical ability to achieve a high level of weather related reliability.

4.7.4 However, if the vessels carried a Rescue Boat it would mean that the vessel could operate without such restrictions and would be expected to deliver a high level of weather reliability. The costings in Table 4.2 are therefore based on the assumption that the vessels will carry a Rescue Boat. As such, the addition of a Rescue Boat may also require an additional crew member, after assessment by the MCA against their matrix in MSN 1823(M) ANNEX 2, which would increase staff costs14.

4.7.5 Regarding the RoPax service, we looked at the Western Ferries operation and apart from all the considerations of berths, facilities ashore and on board, distance of route etc they have a good record in maintaining a regular service even in bad weather. Again, we have studied the data available and comments regarding the service from various sources as well as travelling on the route in person. The vessels are obviously suitable for the route, though with limited passenger accommodation. It was noted that there is a tendency in heavy weather for seawater spray to come over the car deck. The ramps at either end are short and the adjacent bulwarks and gunwales are the same height, offering very little protection. This should be considered in the design of any new RoPax vessels for the Gourock-Dunoon route.

4.7.6 We do not think the GT (Gross Tonnage) figure plays a significant part in what constitutes an ideal vessel for reliability on the route (but it clearly affects port dues); the length, breadth and draft are more important with respect to sea-keeping qualities.

4.7.7 Though by no means scientifically tested in the study, experience shows that to find a vessel that will give a similar performance to the Streakers (a weather down-time of 0.5% or better), the overall length of a vessel must be above the most likely worst case scenario of wavelength, in this case assumed to be 40 metres. Maximum wave height will be assumed to be a worst-case scenario of 2.5 metres.

4.7.8 The vessel will also need to fit the linkspans at both Dunoon and Gourock and this is taken to be a maximum of 65 metres.

4.7.9 An outline specification of the vessel(s) needed was determined to be as follows:

  • Length Overall (LOA): 40 to 50 metres, (though a RoPax can be up to 65 metre);
  • beam: 11 to 15 metres;
  • draft: 2.0 to 2.7 metres;
  • service speed: 14.0 to 15.5 knots;
  • navigational: X-Band Radar, Magnetic compass, Gyro compass, AIS, GPS, E/S, Speed Log, VHF though not limited to. (Navigational equipment fit to comply with MCA Merchant shipping Notice MSN 1823 (M) paragraph 19.1);
  • capable of operating with a crew of 415;
  • passenger: 200 to 250 seated and all under cover (ie not seated on open decks);
  • vehicles (cars): 40 (RoPax vessel only), with adequate protection from sea spray;
  • adequate, compliant and safe access for embarkation / disembarkation of passengers and crew at all times;
  • vehicular ramp at both ends of vessel (RoPax only) to facilitate swift loading / unloading of vehicles;
  • vessel to be capable of operating day and night as a double header type of vessel (RoPax only);
  • GT and crew numbers should be as low as safely possible;
  • the vessel will need to be highly manoeuvrable in the worst expected weather, especially for berthing / unberthing, to enable quick turn-rounds in port; and
  • capable of operating from both Gourock and Dunoon Linkspans.

4.7.10 The above specification applies to both Passenger only vessels and RoPax vessels (except where specifically mentioned).

4.7.11 These specifications are based on our knowledge of other similar routes with similar weather / wave patterns, and is given as our own best professional judgement. To ascertain the hull form of an ideal vessel for this particular route is outside the project's ToR. To do this, a technical feasibility project would be needed to produce a 12-month hydraulic study of wave patterns, tidal flow and weather for the Upper Clyde. Such a study would require accurate weather, wave and tidal data over a number of years. Whilst the weather and tidal data may be available it is doubtful if wave data exists with any accuracy, as wave rider buoys have not been in use in the Upper Clyde. A naval architect would then have to base hull form calculations on the findings of the hydraulic study to find the ideal ship and to model tank test his design.

4.7.12 Finding such a ship (or two!) is no easy task and there are not many readily available that fit the bill.

4.7.13 We have looked at the current market and consulted with ship broking associates within the group and have not found any suitable vessels for sale that would meet the criteria for operating the route or be economical to operate.

4.7.14 However, our research shows the following passenger only vessels were available at the time of writing (throughout the world) and are shown here to give an indicative second hand price to assist the financial modelling of the study, though some are slightly outside our recommended specification criteria.

  • Cezayorti Hasan Pasa GT 2,695t, built 1997, in Australia. LOA 59.90m x 17.50m beam x 3.25m draft. 490 Pax, Class DNV, speed 24 kts. Price US$4.7/4.8 mio;
  • Turgut Reis GT 2,695t, built 1997 in Australia. LOA 59.90m x 17.50m beam x 3.25m draft. 490 Pax, Class DNV, speed 24 kts. Price US$4.7/4.8 mio;
  • Sea Star GT 887t, built 1991. LOA 45.25m x 10.50m Beam x 2.50m draft. 400 Pax, speed 12 kts. Price US$2.3/2.4 mio;
  • Cloud X, GT 1,010, built 2012. LOA 37.52m x 18.09m beam x 3.5m draft. 365 Pax, speed 20kts, price US$1.4/1.5; and
  • Bequia Express built 1972, GT 630t, LOA 51.59m x 10.04m beam x 2.92m draft. 250 Pax, speed 13kts, price - offers.

4.7.15 Therefore, the likelihood of finding a second hand passenger only vessel to meet the suggested outline specification is remote, and to meet such a specification new vessels will probably have to be designed. We caveat this statement that any such vessel designed and built from new, be it a passenger only vessel or a Ropax vessel should be designed and built with a resale value and worth, at their half-life of 10 or 12 years.

4.7.16 As part of the research Clyde Marine was visited (as requested by Transport Scotland) and an examination of their vessel Clyde Clipper was undertaken at Greenock. The Managing Director of Clyde Marine stated that the vessel was designed and built specifically for the route in anticipation of bidding for the contract. It is 27m LOA x 11.2m x 2.2m draught. Whilst it is larger than the two current vessels on the route, 1m longer than the Argyll Flyer and 4m wider in the beam and should perform better than either of the current vessels, she does not conform to the specification outlined here and would therefore only produce a short-term solution. She was used on the route for a short period when the Argyll Flyer was being readied for service, and more recently last summer as an extra vessel during the Cowal games period. There appears to be no data regarding winter service to compare reliability rates with the current vessels.

4.7.17 This research has concluded that the Wightlink Ferries Ryder Class passenger catamaran vessels, Wight Ryder I and Wight Ryder II currently providing a service between Portsmouth and Ryde (IoW) would potentially be a suitable type of passenger only vessel for the Gourock-Dunoon crossing. Built in 2009 with LOA of 41.5m x 12m beam x 1.6m draft, 260 Pax, speed 20 knots, they have a 100% operating efficiency in all weathers experienced since coming into service. The area of operation of all Wightlink ferries namely the East and West Solent are classified as Category C waters16. A vessel of this design with a reduced speed of 14-15 knots would provide a reliable passenger only service with a high degree of reliability. The Wightlink vessels were Built by FBMA in the Philippines at a cost, including shipment, of UK£3.125 million each. They are not built as High Speed Craft.

Wightlink Ferries Ryder Class passenger catamaran

4.7.18 Various RoPax vessels were considered, but not many vessels were identified in the size category considered here. Some examples of the vessels considered are as follows:

  • Coastal Double Ended Car-Truck / Day Passenger Ferry built Greece 2005, 50m x 15.30m x 2.8m moulded depth with 1.8m max draft, Daewoo 4 x 400hp with 4 x Veth rudder props, 12/14 knots, 60 European type cars and around 500 passengers, 3 ensuite crew cabins for 6; and
  • Sylt Express, 660 dwat on 3.7 m draft, built Fiskerstrand, Norway 07/2005, dims: 88.16 x 16.1 m, 3,652 GT, 600 passengers, 80 cars (or 10 trucks + 40 cars), M/E 4 x Mitsubishi S12R-PTK - 4,400 kW total, Propulsion: 2 electrical Azimuth propellers Schottel STP 1212 >abt. 16kn @ abt. 210 g/kwh, MDO.

4.7.19 However it has been concluded that the best example of a suitable RoPax vessel for the Dunoon / Gourock route would be that found on the Lymington / Yarmouth (Isle of Wight) ferry crossing. Wightlink Ferries operate two RoPax services to the IoW from Portsmouth and Lymington. The Lymington vessels are too large for the Gourock-Dunoon service, but a scaled down version of a similar design with some modifications and increased speed would be a suitable type of vessel. They are 62m LOA x 16.03 x 2m beam x 2.3m draught, speed 11 knots they are double ended RoRo with a capacity for 360 passengers and 65 cars. They have a floating mezzanine deck for cars and have Voith Snyder propulsion units and were built in Croatia at a cost of €10 million. The mezzanine deck was 25% of the cost and the sophisticated propellers 15%. Thus, if the mezzanine deck and propulsion units were scaled back, the vessel could be built for a cost in the region of £6 million.

RoPax vessel

4.7.20 The new CMAL Hybrid Ro Pax ferry to be introduced during 2013 is considered too small and too slow, though a larger vessel of this class would probably serve the route well: LOA 43.5m (142ft) x Beam 12.2m (40ft); DWT35t; Speed 9 knots; Passengers 150, Cars 23, Commercial Vehicles 2, Fully laden 44t HGVs, but with space for 4. These are reported to cost £10 million each.

4.7.21 The estimated acquisition costs for new vessels used in calculating the business plan should be, viz:

  • Passenger only vessel: UK £3,000,000; and
  • RoRo Passenger vessel: UK £6,000,000.

4.7.22 When looking at new vessels the specification should also consider the resale attractiveness to potential buyers worldwide.

4.7.23 We do not consider additional crew would be needed over and above the crew numbers currently operating the Argyll Flyer and the Ali Cat, though a higher class of certification may be required for the Master of a RoPax. This also applies to shore based operations. Four crew members operate the Wightlink passenger only ferries and Western Ferries operate their RoPax vessels with crews of four. However if a Rescue Boat is to be carried and in accordance with MCA MSN 1823 (M) ANNEX 2, crewing matrix, the Ropax vessel may require an additional crew member and a higher qualification for the Master. This calculation is borderline17 however and this is reflected in Table 4.2 below.

4.8 Infrastructure

4.8.1 The Linkspan at Gourock is in need of refurbishment in the medium term. We understand that this is in the CMAL investment programme but there are issues with replacing / refurbishing the linkspan whilst maintaining a service there. The current infrastructure could however be used in the short term for any new ferry service. CMAL has confirmed that were a new vehicle carrying service to be introduced, the linkspan would require significant attention within 18 months to two years. Note also that the linkspan at Gourock is used as a port of refuge for other west coast ferry services, so the linkspan does require to be maintained regardless of the presence or otherwise of a ferry service between Gourock and Dunoon.

4.9 Vessel Outline Specifications and Estimated Operating Budgets

4.9.1 Table 4.1 below provides a summary of the proposed vessel specification described in the preceding paragraphs.

4.9.2 Table 4.2 below then shows a table of approximate operational costs associated with these vessels. Given the level of uncertainty surrounding many of these values, the table includes a reference to the level of confidence attached to each value.

4.9.3 Argyll Ferries figures have been used where we consider there will be no change in costs. Cost estimates are for one vessel.

Table 4.1 Proposed Vessel Characteristics

Vessel Outline details

Passenger only vessel

Passenger & RoRo Vehicle Vessel

LOA

40m - 50m

45m - 65m

Beam

12m - 15m

14m - 16m

Draft

1.2m - 2.5m

2.3m - 2.7m

GT18

190-520 (median 355)t

500 - 1,100 (median 800)t

Service Speed

14 - 15.5 knots

14 - 15.5 knots

Type

Catamaran (Displacement)

Monohull RoPax

Passenger No.

250

250

Car No.

N/A

40 min

Propulsion System

Propellers

Azimuth propulsion system for high manoeuvrability

LSA

Life rafts (+Rescue Boat)

Life rafts (+Rescue Boat) (MES)

Construction

Steel/Aluminium or composite materials

Steel or steel hull/aluminium superstructure

Engine power region

780kW

1100kW

Est Consumption

1.24mt/day

1.68mt/day

Fuel

MGO LS

MDO LS

GT - Gross Tonnage is a unitless number based on the total volume of the enclosed spaces of a vessel. Thus: GT = K x V
where V = Total Volume of enclosed spaces in the ship
where K = multiplier based on total volume = 0.2 +(0.02 x Log10 of V)
Example: A vessel of 12,000m3 total volume would have a K = 0.2+(0.02 x Log10 12,000), therefore K= 0.2+(0.02 x 4.0792) = 0.2816.
The GT would therefore be 0.2816 x 12,000 = 3,379.
Volume is specific and measured to a strict formula by the registry or assigning authority.

Table 4.2 Approximate Proposed Vessel Operational Costs

Level of Confidence in assumptions

Ship Costs per Vessel (Direct) (£'000)

Passenger only vessel

Passenger & RoRo Vehicle Vessel

Medium

Crew

390

400 (4 crew) / 500 (5 crew)

Medium

Crew agency

10

10

Medium

Staff cost/overheads

130

130

Medium

Fuel19 & Lube oils (subject to price variation)

332

451

Medium

Ship maintenance & repairs

85

111

Medium

Spares & stores

28

42

Medium

Dry-Docking costs

54

82

Berthing & traffic dues

See Chapter 7

See Chapter 7

Medium

Insurance

26

66

High

Management fees

104

104

Total Expenditure

£1,159

£1,396 / £1,496

4.10 Noted Suggestions

  • approaches at a later date could be made to the MCA to have the Category C / Category D delineation line moved from Cloch Point to Dunoon Pier to Cloch Point to the head of the new Breakwater opened in the Spring of 2005 (a distance of 80 metres). This will allow the vessels to be in Category C water at all times and allow them to trade as Class V (and less expensive) vessels;
  • approaches at a later date could be made to the MCA to allow other approved methods of rescue for Man-over-board other than a Rescue Boat ie lasso method used by Wightlink on their Class IV vessels Wight Ryder I and Wight Ryder II (including a mechanical means of lifting from the water); and
  • approaches should be made to Clydeport Limited and Upper Clyde users to increase the speed restriction from 12 knots to 15 knots.