1. Available at:

2. A 'free find' or convenience sampling approach was used which involved participants being drawn that were readily at hand in the selected communities and who were willing to self-disclose illegal behaviours. More structured approaches were explored with the police (to recruit people with known illegal driving histories), but were not viable. Chapter 3 provides details of the sample profile and Appendix D provides details of their self-reported illegal driving behaviours.

3. Driving Standards Agency (2012) The Official Highway Code, Department for Transport, London.

4. For further information see:

5. The other two respondents reported speeding regularly on roads with different thresholds, i.e. three different 'types' of speeding behaviour. Appendix D provides details.

6. Clayton, et. al. (1980) The male drinking driver: Characteristics of the offender and his offence, Transport and Road Research Laboratory: Berkshire

7. Luhman, N., (1979) Trust and power, New York: John Wiley and Sons

8. BOMEL (2004) Safety culture and work-related road accidents, Road Safety Research Report No.51, Department for Transport: London

9. Driving Standards Agency (2012) The Official Highway Code, Department for Transport, London.

10. Causing death by dangerous or careless driving and causing death by careless driving while under the influence of drink or drugs are classified separately under 'homicide'.

11. Prior to 2011-12 this was known as 'drunk driving'.

12. A full list of offences and their definitions that fall into this category can be found at

13. Available at:

14. This data provides an indication of the number of accidents where a particular factor plays a part, however, in some cases the figures reflect the reporting officer's opinion at the time of reporting, and may not be the result of extensive investigation.

15. For further information see:

16. Lee. L. and Humphrey, A. (2011) Attitudes to Road Safety: Analysis of driver behaviour module, 2010 NatCen Omnibus Survey, Department for Transport, Road Safety Research Report No. 122, Department for Transport, London.

17. Enyon, C. (2011) So that's how they drive! Tracking driver behaviour and attitudes in Scotland, Road Safety Scotland Seminar, October 2011, TNS-BMRB

18. A copy of the RITS questionnaire is available, on request, from Transport Scotland

19. A peak of 14% was noted for hand held mobile phone use in the February/March 2011 survey

20. Step Beyond: Midlands Partnership Group (2006) Drivers' Attitude Study, Step Beyond, Staffordshire

21. Webb, T. L. and Sheeran, P. (2006) Does changing behavioural intentions engender behaviour change? A meta-analysis of the experimental evidence. Psychological Bulletin, 132, 249-268.

22. Conner, M. et al. Lawton, R., Parker, D., Chorlton, K., Manstead, A. S. R. and Stradling, S. (2007) Application of the Theory of Planned Behaviour to the prediction of objectively assessed breaking of posted speed limits. British Journal of Psychology, 98, 429-453.

23.Myant, K. et al (2006) Illicit drugs and driving, Scottish Executive Social Research, Edinburgh

24. TNS System Three (2008) Drinking and Driving 2007: Prevalence, decision making and attitudes.

25. Christmas, et al (2008) Strapping Yarns: Why people do and do not wear seatbelts, Department for Transport, London

26. A full range of previous campaign materials and other resources can be found at: