Commentary

Commentary

Figure 1 Reported accidents by severity, 1966 to 2012

Figure 1 Reported accidents by severity, 1966 to 2012

1. Trends in the reported numbers of Injury Road Accidents and Casualties

1.1 Main Points

Table 1 shows the long-term trends in the reported numbers of injury road accidents and casualties, the population of Scotland, the number of vehicles licensed, the length of the road network and the volume of traffic. Information on the severities of the accidents, and of the injuries suffered by the casualties, is provided in Table 2. The numbers of injury road accidents were first recorded separately in 1966, while the numbers of casualties are available back to 1938. Figures 1 to 7 illustrate the trends in the reported numbers of injury road accidents and casualties including (in some cases) indications of the likely range of random year-to-year variations (see section 1.4). As mentioned in the introduction, injury accidents not reported by the public to the police won't appear in the returns. Note that each accident will result in one or more casualties. For example a fatal accident could result in two fatalities and a serious injury which would count as one accident + 3 casualties.

Accidents

  • In 2012, there were 160 fatal accidents, 15 (9%) fewer than in 2011, the lowest number since the records began in 1970.
  • Serious injury accidents in 2012 increased by 57 (3%) to 1,730.
  • Slight injury accidents fell by 273 (3%) in 2012 to 7,857 - the lowest number since records began.

Casualties

  • There were 174 people killed in road accidents in Scotland in 2012, 11 (or 6%) fewer than in 2011 and the lowest since records began in 1950.
  • 1,974 people were seriously injured in road accidents in 2012, 97 (or 5%) more than in 2011.
  • 10,528 people were slightly injured in road accidents in 2012, 187 (or 2%) fewer than in 2011 - the lowest figure since 1950.
  • There were a total number of 12,676 casualties in 2012 - 101 (or 1%) fewer than in 2011 - the lowest figure since 1938.

The reductions in the numbers of accidents and casualties in recent years are notable particularly given the rise in vehicle and subsequent traffic. E.g. in 2012 the number of vehicles licensed in Scotland was about a sixth higher than in 2002 and traffic on Scottish roads was estimated to have grown by five per cent since 2002.

1.2 Reported Accidents

In 1966 there were just over 23,200 injury road accidents and the annual total remained around this level until 1973. Numbers then dropped considerably in 1974 and 1975 to about 20,600. This was the time of a fuel crisis when a national speed limit of 50 mph was introduced and the volume of traffic in Great Britain fell by 3% in 1974. Accident numbers increased again in 1976 and reached a peak of nearly 23,100 in 1979.

In the early 1980s numbers began to fall, and did so particularly sharply in 1983 when the total number of injury accidents fell by 7% in a single year to 19,400, serious accidents fell by 13% to just over 6,400, and fatal accidents fell by 11% to 568. The 1981 Transport Act came into force in 1983 and changed the law relating to drink driving, with the introduction of evidential breath testing. Compulsory front seat belt wearing and new procedures for licensing learner motor cyclists were also introduced in 1983. After 1983 the total number of injury accidents increased again to over 20,600 in 1985, and the number of serious accidents rose to just over 6,500 while fatal accidents continued to fall.

By 1987 the total number of injury accidents had fallen to under 18,700, but in 1989 it rose to just over 20,600. 1989 was the most recent peak in the total number of injury accidents. Since 1989, the total number of injury accidents has fallen in 20 out of 23 years, and in 2012 it was at the lowest level ever recorded. The 2012 figure of 9,747 was 231 less than in 2011.

Since the late 1980s, the number of fatal accidents has fallen considerably e.g. from 517 in 1987 to 160 in 2012. For serious accidents, the trend has also been downwards. The number of serious accidents has fallen e.g. from 5,814 in 1989 to 1,730 in 2012 - the third lowest number ever recorded. The numbers of slight accidents have not changed as much over the years: oscillating between 12,000 and 15,000 from 1970 to 1998. The most recent peak level was 14,443 in 1990. However, they fell below 12,000 in 1999, and the 2012 figure of 7,857 was the lowest since slight accident numbers were first recorded in 1970.

1.3 Reported Casualties

As the numbers of accidents have fallen, shave the numbers of casualties. Therefore, this section does not repeat the previous section's detailed analysis of how the numbers have changed.

Numbers killed

In 2012 there were 174 people killed in road accidents in Scotland, a decrease of 6% on 2011. This was the lowest figure recorded. With a few exceptions, figures fell in each year since 1978, showing a clear, steady long-term downward trend, particularly between 1982 and 1994. Since then, figures have been fluctuating around a less pronounced downwards trend. The number in 2012 was 25% below the average for the previous five years (232).

Numbers seriously injured

In 2012 there were 1,974 people seriously injured in road accidents: 97 (5%) more than in 2011. This is the third lowest number since records began in 1950. The long term trend shows that the number of serious casualties peaked in the early 1970's at around 10,000 and generally fell since the early 1980's. However, there has been some fluctuation around the long-term downwards trend, and appeared to level-off: 1996, 1997 and 1998 were around 4,050. But the downward trend subsequently resumed.

Numbers slightly injured

In 2012 there were 10,528 people slightly injured, 187 (2%) fewer than in 2011, and the lowest number since 1950. Between 1970 and 1990, the figures fluctuated between 17,000 and 21,000. The fall between 1990 and 1995 was followed by an apparent levelling-off at around 17-18,000 in each of the years from 1996 to 1999, could have been a continuation of that pattern. However, 2000 to 2012 showed consecutive falls suggesting a continuing downward trend.

Total numbers of casualties

In 2012 there was a total of 12,676 casualties, 101 (1%) fewer than in 2011 (The lowest number recorded). Between about 1970 and 1990, the figures fluctuated around a general downward trend. Subsequently, the casualty figures fell markedly from the level of the most recent short-term peak (over 27,000 in both 1989 and 1990), before appearing to level off. However, the downward trend resumed from 1999 to 2012.

Government targets for reductions in the numbers of road accident casualties

In 1987 the UK Government adopted a target to reduce road casualties by one third from the 1981-85 annual average by the year 2000. The number of people killed on the roads in Scotland in 2000 was 49% below the 1981-85 average number of fatalities per year, and therefore the target of a one-third reduction by the year 2000 was exceeded for fatalities. For seriously injured casualties, the 2000 figure was 57% below the 1981-85 average, so the target was bettered for seriously injured casualties. However, the figure of 16,618 slight casualties in 2000 was only 9% below the 1981-85 average and so the target of a one-third reduction was not achieved for slight casualties. And, the total number of casualties in 2000 was 24% below the 1981-85 average, and therefore the target of a one-third reduction in the total number of casualties was not met.

In March 2000, the UK Government, the then Scottish Executive and the National Assembly for Wales announced a new national road safety strategy and casualty reduction targets for 2010. The number of people killed or seriously injured on the roads in Scotland in 2010 was 55% below the 1994-98 average, and therefore the target of a 40% reduction by the year 2010 was exceeded for fatalities. For children Killed or seriously injured, the 2010 figure was 73% below the 1994-98 average, a greater reduction than the 2010 target of a 50% fall. The slight casualty rate of 25.67 casualties per 100 million vehicle kilometres in 2010 was 45% below the 1994-98 baseline average of 46.42 - a greater reduction than the 2010 target of a 10% fall.

Scotland's Road Safety Framework was launched in June 2009. It set out the vision for road safety in Scotland, the main priorities and issues and included Scotland-specific targets and milestones which were adopted from 2010.

A separate section on the Scottish national casualty reduction targets for 2020 (which appears after this Commentary) provides statistics related to these targets, plus a selection of key points. It contains charts and tables for each of the five targets showing the main trends in casualty numbers in comparison to the 2004-08 baseline averages. It also shows the numbers that might be expected in each year up to 2020 if the targets were to be achieved by means of a constant percentage reduction in each year.

Figure 2 Scottish fatal reported road accidents: 1972 onwards showing likely range of values (see text) around 5-year moving average

Figure 2 Scottish fatal reported road accidents: 1972 onwards showing likely range of values (see text) around 5-year moving average

Figure 3 Scottish reported road accident deaths: 1949 onwards showing likely range of values (see text) around 5-year moving average

Figure 3 Scottish reported road accident deaths: 1949 onwards showing likely range of values (see text) around 5-year moving average

1.4 The likely range of random year-to-year variation in some road accident and casualty numbers for Scotland as a whole(see Figures 2 to 5)

Because road accidents may occur at random, the numbers of accidents, and the numbers of casualties in those accidents, can fluctuate from year to year. Figures 2 to 5 show, for Scotland as a whole, the numbers of:

  • fatal road accidents (1972 to 2012);
  • road deaths (1949 to 2012);
  • people killed or seriously injured (1950 to 2012);
  • children killed or seriously injured (1981 to 2012).

The number of years covered by each chart reflects the availability of the relevant figures. The black dots are the values in each year, and the black lines indicate the year-to-year variation. The grey dashed lines show the likely range of random year-to-year variation in the figures: based on statistical theory, one would expect that only about 5% of years would have figures outwith these ranges. Appendix G describes how these ranges were produced: the limits of the likely ranges of values are calculated in a similar way to 95% confidence intervals. It also explains why they cannot be produced for all years.

Fatal accidents, and deaths in road accidents (see Figures 2 and 3)

Figures 2 and 3 show that the number of fatal accidents is within its likely range of values in every year, and the number of road deaths is within its likely range of values in all but three years. These results are reasonable: one would expect a few years' figures to be outside the likely range of random year-to-year variation, given that there are over 30 years' figures for fatal accidents and over 50 years' figures for road accident deaths. Figures 2 and 3 therefore show that, despite the large percentage changes such as the falls in deaths of 19% between 1998 and 1999, and of 13% between 2001 and 2002, the figures almost always remain within the expected ranges. Hence, one should not put too much weight on a single large percentage change.

Children killed or seriously injured (see Figure 5)

Figure 5 shows that the year-to-year fluctuations in the numbers of children killed or seriously injured (for the years for which figures are readily available) are generally within the expected ranges. The exceptions are around 1994, when health boards' policies changed, with the result that more child casualties were admitted to hospitals for overnight observation. This changed the classification of many injuries from slight to serious.

When changes in operational practice or to administrative processes have a marked effect on the statistics, the resulting year-to-year changes can be much greater than those expected to arise due to normal random year-to-year variation - sit is not surprising that there are figures outwith the expected ranges around 1994.

Killed or seriously injured (KSI) casualties (see Figure 4)

Figure 4 has many years' figures (around a third) outwith the calculated likely range of values. The reason for this is that statistical variability is not the only reason for year-to-year changes - other factors have contributed to sharp falls and rises in KSI casualty numbers. For example, the sharp fall shown in 1983 may be partly due to the introduction of seat belt wearing (for drivers and front seat passengers in most cars and light vans). Similarly, the sharp rise in 1994 may be due in part to the change in hospital practices referred to earlier.

Figure 4 Killed and seriously injured reported casualties showing likely range of values (see text) around 5-year moving average

Figure 4 Killed and seriously injured reported casualties

Figure 5 Reported child (0-15) casualties: killed or seriously injured showing likely range of values (see text) around 5-year moving average

Figure 5 Reported child (0-15) casualties: killed or seriously injured

In effect, such factors change the underlying rate of occurrence of accidents and/or casualties, and therefore, in effect, introduce a break into the series of moving average values. The method used to calculate the likely range of random variation cannot take account of the effect of such changes.

Only Figure 4 has figures outwith the calculated interval due to the likely ranges of random year-to-year variation calculated for small numbers being quite wide in percentage terms. This is because, for a Poisson process (see Appendix G), by definition, the greater the frequency of occurrence of events, the smaller the proportion that the standard deviation of the frequency (which is the square root of that number) represents of that number. For example:

  • with 100 cases, the square root is 10 - or 10% of the value;
  • with 400 cases, the square root is 20 - 5% of the value;
  • with 10,000 cases, the square root is 100 - only 1% of the value.

As a result, if a factor (like the introduction of the compulsory wearing of front seat belts) were to cause the same percentage fall in each of the four types of accident and casualty numbers used in the charts, the following might be observed. The percentage fall could be within the relatively wide percentage range of likely random variation around the smaller numbers, but outwith the relatively narrow percentage range of likely random variation around the larger numbers. The ranges in Figures 2, 3 and 5 appear to be sufficiently wide to encompass the effects of changes such those mentioned above. (That is, the effects of the changes in their first years may fall within the likely range of random variation.

Of course, over the longer-term, such changes should make significant contributions to the reductions in casualty numbers and their severity.) However, the intervals in Figure 4 include a much smaller than expected proportion of the figures. This is because the likely range of random variation for KSI casualties represents only a small percentage of the total, and factors like those mentioned above appear to have had a greater percentage effect than that in their first years.

2. Reported Accidents

2.1 Accidents by road type and severity (see Table 4)

Table 4 shows separate figures for trunk roads and for local authority roads. Trunk roads accounted for only small proportions of the total numbers of accidents in 2012: 23% of fatal accidents, 15% of serious accidents, and 16% of all accidents. The trunk road network's shares of accident numbers in previous years were broadly similar.

Accident trends for different types of road will be affected by developments in the surrounding area (new city and town bypasses, construction of new roads with high average traffic flows etc.) Therefore, figures do not provide an accurate measure of the comparative change in the road safety performance of different types of road.

Several changes were made to the trunk road network with effect from 1st April 1996. Appendix E refers to them, and explains why the 1994-98 averages for trunk roads and for local authority major roads have been calculated by counting accidents which occurred prior to 1st April 1996 on the basis of whether they occurred on roads which were part of the post- 1 April 1996 trunk road network.

2.2 Accident rates (see Table 5)

Accident rates showing the number of accidents per 100 million vehicle kilometres are contained in parts (b) and (c) of table 5. These are calculated by dividing the numbers of accidents on each type of road by the estimated volumes of traffic on those roads, which were provided by the Department for Transport, and which are available for all types of road with effect from 1993. The five year average accident rates were calculated by dividing the total number of accidents which occurred in each five year period by the total of the estimated volumes of traffic for the same period, rather than by calculating the averages of the individual accident rates for the five years.

Accident rates have fallen markedly since the early 1990s. The overall fatal accident rate has dropped from 0.66 per 100 million vehicle kilometres in 2002 to 0.37 in 2012; the serious accident rate fell from 6.46 to 3.97; and the overall accident rate (all severities) reduced from 34.53 per 100 million vehicle kilometres to 22.38. Motorways had consistently lower accident rates than A roads. Leaving aside the relatively low rate for fatal accidents, minor roads (taken together as a group) tend to have higher accident rates than major roads, and accident rates tend to be higher for built-up roads (roads with speed limits of up to 40mph) than for non built-up roads (ones with higher speed limits).

Part C of the table shows that estimated accident rates vary considerably by police force area. Some of this variation may be attributed to the distribution of traffic by road type within individual areas.

2.3 Accidents by month by road type (see Table 6)

The numbers of injury accidents over the years 2008-2012 were fairly evenly spread throughout the year, with minor peaks in August, September and November. Serious accidents varied more between the months, and their peak, which occurred in June, was 11% above the monthly average. (Months are standardised to 30 days tallow comparison)

On average, there were 16 fatal accidents per month in the years 2008 to 2012. The number did not vary greatly between the months: the lowest average was 13, and the highest was 20.

2.4 Accidents by light condition and road surface condition (see Table 7)

The light and road surface conditions and the type of road (e.g. built-up) contribute to the severity of an accident. Severity rates are higher on non built-up roads than on built-up roads, likely due to the higher average speed. Severity rates are also higher in darkness than in daylight, likely due to poorer visibility.

For example, taking the annual averages for 2008-2012, 4.1% of injury road accidents on non built-up roads in darkness (47 out of 1,160) resulted in one (or more) deaths compared with 1.7% of accidents on built-up roads in darkness (30 out of 1,762) and 2.8% of accidents on non built-up roads in daylight (82 out of 2,928). Similarly, the percentage of accidents classified as serious is lower for built-up roads in daylight than for built-up roads in darkness.

Figure 6 Reported casualties: Total and Slightly injured - from 1950

Figure 6 Reported casualties: Total and Slightly injured - from 1950

Severity rates did not appear to be higher when the road surface condition was wet, damp or flooded, or affected by snow, frost or ice. For example, taking the annual averages for 2008 to 2012, the percentage of accidents on non built-up roads classified as serious when the road surface condition was dry was 24.4% (442 out of 1,808) compared with 18.3% (329 out of 1,800) when the surface was wet and 14.0% (67 out of 480) when it was affected by snow, frost or ice.

2.5 Car driver accident rates (see Table 18b)

This table includes all car drivers involved in injury accidents regardless of whether they were injured or not, on the basis of whatever information is known about their ages and their sex. For example, someone whose sex was known, but whose age was not known, will be included in the all ages total for the appropriate sex. The grand total includes those for whom neither the age nor the sex was known.

As the car driver accident rates that are shown for each sex and age group are on a per head of population basis, rather than being based upon the numbers of driving licence holders or upon the distance driven, they can provide only a general indication of the relative accident rates for each group. The statistics do not provide a measure of the relative risk of each group as car drivers, because they do not take account of the differing levels of car driving by each group.

Age & Gender

Car driver accident rates per head of population vary markedly by age and sex. In 2012, the overall rate was 2.7 per thousand population aged 17+. The peak occurs for males in the 17-25 age group, with a rate of 4.6 per thousand population in 2012. This rate is one and a third times those of females of the same age (3.4 per thousand in 2012).

The overall male car driver accident rate in 2012 was 3.3 per thousand population and for all age groups was slightly lower than the previous year. The overall female car driver accident rate in 2012 was 2.1 per thousand population and all age groups apart from 26-34 were slightly higher than the previous year. The rates for the age groups, were slightly lower than the previous year.

Between 2002 and 2012, the male car driver accident rate fell from 5.8 to 3.3 per thousand population, while the female car driver accident rate has declined slowly from 2.9 per thousand population to 2.1 per thousand in 2012. As a result, the overall, ratio of male to female car driver accident rates has fallen from 2.0 : 1 for 2002 to 1.6 : 1 in 2012.

3. Reported Casualties

3.1 Casualties by type of road (see Table 23)

In 2012, non built-up roads accounted for two-fifths of the total number of casualties (41%: 5,189 out of 12,676). However, because speeds are higher on non built-up roads than elsewhere (the definition is roads with a speed limit of more than 40mph), they accounted for three quarters of those killed (63%: 109 out of 174) and for just over half of the total number of seriously injured (47%: 931 out of 1,974).

Compared with 2002, the fall in the total number of casualties has been the same for non built-up roads as those elsewhere (34%). The difference in the numbers killed on non built-up roads is higher than those on built-up ones (down by 53% for non built-up roads compared with a reduction of 12% elsewhere). Over the years, some traffic will have been transferred away from built-up roads by the opening of city and town bypasses, and by the construction of non built-up roads with higher average traffic volumes. Therefore, these figures do not provide an accurate measure of the comparative change in the road safety performance of built-up and non built-up roads.

3.2 Casualties by mode of transport (see Table 23)

A total of 7,647 car users were injured in road accidents in 2012, representing 60% of all casualties. Of these car users, 73 died. There were 1,969 pedestrian casualties (16% of the total), of whom 57 died, 901 pedal cycle casualties (7% of the total), of whom 9 died, and 865 motorcycle casualties (7% of the total), of whom 21 died. Because of the numbers of car user, pedestrian, pedal cyclist and motorcyclist casualties, the figures for each of these four groups of road users are the subject of separate sections, which follow this one, and are followed by a section on child casualties, which gives details of their modes of transport.

Together, all the modes of transport other than the four mentioned above accounted for 1,294 casualties in 2012 (10% of the total), and for smaller percentages of the numbers of seriously injured. These included 439 bus and coach users injured in 2012, of whom 43 suffered serious injuries (one died). There were als352 casualties who were travelling in light goods vehicles, 140 people in heavy goods vehicles, 165 users of taxis, 69 users of minibuses and 129 people with another means of transport.

3.3 Car user casualties

A total of 7,647 car users were injured in road accidents in 2012, representing 60% of all casualties. Of these people, a total of 845 were seriously injured, 73 died. Non built-up roads accounted for over half of all car user casualties (52%: 3,997 out of 7,647). Perhaps because average speeds are higher on non-built up roads, they accounted for much higher percentages of the total numbers of car users who were killed (84%: 61 out of 73) or were seriously injured (68%: 574 out of 845). (see Table 23)

The number of car users killed in 2012 was 18% less than the 2011 figure. The number who were seriously injured rose by 12% and the total number of casualties of all severities was down by 2%. Since 2002, the number killed has dropped by 53%, and there have been falls of 48% in the number who were seriously injured and of 35% in the total number of car user casualties. (see Table 23)

Looking at annual averages over the years 2008-2012, the casualty rate for 16-22 year old car users was 3.97 per thousand population. This was much higher than the rate for car users in the older age groups, which varied from 0.9 to 3.9 per thousand population. (see Table 32)

Figure 7 Reported casualties: 5 year moving average (1947-51 to 2008-12)

Figure 7 Reported casualties: 5 year moving average (1947-51 to 2008-12)

On average, over the years 2008-2012, 71% of car user fatalities occurred on roads with a speed limit of 60mph. Such roads accounted for 59% of those car users who were seriously injured, but for only 41% of the total number of car user casualties (of all severities). (see Table 33)

Adult car users

On weekdays, the peak time for adult car user casualties was from 4pm to 6pm. The 5pm to 6pm average of 493 (the average over the years 2008-2012) was 16% higher than the average of 425 in the morning 8am to 9am peak. (see Table 28)

Adult car user casualties varied by month, with fewest in April and most in November. November had 30% more adult car user casualties than the April (annual averages over the years 2008-2012; months standardised to 30 days). (see Table 29)

Friday had the peak numbers of adult car user casualties over the years 2008-2012 with 11% more than the average daily number of adult car user casualties. (see Table 30)

3.4 Pedestrian casualties

There were 1,969 pedestrian casualties in 2012: 16% of all casualties. Of these, 460 were seriously injured (57 died). Presumably due to the number of pedestrians and because of their greater vulnerability, a high proportion (23%) of the total number of people who were seriously injured were pedestrians. In addition, 23% of pedestrian casualties were seriously injured (460 out of 1,969) compared with an average for all modes of 16% (1,974 out of 12,676). About 96% of pedestrian casualties occurred on built-up roads (1,884 out of 1,969). Perhaps because of higher average speeds on non built-up roads, 31% of the pedestrian casualties on such roads were seriously injured (26 out of 85) compared with 23% on built-up roads (434 out of 1,884). (see Table 23)

The number of pedestrians seriously injured in 2012 was 11% lower than 2011 and the overall number of pedestrian casualties was 4% lower. Since 2002, the number of pedestrians killed has fallen by 22%, the number who were seriously injured has dropped by 44%, and there has been a 41% reduction in the total number of pedestrian casualties. Looking at the annual average for the period 2008 to 2012, the pedestrian fatality rate was higher for those aged 70+ (0.03 per thousand population) than for any other age-group. However, the 12-15 age-group had the highest 'serious' and 'all severities' pedestrian casualty rates (0.27 and 1.20 per thousand population, respectively). The corresponding casualty rates for the 5-11 age-group were slightly lower. (see Tables 23 & 32)

The overall pedestrian 'all severities' casualty rate for males was 0.51 per thousand population, compared with 0.32 per thousand for females, using the averages for the period 2008 to 2012. (see Table 34)

Adult pedestrian casualties

On average in the period 2008 to 2012, the peak time for adult pedestrian casualties during the week was from 4pm to 6pm; at weekends it was from midnight to 2am. (see Table 28)

November and December were the peak months for adult pedestrian casualties, with each having 21-32% more than the monthly average. Adult pedestrian casualties in the four winter months, November to February, were 19% more than the monthly average (annual averages over the years 2008-2012; months standardised to 30 days). (see Table 29)

Friday and Saturday have the highest numbers of adult pedestrian casualties; respectively 36% and 21% more than the daily average over the period 2008 to 2012. (see Table 30)

3.5 Pedal Cycle Casualties

There were 901 pedal cycle casualties in 2012, 77 more than the previous year. The number of seriously injured pedal cycle casualties in 2012 was 167, 7% higher than in 2011. There were 9 pedal cycle fatalities in 2012, two more than 2011. Since 2002 there has been a 9% rise in all pedal cycle casualties, the number who were seriously injured has risen by 16%, and the number of fatalities has fluctuated between 4 and 16. In 2012, 87% of pedal cycle casualties were on built-up roads. (see Table 23) But 57% of all fatalities over the last five years were on non-built up roads. It should be noted that pedal cycle traffic has increased by 24 per cent since 2002, and increased 2 per cent between 2011 and 2012.

In terms of the averages for the period 2008 to 2012, the pedal cycle casualty rate per head of population was highest for those aged 30-39 (0.26 per thousand population) and 26-29 (0.25 per thousand). Of course, it must be remembered that, as noted earlier, per capita casualty rates do not provide a measure of the relative risk, because they do not take account of the levels of usage of (in this case) pedal cycles. (see Table 32)

Adult pedal cycle casualties

Using the averages for the period 2008 to 2012, on weekdays, the peak numbers of adult pedal cycle casualties were from 4pm to 7pm and from 7 am to 9 am. At weekends the numbers were smaller, and there was no clear peak. (see Table 28)

The peak months of the year for adult pedal cycle casualties were June, August and September which were around 20% more than the monthly average (2008-2012 annual averages standardised to 30 days). (see Table 29)

The day of the week with the peak numbers of adult pedal cycle casualties was Wednesday, 25% higher than the daily average, over the years 2008-2012. There were substantially fewer adult pedal cycle casualties on Saturday and Sunday, with 37% and 35% less than the daily average respectively. (see Table 30)

3.6 Motorcyclist casualties

A total of 865 motorcyclists were injured in road accidents in 2012, representing 7% of all casualties. Of these, 342 were seriously injured and 21 died. A half of all motorcyclist casualties occurred on non built-up roads but (perhaps because of their higher average speeds) such roads accounted for three fifths of those seriously injured, and over four fifths of those killed. (see Table 23)

The number of motorcyclist casualties in 2012 was 7% higher than in the previous year. The number killed fell by 12 and the number seriously injured increased by 49. The total number of motorcycle casualties rose each year from 1999 to a peak in 2001; since then, it has tended to decline. As a result, the figure for all casualties in 2012 was 26% lower than in 2002. Twenty five less motorcyclists died in 2012 than in 2002. (see Table 23)

On average, over the years 2008 to 2012, the motorcyclist casualty rate was highest for the 16-22 and 40-49 year old age groups (0.37 and 0.29 per thousand population respectively), followed by 30-39, 0.28 per thousand population and 23-25, 0.27 per thousand population; other age-groups had much smaller casualty rates. (see Table 32)

Looking at the averages for the period 2008 to 2012, the peak time of day for adult motorcyclist casualties was 4pm to 6pm on weekdays (see Table 28), the peak months of the year were May (110), with a longer peak from May to September (see Table 29) and there were more casualties at the weekend than on any of the other days (see Table 30).

3.7 Child (0-15) casualties

There were 1,164 child casualties in 2012, representing 9% of the total number of casualties of all ages. Of the child casualties, 194 were seriously injured, and 2 died (see Table 24).

There were five less children killed in 2012 than in 2011 and a fall of 4% in the number of children seriously injured. The total number of child casualties fell by 12%. Since 2002, the number of children killed has fallen by 12, there has been a reduction of 62% in child seriously injured casualties, and a 58% fall in the total number of child casualties. (see Table A and Table 25)

In terms of the averages for the period 2008 to 2012, on weekdays, the peak time for child casualties was from 3pm to 5pm, with 29% of all weekday casualties in those two hours. A further 26% occurred in the three hours between 5pm and 8pm There was a smaller peak in the morning, between 8am and 9am There was no real clear peak at weekends: the numbers of casualties were very broadly the same each hour from 1pm to 6pm (see Table 27)

August was the peak month for child casualties, with 28% more than in an average month. May and September had 12% and 22% more than an average month respectively. (2008-2012 annual averages standardised to 30 days). (see Table 29)

Using the averages for 2008 to 2012, Friday was the peak day of the week for child casualties, with 19% more than an average day. Sunday, on the other hand, had 27% less than an average day. (see Table 30)

Child (0-15) casualties by mode of transport

In 2012, there were 519 child pedestrian casualties. They accounted for 26% of all pedestrian casualties of all ages (519 out of 1,969). Of the child pedestrian casualties, 132 were seriously injured (1 died). (see Table 24)

There were 121 child pedal cycle casualties in 2012 (13% of the total of 901 pedal cycle casualties of all ages). The child pedal cycle casualties included 21 who were seriously injured, 1 died. (see Table 24)

In 2012, there were 450 child casualties in cars, 6% of the total number of car user casualties of all ages (450 out of 7,647). Of the child casualties in cars, 34 were seriously injured (none died). (see Tables 23 and 25)

Child (0-15) casualty rates (per head of population)

Children's casualty rates (per head of population) increase with age: using the averages for the years 2008-2012 taken together, for children aged 0-4 the rate was 0.68 per thousand population, whereas it was 1.67 per thousand for those aged 5-11 and for the 12-15 age group it was 2.36 per thousand. The pedestrian casualty rate for younger children (0-4 years) was three tenths of those for 5-11 and a fifth of the 12-15 year old rate. (see Table 32)

The pedestrian casualty rate for boys in the 5-11 age group was almost twice that for girls. The difference between the sexes was even more pronounced in the case of the driver or rider casualty rates, particularly for the 12-15 age group. (see Table 34)

The overall child pedestrian casualty rates for seriously injured and for all severities, at 0.17 and 0.72 per thousand child population respectively, were almost two times higher than the corresponding rates for adult pedestrian casualties. (see Table 32)

3.8 Casualty rates for local authority roads by local authority area, and the likely range of random year-to-year variation in these figures (see Appendix H)

There can be some large percentage year-to-year fluctuations in the numbers of some types of casualty for local authority areas. In order to illustrate this, the table and charts in Appendix H were initially prepared in 2006 and published in Road Accidents Scotland 2005. They have now been updated using data for 2008 to 2012. They provide the following overall casualty rates (calculated per 100 million vehicle kilometres) for local authority roads in each local authority area for 2010:

  • (all ages) killed casualty rate;
  • (all ages) seriously injured casualty rate;
  • child killed and seriously injured casualty rate(combined in one chart due to small numbers);
  • slight casualty rate

These figures were calculated (or taken) from the data in two of the tables in this publication:

  • the numbers of children killed and seriously injured, and the total number of people killed and seriously injured - Table 40; and
  • the number of slight casualties, the estimated volume of traffic (in millions of vehicle kilometres) and the resulting slight casualty rate - Table 41.

The table in Appendix H also shows the likely upper and lower limits of the ranges within which these casualty rates would be expected to fall, given the likely random statistical variation that might affect the number of casualties in that year. Based on statistical theory, one would expect that the actual figures would be outwith these ranges in only about 5% of cases. The text in Appendix H describes how the ranges were calculated, using the annual averages for 2008 to 2012, as that is the five year period centred on 2010 (the year to which the casualty rates relate). That is why the table and charts are not for 2012: the calculation of ranges for 2012 would require the annual averages for 2010 to 2014. When the table and charts were prepared, 2010 was the latest year for which data were available.

The charts which accompany the Appendix H table show the actual casualty rates for 2010, casualty rates based upon the 2008-2012 annual averages, and the likely ranges of values within which the 2010 rates might fall, given the likely levels of random statistical variation in that year (calculated from the 2008-2012 annual averages). The 2010 rates are identified by black diamonds, the rates based upon the 2008-2012 annual averages by small circles, and the likely ranges of values by the thin bars which extend to either side of the small circles. (In any case where the 5 year average is zero, there is no likely range of values as, by definition, the value for 2010 could only be zero.) For example, the slight casualty rate chart shows that (for local authority roads in 2010):

  • East Renfrewshire had the lowest slight casualty rate (15 per 100 million vehicle-kilometres) and Glasgow the highest (61 per 100 million vehicle kilometres), as can be seen from the table;
  • In the case, of East Renfrewshire table 41 shows that, in 2010, they had a lower number of slight casualties than their 2008-2012 annual average numbers, whereas Inverclyde had a slightly higher number than their 2008-2012 annual average;
  • Orkney and Eilean Siar had the widest likely ranges of values. This is due to their having relatively few slight casualties (2008-2012 annual averages of 28 and 46, respectively). The smaller the casualty numbers are, the greater in percentage terms the potential random year-to-year variation (this is discussed in Section 1.4 and Appendix G). Edinburgh and Glasgow have much narrower likely ranges of values, because their numbers of slight casualties on local authority roads are much larger (2008-2012 annual averages of 1,149 and 1,339 respectively). The Scotland figure (at the foot of the chart) has a very narrow likely range of values, because it is based on an annual average of 9,440 in 2008-12.
  • Few local authorities had slight casualty rates that were markedly out with the likely range of values;
  • Orkney had a slight casualty rate (24 per 100 million vehicle-kilometres) which was noticeably above the lower limit (of 14 per 100 million vehicle-kilometres) of the estimated likely range of values - in other words, the slight casualty rate that year was unusually high, compared with what would have been expected on the basis of the casualty numbers for the five-year period. On the other hand North Ayrshire had a slight casualty rate (32 per 100 million vehicle-kilometres) which was noticeably below the upper limit of 43 per 100 million vehicle-kilometres which was unusually low. Table 41 shows that its number of slight casualties in 2010 was 145, compared with the annual average of 169 for the years 2008 to 2012.

4. Motorists, breath testing and drink-driving

4.1 Breath testing of drivers (see Tables 19, 20 and 21)

These tables cover all motorists who were known to be involved in injury road accidents (e.g. excluding those untraced drivers involved in hit and run accidents). Here, a motorist is defined as the driver or the rider of a motor vehicle (e.g. motorcycle)

In 2012, 60% of motorists involved in injury accidents were asked for a breath test (this ranged from 56% to around 80% across the police forces). The breath test proved positive (or the motorist refused to take the test) for 3.1% of those drivers breathalysed. This represented 1.8% of the total number of motorists involved (including those who were not asked for a breath test). There have been falls in these percentages in the last couple of years as seen in table 19.

Tables 20 and 21 show the time and day of the accident (Table 20) and for a number of years (Table 21). Table 21 shows that, in 2012, of the 287 positive / refused cases, 47% occurred between 9pm and 3am [19% between 9pm and midnight, plus 28% between midnight and 3am.] Table 20 shows that, using 2008 to 2012 averages, the number of positive / refused cases, expressed as a percentage of motorists involved in accidents, was highest (at around 16%) between midnight and 6am, but varied depending upon the day of the week, from 9% (the average for 3am to 6am for Mondays to Thursdays) to 21% (3am to 6am on Saturdays and Sundays). Table 20 shows that although the period from 9pm to midnight had the second highest number of positive / refused cases, the equivalent percentages were not as high, because between 9pm and midnight there were many more motorists involved in accidents than between midnight and 3am

4.2 Drink-drive accidents and casualties (see Table 22)

Table 22 shows the estimates (made by the Department for Transport) of the numbers of injury road accidents involving illegal alcohol levels. They are higher than the number of drivers with positive breath test results (or who refused to take the breath test) because they include allowances for the numbers of cases where drivers were not breath tested because of the severity of their injuries, or because they left the scene of the accident. Information about the blood alcohol levels of road users who died within 12 hours of being injured in a road accident is supplied by the Procurators Fiscal.

The estimates show that the numbers of drink-drive accidents fell by 39% and the number of casualties by 43% between 2001 and 2011 (the latest year for which estimates are available): from a rounded estimate of 800 to roughly 490 (accidents) and from around 1,190 to some 680 (casualties). While fluctuating from year to year, the number of people killed as a result of drink-drive accidents is estimated to have fallen by over two thirds, from about 70 in 2001 to around 20 in 2011. The number of serious casualties is estimated to have dropped by a similar amount (from roughly 250 in 2001 to some 90 in 2011).

5. Comparisons of Scottish figures against those of other countries

5.1 Casualty rates: against England & Wales (see Tables C to F)

Historically, killed and seriously injured casualty rates per head of population in Scotland have been above those for England & Wales, whereas the total casualty rate is usually lower in Scotland than in England & Wales. In 2012, Scotland's casualty rates were 17% higher (killed), the same (serious) and 26% lower (all severities).

Child rates

In 2012, the Scottish rates were 12% higher (serious) than those in England and Wales and 3% lower (all severities). In the case of serious casualties this represented an improvement in Scotland's figures relative to England & Wales (compared with the 2004-08 average).

Due to the relatively small number of fatalities a 5 year average is used for comparison here. In the period 2008-2012, child fatality rates in Scotland were on average 26% higher than England and Wales, however, in 3 of the five years the rates were lower.

It should be noted that the ratio of the fatality rates for Scotland and for England and Wales can fluctuate markedly from year to year, particularly for the child fatality rates due to the relatively small numbers in Scotland, (which may be subject to year-to-year changes which are large in percentage terms). Therefore, subsequent paragraphs do not refer to the fatality rates for children using different modes of transport. In addition, it should be remembered that the rates for some other sub-groups may be affected by year-to-year fluctuations: for example, the numbers are relatively small for most categories of child killed and seriously injured casualties in Scotland.

Mode of transport

The casualty rates of car users in Scotland have for many years been substantially higher than those of England & Wales for killed and seriously injured casualties, while for all severities the rate has been much lower. In 2012, Scotland's car user fatality rate was 7% higher than that of England & Wales, the seriously injured rate was 22% higher, while the all severity car user rate was 27% lower. For child car users, the seriously injured rate was 39% higher in Scotland and the all severities rate was 21% less than that of England and Wales.

In 2012, the pedestrian killed rate per capita was 66% higher in Scotland than England & Wales, and the serious and all severities rates were 4% and 10% lower respectively. The child pedestrian casualty rates in Scotland were 11% higher (seriously injured) and 6% lower (all severities) compared to those for England & Wales.

Pedal cyclists casualty rates (all ages) in Scotland were substantially lower than in England & Wales in 2012 for seriously injured (42% lower) and for all severities (47% lower). The child pedal cycle casualty serious and all severities rates were also lower in Scotland than in England & Wales. These differences may reflect the fact that, according to the National Travel Survey, on average, people in Scotland do not travel as far by bicycle as people in England and Wales.

Further information about the numbers of casualties in England and Wales, and for Great Britain as a whole, can be found in Reported Road Casualties Great Britain 2012, which is published by the Department for Transport.

5.2 Road deaths: International comparison 2011 & 2012 (provisional) (see Tables G and H)

Introduction

This section compares Scotland's road death rates in 2011 and 2012 (provisional) with the fatality rates of some countries in Western Europe and some developed countries world-wide. The comparisons involve a total of up to 42 countries (including Scotland, and counting each of the UK, Great Britain, England, Wales and Northern Ireland as an individual country). The fatality rates were calculated on a per capita basis (the statistics given are rates per million population), and the countries were then listed in order of their fatality rates in Table G sections (a), (b), (c) and (d). In cases where two countries appear to have the same rate, the order takes account of decimal places which are not shown in the tables. A table of car user fatality rates which were calculated on a per motor vehicle basis is no longer shown due to a lack of consistent data.

Tables G and H were provided by the Department for Transport, which obtained the figures for foreign countries from the International Road Traffic and Accident Database (IRTAD) Web site, the address of which is: http://www.internationaltransportforum.org/jtrc/safety/safetyl

In accordance with the commonly agreed international definition, most countries define a fatality as being due to a road accident if death occurs within 30 days of the accident. However, the official road accident statistics of some countries limit the fatalities to those occurring within shorter periods after the accident. The numbers of deaths, and the death rates, which appear in the IRTAD tables take account of the adjustment factors used by the Economic Commission for Europe and the European Conference of Ministers of Transport to represent standardised 30-day numbers of deaths.

Latest Results

In 2012, Scotland's provisional overall road death rate of 32 per million population was the ninth lowest of the 39 countries surveyed (counting each of Scotland, England, Wales and Northern Ireland as a separate country, but not counting the overall GB and UK figures).

Pedestrians

However, Scotland's overall road safety position does not appear as good when the fatality rates of pedestrians are considered separately. In 2011, Scotland's pedestrian fatality rate was 8 per million population. Scotland ranked twelfth of the 39 countries for which figures are available (again counting Scotland, England, Wales and Northern Ireland separately, and again not counting the GB and UK figures).

Car Users

When the car user fatality rate is calculated on a per capita basis, Scotland has a low car user fatality rate (17 per million population: the sixth lowest of 39 countries, again not counting the GB and UK figures.

Age

The fatality rates per head of population for up to 36 countries (including Scotland, England, Wales and Northern Ireland as separate countries, but not counting the overall GB and UK figures) are shown, for each of four broad age-groups, in Table H. Again, the ordering takes account of decimal places not shown in the table. In most cases, Scotland has one of the lowest rates per capita. However, the Scottish rate is second lowest for casualties aged 15-24. It was the eighth lowest for those aged 0-14 fifth lowest for 65+ and tenth lowest for those aged 25-64 (in each case, not counting the overall GB and UK figures).

International comparisons of road safety are based on road death rates, as this is the only basis for which there is an international standard definition. As indicated above, the OECD IRTAD tables provide comparable figures for each country, after making adjustments to the data for countries which do not collect their figures on the standard basis. One should not try to compare different countries' overall road accident casualty rates (i.e. the total numbers killed or injured, relative to the population of each country) because there is non internationally-adopted standard definition of a injury road accident. There are considerable differences between countries in the coverage of their injury road accident statistics. For example, many countries count only accidents which result in someone being admitted to hospital - so their figures would not include the kinds of accident which, in Britain, are classified as causing only slight injuries or certain types of serious injury. Because many countries' definitions of injury road accidents are much narrower than the definition used in the UK, their reported numbers of injury road accidents will appear low relative tours - so comparing the reported numbers of people injured in road accidents may provide a misleading impression of different countries' road safety records.

Table C: Reported casualties in Scotland, England & Wales by severity
Number of casualties  :  All ages and child casualties
  Scotland England & Wales
  Killed Serious All severities Killed Serious All severities
1.  All Ages
(a)  Numbers
2004-08 ave 292 2,605 17,097 3,016 28,513 257,789
2008 270 2,575 15,592 2,266 23,499 215,342
2009 216 2,288 15,044 2,006 22,421 207,134
2010 208 1,969 13,338 1,642 20,700 195,324
2011 185 1,877 12,777 1,715 21,249 191,187
2012 174 1,974 12,676 1,584 21,080 183,148
2008-2012 ave 211 2,137 13,885 1,843 21,790 198,427
(b)  Per cent changes:
2012 on 2011 -5.9 5.2 -0.8 -7.6 -0.8 -4.2
2012 on 2004-08 ave. -40.4 -24.2 -25.9 -47.5 -26.1 -29.0
2008-12 ave. on 04-08 ave -27.8 -18.0 -18.8 -38.9 -23.6 -23.0
2. Reported child casualties1
(a)  Numbers
2004-08 ave 15 325 2,019 144 3,169 26,090
2008 20 279 1,689 104 2,413 20,306
2009 5 253 1,473 76 2,338 19,181
2010 4 223 1,377 51 2,225 18,194
2011 7 203 1,316 53 2,149 18,159
2012 2 194 1,164 59 2,019 14,016
2008-2012 ave 8 230 1,404 69 2,229 17,971
(b)  Per cent changes:
2012 on 2011 -71.4 -4.4 -11.6 11.3 -6.0 -22.8
2012 on 2004-08 ave. -87.0 -40.4 -42.3 -59.1 -36.3 -46.3
2008-12 ave. on 04-08 ave -50.6 -29.2 -30.5 -52.4 -29.7 -31.1

Table D: Reported casualties in Scotland, England & Wales by severity
Rates per 1,000 population  :  All ages and child casualties
  Scotland England & Wales Scotland % of England & Wales
  Killed Serious All severities Killed Serious All severities Killed Serious All severities
1.  All Ages
(a)  Rates per 1,000 population
2004-08 ave .06 .51 3.34 .06 .53 4.80 102 96 70
2008 .05 .50 3.02 .04 .43 3.96 126 115 76
2009 .04 .44 2.90 .04 .41 3.80 113 107 76
2010 .04 .38 2.55 .03 .37 3.54 134 101 72
2011 .04 .36 2.43 .03 .38 3.40 115 94 71
2012 .03 .37 2.39 .03 .37 3.24 117 100 74
2008-2012 ave .04 .41 2.65 .03 .39 3.58 121 104 74
(b)  Per cent changes:
2012 on 2011 -7.0 4.0 -1.9 -8.3 -1.5 -4.9      
2012 on 2004-08 ave. -42.5 -27.0 -28.6 -50.1 -29.8 -32.5      
2008-12 ave. on 04-08 ave -29.3 -19.7 -20.5 -40.7 -25.8 -25.3      
2. Reported child casualties1
(a)  Rates per 1,000 population
2004-08 ave .02 .35 2.19 .01 .31 2.54 119 114 86
2008 .02 .31 1.85 .01 .24 1.99 215 129 93
2009 .01 .28 1.61 .01 .23 1.88 74 121 86
2010 .00 .24 1.51 .00 .22 1.76 89 113 86
2011 .01 .22 1.44 .01 .20 1.72 153 109 84
2012 .00 .21 1.27 .01 .19 1.31 40 112 97
2008-2012 ave .01 .25 1.54 .01 .21 1.73 126 118 89
(b)  Per cent changes:
2012 on 2011 -71.5 -4.6 -11.7 10.3 -6.9 -23.5      
2012 on 2004-08 ave. -86.9 -39.8 -41.8 -60.7 -38.9 -48.4      
2008-12 ave. on 04-08 ave -50.1 -28.4 -29.7 -53.1 -30.7 -32.1      

1 Child 0-15 years

Table E: Reported casualties in Scotland, England & Wales by mode of transport and severity, 2012
  Scotland England & Wales
Killed Serious All severities Killed Serious All severities
1. All ages
Pedestrian 57 460 1,969 366 5,103 23,269
Pedal cycle 9 167 901 109 3,055 18,193
Car 73 845 7,647 729 7,366 111,897
Bus/coach 1 43 439 10 269 4,795
Other 34 459 1,720 370 5,287 24,994
Total 174 1,974 12,676 1,584 21,080 183,148
2. Child casualties1
Pedestrian 1 132 519 19 1,394 6,483
Pedal cycle 1 21 121 12 290 2,077
Car 0 34 450 27 285 6,693
Bus/coach 0 1 43 0 11 625
Other 0 6 31 1 39 216
Total 2 194 1,164 59 2,019 16,094

Table F: Reported casualties in Scotland, England & Wales by mode of transport and severity, 2012 Rate per 1,000 population : All ages and child casualties
  Scotland England & Wales Scotland % of England & Wales
Killed Serious All severities Killed Serious All severities Killed Serious All severities
1. All ages percentages
Pedestrian .01 .09 .37 .01 .09 .41 166 96 90
Pedal cycle .00 .03 .17 .00 .05 .32 88 58 53
Car .01 .16 1.44 .01 .13 1.98 107 122 73
Bus/coach .00 .01 .08 .00 .00 .08 106 170 97
Other .01 .09 .32 .01 .09 .44 98 92 73
Total .03 .37 2.39 .03 .37 3.24 117 100 74
2. Child casualties1
Pedestrian .00 .14 .57 .00 .13 .61 61 111 94
Pedal cycle .00 .02 .13 .00 .03 .19 97 85 68
Car - .04 .49 .00 .03 .63 n/a 139 79
Bus/coach - .00 .05 - .00 .06 n/a 106 80
Other - .01 .03 .00 .00 .02 n/a 180 168
Total .00 .21 1.27 .01 .19 1.51 40 112 85

1 Child 0-15 years

Table G: Fatality rates per capita, for (a) all road users 2012 (Provisional), (b) all road users 2011, (c) Pedestria and: (d) car users ranked by respective rates: International Comparisons 1,2
(a) All road users 2012 (Provisional) (b) All road users 2011
  Numbers           killed Per million population   Numbers           killed Per million population
Rate Index Rate Index
Malta  9 22 67 England 1,594 30 86
Northern Ireland  48 26 82 Great Britain 1,901 31 88
England  1,491 28 87 United Kingdom 1,960 31 88
Iceland  9 28 88 Northern Ireland 59 33 93
United Kingdom  1,802 28 88 Sweden 319 34 96
Great Britain  1,754 28 89 Norway 168 34 97
Norway  148 30 93 Scotland 186 35 100
Denmark  167 30 94 Iceland 12 38 107
Sweden  286 30 94 Wales 121 39 112
Wales  93 30 95 Denmark 220 40 113
Scotland  170 32 100 Netherlands 661 40 113
Israel  263 33 103 Switzerland 320 41 116
Irish Republic  162 35 110 Irish Republic 186 41 116
Switzerland  286 36 112 Malta 17 41 116
Netherlands  650 39 121 Japan 5,507 43 123
Spain  1,834 40 124 Israel 341 44 125
Japan  5,237 41 129 Spain 2,060 45 127
Germany  3,601 44 138 Germany 4,009 49 140
Finland  255 47 148 Finland 292 54 155
Slovakia  295 55 171 Australia 1,275 56 160
France  3,653 56 175 Slovakia 324 60 171
Cyprus  51 59 185 France 3,963 61 174
Australia  1,310 60 186 Austria 523 62 177
Italy  3,650 60 188 Italy 3,860 64 181
Hungary  605 61 190 Hungary 638 64 182
Austria  522 62 193 New Zealand 284 64 184
Slovenia  130 63 198 Luxembourg 33 64 184
Luxembourg  34 65 202 Slovenia 141 69 196
Estonia  87 65 203 Czech Republic 773 74 210
Belgium  767 69 216 Estonia 101 75 215
Czech Republic  738 70 220 Belgium 858 78 222
Portugal  743 70 220 Portugal 891 84 240
New Zealand  308 71 222 Cyprus 71 85 241
Bulgaria  605 83 258 Latvia 179 86 246
Latvia  177 87 271 Bulgaria 658 89 254
Croatia  393 89 279 Romania 2,018 94 268
Greece  1,027 91 284 Croatia 418 95 270
Poland  3,571 93 290 Lithuania 297 97 277
Romania  2,042 96 299 Greece 1,141 101 287
Lithuania  301 100 313 United States of America 32,367 104 296
United States of America  33,780 108 336 Republic of Korea 5,229 105 299
Republic of Korea 5,392 110 345 Poland 4,189 109 310
(c) Pedestrians (d) Car users
  Numbers killed Per million population   Numbers killed Per million population
Rate Index Rate Index
Norway 17 3 43 Japan 1,070 8 49
Netherlands 65 4 48 Netherlands 209 13 74
Sweden 53 6 69 England 736 14 82
Denmark 33 6 73 Great Britain 883 14 85
New Zealand 31 7 87 United Kingdom 916 14 85
Northern Ireland 13 7 88 Switzerland 119 15 89
England 386 7 90 Sweden 159 17 99
United Kingdom 466 7 91 Scotland 90 17 100
Great Britain 453 7 91 Northern Ireland 33 18 107
Germany 614 8 92 Wales 57 19 109
Finland 41 8 94 Malta 8 19 113
Wales 24 8 96 Denmark 110 20 116
France 519 8 98 Norway 100 20 120
Scotland 43 8 100 Ireland 95 21 122
Australia 185 8 101 Spain 977 21 125
Spain 380 8 101 Israel 165 21 125
Canada 294 9 106 Iceland 7 22 129
Switzerland 69 9 108 Slovenia 46 22 132
Italy 589 10 120 Republic of Korea 1,176 24 139
Ireland 45 10 121 Germany 1,986 24 143
Belgium 111 10 124 Hungary 268 27 158
Slovenia 21 10 126 Italy 1,661 27 161
Austria 87 10 127 Portugal 331 31 184
Hungary 124 12 153 France 2,062 32 187
Iceland 4 13 155 Finland 172 32 188
USA 4,432 14 175 Austria 290 35 203
Israel 115 15 182 Romania 780 36 214
Cyprus 13 15 191 Cyprus 31 37 217
Japan 1,987 16 191 Latvia 78 38 221
Croatia 71 16 198 Australia 855 38 222
Czech Republic 176 17 207 USA 11,981 38 226
Portugal 199 19 232 Czech Republic 404 39 227
Malta 8 19 237 Luxembourg 21 41 241
Estonia 26 19 239 Belgium 456 41 244
Greece 223 20 243 Estonia 56 42 246
Bulgaria 149 20 249 Greece 474 42 247
Latvia 60 29 356 Lithuania 134 44 258
Romania 747 35 430 New Zealand 199 45 266
Lithuania 110 36 444 Croatia 215 49 287
Poland 1,408 37 450 Poland 1,897 49 290
Republic of Korea 2,044 41 506 Bulgaria 399 54 319

1 In accordance with the commonly agreed international definition, most countries define a fatality as one being due to a road accident where death occurs within 30 days of the accident. The official road accident statistics of some countries however, limit the fatalities to those occurring within shorter periods after the accident. Numbers of deaths and death rates in the above table have been adjusted according to the factors used by the Economic Commission for Europe and the International Transport Forum (ITF) (formerly known as ECMT) to represent standardised 30-day deaths: Italy (7 days) +8%; France (6 days) +5.7%; Portugal (1 day) +14%; Republic of Korea (3 days) +15%.
2 Source: International Road Traffic and Accident Database (OECD), ETSC, EUROSTAT and CARE (EU road accidents database).

Table H: Road accident fatality rates per capita, by age group, ranked by respective rates - 2011
(a) 0-14 years Per million (b) 15-24 years Per million
pop Index pop Index
Malta 0 0 Japan 43 90
England 4 59 Scotland 48 100
Great Britain 5 66 England 50 104
United Kingdom 5 67 Great Britain 50 105
Northern Ireland 6 80 United Kingdom 51 106
Spain 6 87 Norway 51 108
Netherlands 6 88 Netherlands 51 108
Sweden 6 92 Sweden 53 111
Japan 7 95 Switzerland 53 112
Scotland 7 100 Wales 59 123
Cyprus 7 101 Denmark 62 130
Italy 7 102 Hungary 66 138
Irish Republic 7 104 Northern Ireland 72 152
Norway 8 109 Israel 73 154
Germany 8 111 Korea 74 155
Czech Republic 8 114 Iceland 85 179
Hungary 8 116 Australia 91 191
Switzerland 8 121 Slovenia 91 192
Denmark 9 128 Ireland 93 195
Finland 9 128 Germany 93 196
Wales 10 137 Austria 98 206
Israel 10 144 Finland 98 207
Austria 10 149 Italy 99 208
France 11 152 Portugal 100 209
Luxembourg 11 160 Czech Republic 114 238
Portugal 12 167 Belgium 117 246
New Zealand 12 175 France 119 249
Republic of Korea 13 185 New Zealand 128 268
Greece 14 193 Poland 156 327
Australia 14 204 United States of America 157 330
Latvia 16 230 Greece 163 342
Poland 18 251 Luxemburg 435 914
Belgium 19 264      
Croatia 21 296      
Slovenia 21 297      
Romania 26 363      
Iceland 30 428      
United States of America 57 812      
(c) 25-64 years (d) 65+ years
Iceland 24 65 England 41 90
Netherlands 26 69 Great Britain 42 92
Northern Ireland 29 78 United Kingdom 42 92
England 30 82 Luxemburg 42 92
Japan 30 82 Wales 44 96
Sweden 31 84 Northern Ireland 45 99
United Kingdom 31 85 Scotland 46 100
Great Britain 32 85 Norway 49 106
Switzerland 32 87 Iceland 51 112
Norway 35 94 Sweden 52 115
Denmark 36 96 Germany 62 136
Scotland 37 100 Denmark 67 147
Ireland 38 102 Slovenia 68 148
Israel 43 115 France 70 152
Wales 43 115 Ireland 71 156
Germany 45 122 Netherlands 72 158
Finland 47 128 Australia 74 163
Austria 56 150 Israel 83 181
Australia 58 156 Italy 84 184
New Zealand 59 159 Czech Republic 86 188
Italy 62 166 Finland 87 191
France 62 168 Hungary 87 191
Luxemburg 66 177 Switzerland 89 194
Hungary 71 191 Japan 93 204
Slovenia 76 206 New Zealand 94 205
Czech Republic 77 207 Belgium 97 212
Belgium 81 217 Austria 101 222
Portugal 83 223 Greece 119 261
Korea 98 264 United States of America 130 285
Greece 101 274 Portugal 137 299
United States of America 114 308 Poland 137 299
Poland 115 309 Korea 305 666