Appendix A: Calendar of events affecting road traffic

Appendix A: Calendar of events affecting road traffic

1964-65: Road Traffic Act 1964 – Wider powers for speed limits. Trial 70 mph speed limit on motorway and other previously de-restricted roads. 50 mph speed limit on selected roads during summer.

1967: Seat belts compulsory on new cars – Permanent 70 mph speed limit on all roads. An offence to drink and attempt to drive with over 80 mg of alcohol per 100 ml of blood.

1968-69: Transport Act 1968 allowed regulations on length of drivers' working hours – 3 year old vehicles need test certificate.

1970: New regulations on lorry and PSV drivers' hours of work.

1973: Reorganisation of local government in Scotland, 9 regions and 3 islands areas and 53 districts.

1973-74: Safety helmets compulsory for 2-wheeled motor vehicle users – 50 mph national maximum speed limit, later motorway 70 mph, dual carriageway 60 mph – Vehicle lighting regulations.

1974: Road traffic act 1974 placed a duty on authorities to study road collisions and take measures to prevent them.

1975: Temporary 50 and 60 mph limits extended.

1976: Licensing Scotland Act 1976 – extension of licensing hours until 11pm – effective from 13 December 1976.

1977: 50 and 60 mph limits raised to 60 and 70 mph.

1977: Licensing Scotland Act 1976 – extension of Sunday opening – effective from October 1977.

1978: 60 and 70 mph limits permanent – New rules on maximum hours which may be worked by goods vehicle drivers.

1982: New 2-part motorcycle test from 29 March – Application of 2 year limit on provisional motorcycle licence took effect from 1 October.

1983: Transport Act 1981 introduced evidential breath testing and made seat belt wearing law for drivers and front seat passengers of most cars and light vans. Learner motorcyclists now only allowed to ride machines of up to 125 cc.

1984: Regulations introduced requiring spray reducing devices to be fitted to lorries and trailers.

1985: In December, Scottish Police Authorities introduced a policy of breath testing all drivers in an collision wherever possible.

1986: Deregulation of buses from 26 October 1986 as a result of the Transport Act 1985.

1986: All new cars manufactured from 1 October to be fitted with rear seat belts. Seat belt legislation made permanent. European Road Safety Year.

1987: Legal requirement introduced requiring all newly registered cars to be fitted with rear seat belts or child restraints from 1 April. Government sets a target to achieve a one-third reduction in road collision casualties by the year 2000.

1988: All coaches first used from 1 April 1974 using a motorway must have 70 mph limiters fitted by 1 April 1991.

1989: Penalty points increased for careless driving, driving without insurance and failing to stop after or to report an collision. Seat belt wearing by rear child passengers became law in cars where appropriate restraints have been fitted and are available. Accompanied motorcycle testing became mandatory.

1990: Compulsory basic training for motorcyclists introduced and learner drivers banned from carrying pillion passengers. High Risk Offenders Scheme for problem drink-drivers extended. New regulations requiring those accompanying learner drivers to be at least 21 years old and to have held a licence for 3 years. Scottish Road Safety Year.

1991: Seat belt wearing by rear adult passengers became law in cars where belts are fitted and available. New road hump regulations introduced to reduce traffic speed.

1992: Subsequent to the Road Traffic Act 1991, new road traffic offences and penalties came into force, including retesting of dangerous drivers. The Traffic Calming Act 1992 came into force enabling roads authorities to introduce a wide range of traffic calming measures. Requirement for minimum tread depth of 1.6 mm introduced for cars and light vans. All new goods vehicles over 7.5 tonnes fitted with 60 mph speed limiters.

1993: First speed enforcement cameras introduced in Scotland. The MOT test extended, including new checks on mirrors, windscreen condition, fuel tanks, seat and door security and number plates.

1994: First 20 mph zones introduced in Scotland. Traffic Calming (Scotland) Regulations came into force.

1995: Pass Plus scheme introduced for new drivers which encourages new drivers to take more lessons by offering discount on motor insurance.

1996: Local Government etc. (Scotland) Act 1994 implemented with the creation of 32 unitary authorities replacing the previous regions and districts.

1996: Driving theory test introduced from 1 July for car and motorcycle learners. Road Traffic (New Drivers) Act 1996 – requires newly qualified drivers to retake the driving test if they acquire 6 or more penalty points within 2 years of passing their test – effective from 1 June 1997. Requirement for coaches and minibuses to be fitted with seat belts when carrying children on organised trips, including journeys between home and school – effective from February, 1997. End of concession, where seat belts are fitted, whereby 3 children could share a double seat.

1997: New Zebra, Pelican and Puffin crossing regulations introduced, with Puffin crossings prescribed for the first time.

1998: New Road Humps regulations came into force giving local authorities wider powers to establish road humps.

1999: Amendment to the Road Traffic Regulation Act 1984 gave local authorities power to introduce traffic calmed 20 mph zones and 20 mph speed limits, with or without traffic calming measures, at suitable locations. Revised Highway Code published.

2000: The Government announced a new road safety strategy and casualty reduction targets for the period to 2010 in "Tomorrow's Roads – Safer for Everyone". A review of speed policy was conducted and reported in 'New Directions in Speed Management'.

2001: Amendment to the Road Traffic Regulation Act 1984 made it clear that school crossing patrols can stop traffic for children of all ages and adults and gave local authorities greater flexibility in the times that school crossing patrols can operate. Scottish Executive awarded nearly £15 million to local authorities for cycling, walking and safer streets projects, including safer routes to school schemes.

2002: New Home Zones (Scotland) Regulations came into force. These set out the procedures local authorities must follow when designating home zones.

2003: Revised guidance on school transport issued to local authorities. Scottish School Travel Advisory Group report published. Scottish Executive provided the funding to implement the report's key recommendation to create school travel co-ordinator posts within each Scottish local authority.

2004: Publication of the first three year review of the GB road safety strategy and casualty reduction targets, set out in "Tomorrow's Roads – Safer for Everyone".

2006: Road Safety Act passed. The Act made provision for a wide range of road safety matters, including drink driving, speeding, driver training and driver and vehicle licensing. Revised guidance on setting local speed limits issued to local authorities.

2007: Publication of the second three year review of the GB road safety strategy and casualty reduction targets, set out in "Tomorrow's Roads – Safer for Everyone". Publication of DfT Child Road Safety Strategy, which included measures by the Scottish Government to reduce child road casualties.

2008: GB consultation – Learning to Drive – published, on changes to the driver training and testing regime. GB consultation on Road Safety Compliance, covering speeding, drink driving, seat belts, drug driving and careless driving, published.

2009: Scotland's Road Safety Framework to 2020 published. The Framework sets Scottish specific targets for casualty reductions in the period to 2020, in line with an aspirational vision of a future where no-one is killed on Scotland's roads and the injury rate is greatly reduced.

2009/2010: ACPOS launched a Vehicle Forfeiture Scheme for Drink Drivers.

2010: Have You Clicked? Year long campaign launched on 19 April.

2010: 25 years of Road Safety Scotland. 2010 marks the 25th anniversary of Road Safety Scotland (RSS), previously operating as the Scottish Road Safety Campaign (SRSC)

2011: Launch of the United Nations Decade of Action for Road Safety 2011-2020.

2011: Publication of National Debate on Young Drivers' Safety presenting the findings of a national debate on young driver issues undertaken across Scotland.

2011: Publication of the New Strategic Framework for Road Safety by the UK Government.

2014: Devolution of powers to the Scottish Parliament in relation to the Drink-Drive alcohol blood limit, and certain national speed limits

2013: UK Government introduced changes for drivers guilty of offences such as tailgating or middle lane hogging with fixed penalty notices of a £100 fine and three penalty points being issued. Existing fixed penalty fines for most driving offences, including mobile phone use and not wearing a seat belt rise from £60 to £100.

2013: Publication of a review of the Guide to Improving School Transport and its accompanying report were issued to all local authorities in Scotland.

2014: Transport Minister, Keith Brown, announced plans to legislate in the next Scottish Parliament to ensure that seatbelts are provided on all dedicated school transport in Scotland.

2014: Following consultation that showed overwhelming support, Ministers reduced the drink drive limit from 80 mg per 100 ml of blood to 50 mg per 100 ml

2014: The A9 average speed camera system went live on 28 October alongside an increase in the HGV speed limit on the single carriageway sections between Perth and Inverness.

2015: Publication of "Good Practice Guide on 20 mph Speed Restrictions"

2015: Scottish Road Safety Week pilot undertaken.

2015: British Road Safety Statement published by the UK Government.

2016: The output of the Mid-term Review of Scotland's Road Safety Framework is published.

2016: An updated Strategic Road Safety Plan for the trunk road network is published

2016: Scotland Act 2016 devolves speed limit, traffic sign and parking regulation powers to the Scottish Parliament.

2017: The Scottish Government announces plans to create a new criminal offence of drug driving.

2017: The Seat Belts on School Transport (Scotland) Bill is introduced to the Scottish Parliament by Gillian Martin MSP, with support from the Scottish Government. This aims to make a legal requirement for fitting seat belts on all dedicated school transport. National guidance with information on seat belt fitting, wearing and monitoring is published in June 2018 ahead of the Act coming into effect on 1 August 2018.

2018: The Scottish Government announces commitment to bring forward the necessary secondary legislation that will specify 17 drug types to be included as part of the new offence and the associated limits for each drug type, in Scotland in 2019.

2018: Learner drivers can now take motorway driving lessons

2019: European Parliament approves new minimum EU vehicle safety requirements that will come into force from May 2022 for new models and from May 2024 for existing models. European Commission publishes its Staff Working Document EU Road Safety Policy Framework 2021-2030 - Next steps towards "Vision Zero". From 1 July vehicle manufacturers must install a noise-emitting device– which sounds like a traditional engine – in new electric and hybrid vehicles. In July DfT publishes its revised Road Safety Statement and two-year action plan. From 21 October, Scotland adopts a 'zero tolerance' approach to the eight drugs most associated with illegal use, with limits set at a level where any claims of accidental exposure can be ruled out. Meanwhile, a list of other drugs associated with medical use will have limits based on impairment and road safety risk.

2019: EU directive on road infrastructure safety management formally adopted in October.

2020: New general safety regulations published in December 2019 came into force in January, updating existing rules on car safety contained in the general safety regulation (EC) 661/2009 and the pedestrian safety regulation (EC) 78/2009. - new mandatory EU vehicle safety measures

2020: Stockholm Declaration is agreed by UN Member States in February. This is followed by the adoption of the UN resolution A/74/L.86 "Improving global road safety" on 30 August.

July 2020: New UK Government regulations allowing trials of rental e-scooters on UK roads came into force

February 2021: publication of Scotland's Road Safety Framework to 2030 by the Scottish Government

April 2021: UK Government Automated and Electric Vehicle Act 2018 came into force; it makes provisions for a list to be kept by the Secretary of State for Transport of motor vehicles that are able to safely and lawfully drive themselves.  It introduced new provisions to compensate the victims of collisions caused by AVs. To reduce the need for victims to be involved in prolonged litigation, the insurer is liable to compensate the victim without proof of fault. The insurer may then reclaim damages from any other party liable for the collision.

April 2021: consultation outcome of the Automated Lane Keeping System (ALKS) Call for Evidence published by UK Government, setting out set out how vehicles fitted with ALKS technology could legally be defined as self-driving, as long as they receive GB type approval and that there is no evidence to challenge the vehicle's ability to self-drive.

May 2021: UK first media reporting guidelines for crashes published

July 2021: DfT published their response to Review of The Highway Code to improve road safety for cyclists, pedestrians and horse riders. Subject to Parliamentary approval, DfT will work with the Driver and Vehicle Standards Agency to update The Highway Code.Online and hard copy versions of the revised code will be produced before the end of 2021.

Sept 2021: School transport guidance 2021 published by the Scottish Government

Sept 2021: review of INDG382 Driving for Work complete and published by HSE

Sept 2021: Scottish Government commits to ensure all appropriate roads in built up areas have a safer speed limit of 20 mph by 2025

October 2021: Traffic Regulation Order Regulations laid before Scottish parliament

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