||Prior to this research being undertaken, there was limited evidence about on-road cycle training for primary school pupils in Scotland. This research has provided rich information about the experience of considering, planning, delivering and sustaining on-road cycle training at 11 schools in Scotland. This research has highlighted that there are barriers to on-road training in Scotland. The biggest barrier relates to attracting volunteers to deliver the training. On-road training is seen as requiring more volunteer resources than off-road training, to ensure a suitable ratio of adults to children. Volunteering as an on-road trainer is also seen as a significant responsibility. The research also demonstrates that many schools have successfully overcome barriers to run sustainable on-road cycle training programmes. On-road cycle training has been most sustainable where teachers and support staff are supportive of cycle training; where parents are supportive and keen to volunteer; and where support is available from the Road Safety Officer or Active Schools Co-ordinator. As the research focused on a small sample of 11 schools, it does not provide wider evidence about the extent and nature of on-road cycle training programmes across Scotland. However, it does demonstrate that a number of the case study schools have moved to on-road cycle training programmes in recent years, and that Road Safety Officers and Active Schools Co-ordinators have played a critical role in supporting and sustaining this shift. Overall, this research highlights that there is broad common agreement among the parents, teachers, volunteers, Road Safety Officers and Active Schools Co-ordinators interviewed in this research, that on-road cycle training is considerably more effective and more enjoyable for children than off-road cycle training.