Chapter 11: Personal and Cross-Modal Travel

Chapter 11: Personal and Cross-Modal Travel

Chapter 11: Personal and Cross-Modal Travel - Infographic

1. Introduction

1.1 This chapter previously included information from the National Travel Survey (NTS). However, Scottish data are no longer collected in the NTS, estimates for Scotland from the NTS are available in previous editions of this publication.  This chapter now focuses on estimates derived mainly from the Scottish Household Survey (SHS), findings from others sources are marked as such within the text.  

1.2 The SHS is a sample survey and provide person-based cross-modal information, in contrast to most of the earlier chapters, which tend to be based on particular modes of transport.  The SHS also includes a travel diary that asks respondents for information about the journeys they made on the previous day, including information on the duration, distance, purpose and mode of travel. More information and further tables covering transport findings from the Scottish Household Survey can be found in Transport and Travel in Scotland: http://bit.ly/TSStats-TATIS 

1.3 In this edition of STS we have also presented relevant information on travel behaviours collected from the 2011 census as previously published by the National Records of Scotland.  More information about the sources used can be found in the Sources section on page 225.

Key points

  • 77% of people had travelled the previous day when asked in 2015, down from 80% in 2007.
  • Of the 537 million public transport journeys made in 2015, 76 per cent were by bus, 17 per cent were journeys by rail, air accounts for 5 per cent and ferries 2 per cent.
  • Thirty one per cent of journeys to work and 72 per cent of journeys to school are by public and active travel

2. Main Points

Trips

2.1 People in Scotland made less trips in 2015, with 77% reporting having travelled the previous day, down from 80% in 2007.  Men were more likely to have travelled the previous day than women (78% compared to 75%) and older people were less likely to have travelled than younger people.

2.2 As in previous years, the car was the most popular mode of transport for journeys made in 2015, with 51% of journeys made as a car driver. This was a increase of 3 percentage points on the previous year. Thirteen per cent of journeys were made as a car passenger.  Bus travel accounted for 10% and rail travel for 2%.  Just over a fifth of journeys were by walking (22%) and cycling accounted for 1% of all journeys.  Three per cent of journeys were multi-stage, involving a change in mode of transport.

2.3 Thirty one per cent of adults used the bus at least once per week in 2015, with 46% using a bus in the past month.  Train use appeared to be less frequent; 9% of people had used the train at least once a week and 30% of people had used a train in the last month, in 2015.  

Distance travelled

2.4 In 2015, most journeys tended to be over short distances, with 23% of all journeys being under 1 km long and a further 25% between 1 and 3 km.  The mean journey distance in 2015 was 8.9 km.  

2.5 The average cycling journey was 4.7 km in length and the average walking journey was 1.0 km in length in 2015.  Rail and car journeys tended to be over greater distances with car journeys covering an average of 10.8 km and rail journeys 20.6 km. Most journeys by active travel were made over short distances - 89% of walking journeys and 36% of cycling journeys were under 2km.

2.6 In 2015, shopping (23.8%) was the most frequent purpose of a journey, followed by commuting (22.4%), visiting friends or relatives (11.3%), returning home (7.8%) and travelling to education (6.8%). These percentages have stayed fairly stable in the last year.

Duration travelled

2.7 In terms of journey time most journeys in 2014 were short, with 65% lasting for less than 20 minutes:  31% of journeys were between 5 and 10 minutes long, 45% between ten and thirty minutes long and 13% between thirty minutes and an hour long. Only 4.4% of journeys lasted more than an hour and only 3.9% of journeys were very short (lasting under 5 minutes). 

Car access

2.8 People in households with more cars were more likely to have travelled the previous day – 67% of people living in households with no cars travelled the previous day, compared to 82% of people with two or more cars.  Similarly, 10% of households with no cars made more than four journeys the previous day compared to 23% of those with two or more cars.  Residents of households with at least one car available for private use made most of their journeys by car, with 54% of journeys made by households with one car and 67% of journeys made by households with two or more cars made as the driver of a car or van.  Households with no car and households with one car made roughly the same number of journeys as a passenger in a car or van (13% of journeys),and those with two or more cars made 12 per cent of journeys as a passenger .

2.9 Households with no car access made a far higher proportion of their journeys by public and active travel.  Bicycle use was highest in households with no cars available – 2% of journeys as opposed to 1% for households with one car and 1% for households with two or more cars.  People in households with no cars available had a much higher proportion of journeys by foot, with 48% of journeys by members of these households being made by foot, compared to 19% for households with one car and 11% for households with two or more cars.  The proportion of trips by bus was also considerably higher for households with no car – 27% compared to 6% for households with one car and 3% for households with two or more cars.

Driving

2.10 The Scottish Household Survey (SHS) provides information about how often people aged 17 or over drive.  In 2015, 46% of men, 36% of women and 41% of all people aged 17+ said that they drove every day.  A further 21% stated they drove at least once a week (but not every day), 2% drove less frequently, 4% had a full driving licence but never drove, and 32% did not have a full driving licence.  (Table 11.10)

2.11 Since the recent peak in 2007, the percentage who drove every day has fallen from 45.2 per cent to 40.9 per cent, but over the same period the proportion of those who drove at least once a week has risen by 4 percentage points.  (Table 11.12)

2.12 The frequency of driving varied with age. In 2015, over half of people aged 40 to 59 said they drove every day.  As age rises this falls (to 12% for people aged 80 and over).  The frequency of driving also varied with the annual net income of the household.  Around three fifths of people aged 17+ living in households with an annual net income of £40,000 or more said they drove every day, compared with around a fifth of those living in households with an annual net income of up to £10,000.  Around a third (34%) of people aged 17+ in large urban areas drove every day compared to 48% in ‘remote rural’ areas.  (Table 11.10)

Walking

2.13 In 2014, 67% of adults made a journey of more than a quarter of a mile by foot to go somewhere in the last seven days – the highest proportion seen in the last decade.  Young adults (aged 16-19) were the most likely to have walked to go somewhere (81%), compared with 72% of those aged 30-39, around  two thirds of those in their 40s, 50s and 60s, and two fifths of those aged 80 or above (39%).  (Tables 11.11 & 11.13)

2.14 In 2014, 58% of adults said that they had walked for pleasure or to keep fit at least once in the last seven days – also the highest in recent times.  There was some variation with age: the percentage was highest for those aged 40-49 (64%) and lowest for those aged 80 or above (27%). There was less variation with household income, although those with net annual incomes of over £30,000 were more likely than those with lower incomes. (Tables 11.11 & 11.13)

Travel to Work (SHS data)

2.15 SHS travel to work statistics underpin Scotland’s National Indicator: “Increase the proportion of journeys to work made by public or active travel”.  The Scottish Household Survey is the preferred source of information on travel to work.  More information on National Indicators can be found on the Scotland Performs website: http://www.scotland.gov.uk/About/scotPerforms/indicators/publicTransport

2.16 The SHS shows that 14% of employed adults worked from home in 2015, an increase from 2005 (27%). Almost two thirds (64%) of self-employed people worked from home, though this is based on a relatively small sample size and therefore may be  subject to larger confidence intervals. (Tables 11.17 & 11.21)

2.17 Overall, the SHS found that the majority (66%) of employed adults who did not work from home travelled to work by car or van (as either the driver or as a passenger) in 2015.  This percentage tended to increase with age (16-20: 55%, Over 40: around 70%), type of employment (60% of those who work part-time, compared to 67% for full-time) and annual net household income (rising to 73% of those in the £40,000+ band).  (Table 11.18)

2.18 Other usual means of travel to work were: walking (14%); bus (11%); rail (4%); bicycle (2%) and other modes (3%).  Use of such modes of transport also varied. For example: in general, the greater the income of the household, the less likely a person was to walk or use the bus to travel to work; the percentage who walked to work was highest in remote small towns (31%) and the percentage who commuted by bus was highest in large urban areas (18%). Since 2005, the percentage travelling to work by car or van (as driver or passenger) has remained around two thirds. Within this overall figure, the percentage travelling to work as a car passenger has fallen since 2005 (from 7.5% to 5.6%). Walking journeys have remained relatively stable around 13%, and little change has been seen in the use of other modes of transport (Tables 11.18 & 11.22)

Travel To Work (non-SHS data)

2.19 Other data sources show a similar pattern to the Scottish Household Survey data and also enable comparison with the rest of Great Britain.

2.20 Labour Force Survey results suggest that, between 2005 and 2015, there has been little change in the percentage for whom a car or a van is the usual means of travel to work (68% in 2005 and 70% in 2015).  There was also little change to walking which was 13% in 2005 and 11% in 2015. People who work at home are excluded from these figures. These figures are similar to the findings from the SHS shown in table 11.18 (Table 11.14)

2.21 There appears to have been little change in recent years in the average times taken to travel to work by the main modes of transport (in 2015: 24 minutes by car; 37 minutes by bus and 14 minutes by foot).  (Table 11.15 b)

2.22 The Scottish Census 2011 showed 2.4 million people aged between 16 and 74 in employment, excluding full-time students. 11% of these worked mainly from home. Of the remaining 2.1 million people, 36% had a journey of under 5 km to work, 43% had a journey of between 5 km and 30 km to work and 8% travelled 30 km or more to work. The remaining 12% had no fixed place of work, worked offshore or worked outside the UK. (Table 11.31).

2.23 Information about travel to work has been collected in population censuses since 1966.  Excluding those that worked at home, the percentage of the working population using cars to travel to work had increased from 21% in 1966 to 69% in 2011 and the percentage using buses had fallen from 43% in 1966 to 11% in 2011.  There had also been a significant fall in the proportion of the working population who walk to work, from 24% in 1966 to 11% in 2011. (Table 11.16)

2.24 The 2011 Census showed that the distance of people’s journey to work tended to vary with their access to cars or vans. Seventy-four per cent of people living in households with no car or van available had a commute of fewer than 10km, compared with 60 per cent of those in households with one car or van available and 47 per cent of those in households with two or more cars or vans available.  Conversely, the proportion of people who travelled 30km or more to work was higher for people in households with two or more cars or vans available (10 per cent) than for those in households with one car or van available (7 per cent) or with no cars or vans available (4 per cent). (Table 11.33)

Travel to School

2.25 In 2015, 49% of children in full-time education at school usually walked to school, 21% usually went by bus, 26% by car or van, 1% cycled.  There was little difference between the sexes, but varied greatly with age: 54% of primary school age pupils (those aged up to 11) usually walked to school compared with only 41% of those of secondary school age (those aged 12 and over); 32% of primary pupils went by car or van compared with only 17% of secondary pupils; and only 14% of primary pupils usually travelled by bus compared with 40% of those of secondary age. (Table 11.19)

2.26 Those usually travelling by car/van tended to rise with household income, to 27-32% of pupils from households with an annual net income of £30,000 or more, reflecting patterns seen elsewhere in this chapter e.g. travel to work and car use more generally.  Walking to school was lowest (21-33%) in rural areas.  Estimates for those walking to school have remained relatively stable whilst those traveling by car has risen since 2005.  The Sustrans Hands Up Scotland Survey shows similar findings. (Tables 11.19, 11.23 & 11.23a)

2.27 According to the 2011 Scottish Census, 88% of children aged between 4 and 11 travelled less than 5km to school, including 72% who travelled less than 2km. 51% of those aged over 18 travelled less than 5km to their place of study. 430,000 people of any age travelled under 2km to their place of study, with 73% of these people travelling by foot, 6% travelling by bus and 17% as a passenger in a car or van. Of the 428,000 people who travelled 2km or more to their place of study, 31 per cent did so as a car driver or passenger, 43 per cent travelled by bus and 7 per cent travelled by train. (Table 11.34 & 11.35)

Travel Abroad

2.28 According to the International Passenger Survey (IPS), Scottish residents made an estimated 3.9 million visits abroad in 2015 with about 3.7 million visits (96%) being made by air.  Edinburgh was the main airport used and accounted for about 1.3 million visits (34% of all visits abroad), followed by Glasgow (just under 1.2 million or 31%), Prestwick 282,000 or 7%) and Aberdeen (213,000 or 5%).  Around 109,000 visits abroad (3%) were made by sea, and roughly 59,000 (2%) were made using the Channel Tunnel. (Table 11.24)

2.29 Around 71% of Scottish residents' visits abroad were made for holiday purposes. Of these, just under a half (1.3 million) were on a package holiday whilst the rest travelled independently.  There were 757,000 (19%) visits abroad to visit friends or relatives and 317,000 visits abroad for business purposes (8%). (Table 11.24)

2.30 Seventy three per cent (3 million) of Scottish residents' visits abroad were made to EU countries and visits to other European areas totalled 241,000 (6%). Visits to Canada and the USA together totalled about 312,000 (8%). (Table 11.25)

2.31 The estimated number of visits abroad by Scottish residents rose from 4.2 million in 2004 to a peak of 4.8 million in 2008, a rise of 14%.  The numbers then fell year on year to a low of just under 3.6 million in 2013, a fall of 25%.  There has now been an increase of 8% between 2013 and 2015. Between 2005 and 2015 there has been a general decline in the number of package holidays while those travelling independently has generally increased, though are currently below the 2008 peak.  Other holidays increased by 51% between 2004 and 2008 but has since fallen back 22%. There was also a large increase in the number of visits to friends and relatives over the same period, with numbers almost doubling between 2004 and 2008 and falling 17% since.  Some of the apparent year-to-year changes may be due to sampling variability, however, the general trends reflect patterns described elsewhere in this publication. (Table 11.26)

Transport Model for Scotland

2.32 Information on travel between different parts of Scotland is available from the Transport Model for Scotland (TMfS). The base year of TMfS is 2014. 

2.33 It is estimated that, on an average weekday in 2014, 5.5 million person-trips were made by car, bus or train across the boundaries of one or more of the zones which are within the area covered by the TMfS.  Around one third (33%) of these trips were within the Clydeplan region, 22% within SESplan region, 7% within TAYplan, and 9% within Aberdeen and the North East. (Table 11.27)

2.34 Of the 5.5 million inter-zonal person trips per weekday it is estimated that 4.5 million were by car.  These accounted for over four-fifths of the total, and the main features of the pattern of trips by car were similar to those described in the previous paragraph.  There were also an estimated 1.1 million inter-zonal person-trips by bus or train per weekday.  Two fifths of these were within Clydeplan, and about a quarter were within SESplan.  (Table 11.27)

2.35 There was an average of just over 4.6 million trips per weekday by cars and goods vehicles.  One third were within Clydeplan, and just over a fifth were within SESplan. (Table 11.27) 

Concessionary Travel

2.36 154 million passenger journeys were made under all types of concessionary fare schemes in 2015-16, 1% less than in 2014-15.  Concessionary travel schemes have varied over the years: a national minimum standard of free off-peak local bus travel for elderly and disabled people in Scotland was introduced from 30 September 2002, the scheme was extended to men aged 60-64 from 1 April 2003. In 2006 this was superseded by the introduction of the National Concessionary Travel Scheme for the elderly and disabled which allowed free bus travel across Scotland.  Including the young persons’ scheme, concessionary bus travel accounted for 146 million passenger journeys in 2015-16, 95% of concessionary journeys by all modes of transport).  (Table 11.29)

Traveline Scotland

2.37 In 2015 Traveline Scotland received  222,500 telephone calls which was 25% less than the previous year. Its Web site and smart phone app recorded 20.1 million hits in 2015, up 60% from the previous year. (Table 11.30). 

 

Table 11.10  Frequency of driving* for people aged 17+: 2015 *
    Per Week   Per Month      
  Every day   At least  3 times   Once or  twice     At least 2 or 3 times   At least once   Less  than once   Holds full  licence, never drives Total  with a full driving  licence Doesn't  have a full driving  licence Sample size (=100%)
  row percentages 
All people aged 17+ in 2015: 40.9 14.5 5.9 0.8 0.5 1.4 4.0 68.0 32.0 9,340
by gender:
 Male 45.7 15.1 6.5 0.6 0.5 1.3 3.6 73.3 26.6 4,210
 Female 36.5 14.0 5.4 1.0 0.4 1.5 4.3 63.1 36.9 5,130
by age:
 17-19 16.5 3.4 3.2 0.0 0.0 0.2 2.5 25.8 74.2 190
 20-29 33.1 9.8 3.4 1.0 0.4 2.4 4.2 54.3 45.6 1,070
 30-39 48.2 12.6 5.2 1.1 0.6 1.2 3.0 71.9 28.2 1,310
 40-49 57.7 13.6 5.7 0.3 0.6 0.7 3.3 81.9 18.1 1,470
 50-59 49.9 15.5 6.4 0.9 0.2 1.3 3.5 77.7 22.2 1,680
 60-69 38.1 21.6 8.8 0.6 0.3 1.4 4.9 75.7 24.4 1,700
 70-79 26.2 19.3 6.3 1.0 1.0 2.6 5.7 62.1 38.0 1,220
 80+ 12.0 14.2 9.0 0.4 0.4 1.0 6.0 43.0 56.9 700
by current situation:
 Self employed 66.7 16.7 6.1 0.3 0.0 0.7 1.4 91.9 8.1 560
 Employed full time 57.5 13.2 5.6 0.8 0.4 1.3 2.6 81.4 18.6 3,130
 Employed part time 49.6 12.1 4.4 0.5 0.2 1.3 3.6 71.7 28.1 980
 Looking after the home or family 25.7 18.8 5.1 0.3 0.5 0.4 2.6 53.4 46.6 450
 Permanently retired from work 25.8 20.4 8.5 0.9 0.6 1.5 5.6 63.3 36.7 3,030
 Unemployed and seeking work 8.9 6.2 5.0 0.7 0.6 1.8 5.5 28.7 71.3 300
 In further/higher education 15.6 6.8 3.2 1.0 1.1 2.3 7.0 37.0 63.0 290
 Permanently sick or disabled 7.7 9.3 4.7 0.8 0.6 4.1 9.3 36.5 63.5 450
by annual net household income:
 up to £10,000 p.a. 17.7 11.5 5.4 1.1 0.6 2.0 6.6 44.9 55.0 1,110
 over £10,000 - £15,000 21.9 10.7 5.9 0.7 0.7 1.6 7.2 48.7 51.3 1,670
 over £15,000 - £20,000 29.0 15.1 5.3 0.9 0.6 2.0 5.4 58.3 41.8 1,450
 over £20,000 - £25,000 38.6 16.0 5.8 0.7 0.5 2.3 3.9 67.8 32.3 1,100
 over £25,000 - £30,000 45.4 13.7 6.7 0.9 0.1 1.4 3.2 71.4 28.6 860
 over £30,000 - £40,000 56.0 14.6 6.1 0.8 0.2 1.0 1.7 80.4 19.6 1,250
 over £40,000 p.a. 61.9 17.2 6.3 0.7 0.4 0.8 1.5 88.8 11.2 1,600
by Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation:
1 (20 % most deprived) 26.9 8.9 4.1 0.4 0.2 0.8 4.5 45.8 54.1 1,720
2 34.2 11.9 5.0 0.6 0.6 2.2 4.3 58.8 41.1 1,900
3 42.8 14.1 6.4 1.0 0.3 1.5 4.6 70.7 29.3 2,040
4 49.9 18.1 7.6 0.8 0.4 1.4 2.9 81.1 18.9 2,060
5 (20% least deprived) 49.6 19.1 6.5 1.0 0.8 1.3 3.7 82.0 17.9 1,620
by urban/rural:
 Large urban areas 33.5 12.3 6.2 1.0 0.7 1.8 5.3 60.8 39.1 2,740
 Other urban 40.4 14.6 5.3 0.8 0.3 1.3 3.5 66.2 33.8 3,200
 Small accessible towns 51.0 14.5 6.0 0.2 0.3 0.6 3.2 75.8 24.2 850
 Small remote towns 37.5 16.5 5.9 0.4 0.1 1.4 2.6 64.4 35.6 580
 Accessible rural 55.1 17.1 6.3 0.6 0.6 1.4 2.8 83.9 16.1 1,000
 Remote rural 47.6 20.8 7.4 0.8 0.0 1.3 3.4 81.3 18.8 970

Source: Scottish Household Survey *The frequency of driving is shown only for those who hold a full driving licence

 

Table 11.11  Frequency of Walking in the previous seven days 1 (people aged 16+): 2014 2
  As means of transport Sample size (=100%) Just for pleasure or to keep fit 2 Sample size (=100%)
none 1-2 days 3-5 days 6-7 days 1 + none 1-2 days 3-5 days 6-7 days 1 +
days days
    row percentages
All people in 2012: 33.1 19.1 26.2 21.6 66.9  9,735  41.7 20.2 17.7 20.4 58.3  9,687 
by gender:                        
 Male 32.3 19.0 25.9 22.8 67.7  4,412  40.6 20.1 18.4 20.9 59.4  4,386 
 Female 33.8 19.3 26.4 20.5 66.2  5,323  42.7 20.4 17.0 19.9 57.3  5,301 
by age:  
 16-19 18.9 15.6 40.7 24.8 81.1  289  40.0 18.2 27.5 14.3 60.0  288 
 20-29 24.0 19.2 29.4 27.4 76.0  1,152  39.0 23.8 17.3 19.9 61.0  1,144 
 30-39 27.6 20.4 28.2 23.8 72.4  1,360  36.8 24.0 18.0 21.3 63.2  1,347 
 40-49 32.7 21.9 25.1 20.4 67.3  1,596  36.1 21.8 19.9 22.2 63.9  1,590 
 50-59 35.2 19.0 26.0 19.8 64.8  1,675  37.8 19.9 17.7 24.6 62.2  1,665 
 60-69 36.4 18.8 23.8 20.9 63.6  1,657  43.1 18.2 16.9 21.8 56.9  1,656 
 70-79 44.3 17.6 19.9 18.2 55.7  1,286  54.1 15.6 13.5 16.7 45.9  1,277 
 80+ 61.4 13.5 14.8 10.3 38.6  720  72.6 10.2 8.3 9.0 27.4  720 
by current situation:  
 Self employed 35.5 18.7 26.0 19.7 64.5  541  32.0 18.5 22.0 27.5 68.0  538 
 Employed full time 30.5 21.5 27.1 20.9 69.5  3,240  37.4 24.0 18.9 19.7 62.6  3,231 
 Employed part time 27.7 20.8 28.6 22.9 72.3  1,001  32.9 21.8 18.9 26.5 67.1  995 
 Looking after the home/family 25.1 15.8 30.9 28.3 74.9  453  33.8 19.1 17.6 29.5 66.2  451 
 Permanently retired from work 44.3 17.5 19.8 18.4 55.7  3,095  53.0 15.4 13.9 17.6 47.0  3,084 
 Unemployed/seeking work 20.1 15.3 32.6 32.0 79.9  425  36.9 18.7 18.6 25.8 63.1  416 
 In further/higher education 14.4 16.0 36.3 33.3 85.6  323  35.6 26.3 19.6 18.5 64.4  321 
 Permanently sick or disabled 60.8 13.9 14.0 11.3 39.2  460  71.3 8.0 9.1 11.6 28.7  455 
by annual net household income:  
 up to £10,000 p.a. 30.8 16.8 26.4 26.0 69.2  1,302  45.8 17.6 15.6 21.0 54.2  1,287 
 over £10,000 - £15,000 36.6 16.1 25.5 21.8 63.4  1,774  49.0 16.0 16.3 18.6 51.0  1,765 
 over £15,000 - £20,000 34.5 18.2 23.3 24.0 65.5  1,545  46.1 18.5 14.8 20.7 53.9  1,537 
 over £20,000 - £25,000 36.2 17.6 26.3 19.9 63.8  1,150  47.2 18.8 17.2 16.8 52.8  1,152 
 over £25,000 - £30,000 30.0 21.6 27.1 21.3 70.0  917  43.2 19.8 16.2 20.8 56.8  913 
 over £30,000 - £40,000 30.6 21.7 27.8 19.8 69.4  1,182  33.1 23.9 19.8 23.2 66.9  1,177 
 over £40,000 p.a. 33.3 21.7 26.6 18.5 66.7  1,598  34.0 24.0 21.1 20.9 66.0  1,595 
by Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation:  
 1 (20 % most deprived) 32.3 18.8 26.4 22.5 67.7  1,914  47.4 17.6 16.3 18.7 52.6  1,890 
2 35.8 16.9 26.2 21.1 64.2  1,982  48.3 18.9 15.0 17.8 51.7  1,975 
3 34.9 18.0 25.9 21.3 65.1  2,096  40.2 18.1 19.8 21.8 59.8  2,092 
4 36.1 19.0 24.1 20.8 63.9  2,102  36.2 23.4 17.7 22.8 63.8  2,093 
 5 (20% least deprived) 26.1 23.0 28.5 22.4 73.9  1,641  36.4 23.1 19.7 20.9 63.6  1,637 
by urban/rural classification:  
 Large urban areas 26.5 17.9 26.9 28.7 73.5  2,938  44.4 20.2 16.5 18.9 55.6  2,881 
 Other urban 34.5 20.4 27.2 17.9 65.5  3,216  43.7 20.3 17.2 18.8 56.3  3,218 
 Small accessible towns 35.4 19.3 31.2 14.0 64.6  923  36.2 23.0 19.9 20.9 63.8  926 
 Small remote towns 32.2 18.0 24.8 25.0 67.8  594  38.9 19.2 19.9 21.9 61.1  594 
 Accessible rural 41.9 19.3 21.6 17.2 58.1  1,051  34.3 20.3 20.0 25.3 65.7  1,052 
 Remote rural 44.4 18.9 17.6 19.1 55.6  1,013  38.7 15.9 17.9 27.5 61.3  1,016 
by frequency of driving: #  
every day 40.5 22.2 22.7 14.6 59.5  3,772  37.9 21.5 18.2 22.4 62.1  3,773 
at least three times a week 30.7 23.2 30.0 16.1 69.3  1,391  35.0 24.5 22.6 17.8 65.0  1,385 
once or twice a week 27.0 20.7 27.6 24.6 73.0  589  39.1 22.2 15.6 23.1 60.9  584 
less often 23.4 14.2 27.8 34.5 76.6  289  39.2 24.8 16.7 19.3 60.8  283 
Never, but holds full driving licence 27.1 15.1 22.9 34.8 72.9  461  45.0 20.6 11.6 22.7 55.0  452 

Source: Scottish Household Survey
1. The number of days in the previous seven days on which the person made a trip of more than a quarter of a mile by foot for the specified purpose.
2. Question now asked in survey every other year.  2014 is the most recent data available.
# Only includes those with a full driving licence.

 

Table 11.12  Frequency of Driving1,2 for people aged 17+
  2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
  column percentages
Every Day 41.8 40.9 45.2 44.9 43.4 41.4 40.7 42.0 41.9 40.9 40.9
Per Week:
At least 3 times 11.2 11.6 10.0 10.4 11.9 12.8 13.3 13.1 13.3 13.9 14.5
Once or twice 5.8 6.7 5.1 5.6 5.6 6.0 6.2 6.0 5.6 5.9 5.9
Per Month:  
At least 2 or 3 times 0.8 1.0 0.9 1.0 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.8 1.0 0.9 0.8
At least once 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.3 0.5 0.7 0.5
Less than once 1.4 1.4 1.7 1.3 1.6 1.8 1.7 1.7 1.6 1.8 1.4
Holds full driving licence, never drives 4.1 4.4 3.5 4.0 4.2 4.3 4.1 4.5 4.5 4.3 4.0
Total with a full driving licence 65.6 66.4 67.0 67.6 68.0 67.6 67.3 68.3 68.4 68.5 68.0
Doesn't have a full driving licence 34.4 33.6 33.0 32.4 32.0 32.4 32.7 31.7 31.6 31.5 32.0
Sample size (=100%)  13,968 14,075 12,152 12,263 12,447 12,361 12,801 9,828 9,838 9,720 9,340

Source: Scottish Household Survey
1   For holders of full licences.
2  From April 2003, the questionnaire changed such that information on possession of driving licences and frequency of driving was no longer collected from the head of the household, or his / her spouse/partner, about all adults in the household, but instead from one randomly chosen adult member of the household about him or herself.

 

Table 11.13   Frequency of Walking in the previous seven days1 2  (people aged 16+)
  2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2014
  column percentages
As means of transport 
None 46 46 46 46 48 48 41 38 37 34 33
1-2 days 18 17 15 16 18 17 18 19 19 20 19
3-5 days 22 21 22 21 20 22 22 24 24 23 26
6-7 days 15 16 17 17 14 14 19 19 20 23 22
1+ days 54 54 54 54 52 53 59 62 63 66 67
Sample size (=100%)   13,927   14,715   6,992   7,111   6,116   6,197   6,137   6,178   6,381   9,841   9,735 
Just for pleasure or to keep fit 2
None 56 56 54 53 53 55 52 49 46 45 42
1-2 days 18 16 17 17 18 18 19 18 19 19 20
3-5 days 12 13 14 14 14 13 13 17 17 17 18
6-7 days 14 14 15 16 16 14 16 17 19 19 20
1+ days 44 44 46 47 47 45 48 51 54 55 58
Sample size (=100%)  13,925 14,713 6,993 7,111 6,121 6,209 6,119 6,136 6,372 9,805  9,687 

Source: Scottish Household Survey
1. The number of days in the previous seven days on which the person made a trip of more than a quarter of a mile by foot for the specified purpose.
2. Question now asked in survey every other year.  2014 is the most recent data available.
3. This category includes jogging and walking a dog.

 

Table 11.14  Usual means of travel to usual place of work (in Autumn)
  2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
  percentage
Car,van,minibus,works van  68   69   69   69   70   71   68   68   69   69   70 
Bicycle  2   1   2   2   2   2   2   2   2   2   2 
Bus,coach.private bus  12   12   12   13   11   10   12   11   11   11   10 
Rail (inc Underground)  4   5   4   4   4   4   4   4   5   4   5 
Walk  13   12   11   11   12   12   12   12   13   12   11 
Other (inc taxi)  2   1   2   2   3   2   2   2   1   1   1 
All  100   100   100   100   100   100   100   100   100   100   100 

Source: Transport Statistics Great Britain

 

Table 11.15(a) Usual time taken to travel to usual place of work (in Autumn)
  1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005
  minutes
Car,van,minibus,works van  22   22   23   20   23   20   22   21 
Bicycle  15   15   18   15   14   16   15   16 
Bus,coach.private bus  32   32   32   33   34   33   32   32 
Rail (inc Underground)  55   53   52   47   46   48   46   49 
Walk  12   12   12   11   12   12   12   13 
Other (inc taxi)  45   33   47   42   46   25   36   40 
All  23   23   24   22   24   21   23   22 

Note: This table is no longer being updated. Henceforth, information about average times taken to travel to work will be given in Table 11.15 (b), which is on the basis that is used to produce such figures for DfT's "Regional Transport Statistics".

 

Table 11.15(b)   Usual time taken to travel to usual place of work (in Autumn) 1,2
  2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 1 2010 1 2011 1 2012 1 2013 1 2014 1 2015 1
  minutes
Car  23   23   24   24   24   25   23   24   25   24   24 
Motorcycle  19   *   24   *   19   *   *   *   *   *   * 
Bicycle  17   21   19   18   15   20   20   18   22   23   22 
Bus/coach  33   35   33   36   35   36   35   39   37   38   37 
Rail  49   50   49   57   53   53   51   59   56   49   51 
Walk  13   13   12   12   14   14   13   15   14   14   14 
Other  61   70   64   75   95   73  47 3  89   77   74   98 
All  24   25   25   26   26   26   25   26   27   26   27 

Source: Transport Statistics Great Britain
* Sample size for this cell is too small for reliable estimates.
Source: Oct-Dec, Office for National Statistics (ONS) Labour Force Survey. Notes: Some of the figures shown in table 11.15 (b) differ slightly from those in 11.15 (a) due to differing methodology used to extract. Results are weighted using population estimates to ensure they are representative of the population at large.
1. Data are for males and females in employment aged 16-99.
2. Maximum recorded value of usual travel to work time = 180 minutes.
3. The large fall between 2010 and 2011 is due to a small sample size with a small number of very extreme values that are very sensitive to change 

 

Table 11.16   Usual means of travel to work 1 (in Spring)
Population Census year Train (inc. u/grd) Bus Car Motor cycle Pedal cycle Foot2 Other3 (e.g. taxi) Total of these
  percentage
1966 4 43 21 1 2 24 5 100
1971 3 35 29 ~ 2 24 6 100
1981 3 25 46 1 1 20 3 100
1991 3 18 59 1 1 15 3 100
2001 4 12 68 ~ 2 12 2 100
2011 5 11 69 ~ 2 11 2 100

~ Less than half a per cent but greater than zero.
1. Excluding those who worked at home in 1981, 1991 and 2001 (who were not identified separately in the 1966 and 1971 Census travel to work figures)
2. Includes 'none' in 1971
3. Includes 'none' in 1966; unspecified means of 'Public transport' in 1971, and 'not stated' in all years apart from 2001 (when there was no "not stated" category).

 

Table 11.17   Employed1 adults (16+) - place of work: 2015
  Works from home Does not work from home All employed adults   Sample size (=100%)
  row percentages
All employed adults 13 87 100 4,810
Self-employed 64 36 100 540
Employed full-time 7 93 100 3,800
Employed part-time 10 90 100 4,810

Source: Scottish Household Survey
1. Those whose current situation was described as self-employed, employed full-time or employed part-time.

Figure 11.3: Travel to work a) 2005 and b) 2015

Figure 11.3: Travel to work a) 2005 and b) 2015

Figure 11.4: Driver experience of congestion and bus passenger experience of delays 2005-2015

Figure 11.4: Driver experience of congestion and bus passenger experience of delays 2005-2015

 

Table 11.18   Employed1 adults (16+) not working from home - usual method of travel to work: 2015
  Walking     Car or van   Bicycle   Bus   Rail   Other   Sample size (=100%)
Driver Pass. All
  row percentages
All people aged 16+ in 2014: 14 60 6 66 2 11 4 3  3,950 
By gender:
 Male 11 62 5 67 3 10 4 4  1,830 
 Female 16 59 6 65 1 13 4 2  2,120 
by age:
 16 - 20 23 42 13 55 . 19 3 0  50 
 20 - 29 18 48 8 55 4 15 4 3  620 
 30 - 39 14 60 5 65 2 11 5 2  900 
 40 - 49 10 66 4 70 2 9 6 3  1,010 
 50 - 59 12 66 6 72 1 10 3 2  1,010 
 60 and over 14 64 4 68 0 12 2 4  370 
by current situation:
 Self employed 16 73 2 75 2 1 3 3  180 
 Employed full time 11 61 6 67 2 11 5 3  2,880 
 Employed part time 22 54 7 60 1 13 2 1  890 
by annual net household income:
 up to £10,000 p.a. 38 34 3 37 3 17 2 4  130 
 over £10,000 - £15,000 24 36 10 46 3 21 4 2  370 
 over £15,000 - £20,000 20 48 7 55 3 14 4 4  520 
 over £20,000 - £25,000 16 57 7 64 2 14 3 1  470 
 over £25,000 - £30,000 16 57 9 66 2 10 4 2  480 
 over £30,000 - £40,000 10 65 6 71 2 10 4 2  810 
 over £40,000 p.a. 8 71 3 73 2 7 6 3  1,140 
by Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation:
 1 (20 % most deprived) 19 46 11 57 1 17 4 2  620 
2 18 53 6 59 3 12 4 3  810 
3 13 61 6 67 1 10 6 2  900 
4 10 69 3 72 2 8 4 4  930 
 5 (20% least deprived) 9 68 3 71 3 10 4 2  700 
by urban/rural classification:
 Large urban areas 16 50 5 55 4 18 6 2  1,200 
 Other urban 13 62 7 69 2 9 5 3  1,350 
 Small accessible towns 12 70 4 74 3 7 4 1  370 
 Small remote towns 31 56 2 58 0 4 2 6  240 
 Accessible rural 7 76 4 80 1 7 2 4  420 
 Remote rural 12 71 9 80 1 2 0 5  370 
by number of cars:
none 40 1 9 10 6 34 6 3  670 
one 13 60 7 67 2 10 5 2  1,820 
two + 5 81 3 84 1 4 3 3  1,460 
Household type
Single adult 19 53 4 57 3 13 5 3  960 
Small adult 16 61 6 67 3 10 3 2  960 
Single parent 19 55 3 58 0 18 4 1  270 
Small family 10 66 4 70 2 9 7 2  820 
Large family 10 64 6 70 3 10 4 3  250 
Large adult 10 57 9 66 1 14 4 5  380 
Older smaller 17 61 6 66 0 11 2 3  320 

Source: Scottish Household Survey
1. Those in full-time employment, part-time employment and self-employed only.
2. Including the Glasgow Underground.
3. e.g. motorcycle, lorry, taxi, ferry, etc.
** value supressed as cell contains fewer than 5 responses

 

Table 11.19   Usual main method of travel to school 1 : 2015
  Walking Car or Van Bicycle Bus Rail3 Other4 Sample size (=100%)
School2 Service All
  row percentages
All children in full-time education, 2007 48.8 25.8 1.2 15.3 5.7 20.9 1.1 2.1 1,880
By gender:
 Male 47.9 26.1 1.9 15.5 4.6 20.1 1.3 2.6 980
 Female 49.7 25.5 0.5 15.0 6.8 21.8 1.0 1.6 900
by age:
  age 4-5 53.0 35.4 0.3 5.7 4.6 10.3 0.0 1.0 170
  age 6-7 51.9 38.8 0.6 7.1 1.1 8.2 0.3 0.3 350
  age 8-9 61.4 26.0 3.6 4.7 2.0 6.7 0.0 2.3 310
  age 10-11 49.5 30.2 2.2 11.3 2.4 13.7 1.2 3.2 270
All 4-11 54.2 32.4 1.9 7.3 2.2 9.5 0.4 1.7 1,100
  age 12-13 45.7 15.6 0.6 24.5 9.9 34.4 0.0 3.6 280
  age 14-15 39.1 16.5 0.2 28.7 10.6 39.3 2.7 2.2 310
  age 16-18 38.1 18.8 0.0 25.3 11.1 36.4 4.6 2.1 190
All 12 - 18 41.3 16.7 0.3 26.4 10.5 36.9 2.2 2.7 780
by annual net household income:
 up to £15,000 p.a. 56.9 18.5 1.1 7.3 12.8 20.1 0.6 2.9 170
 over £15,000 - £20,000 54.9 16.5 2.1 17.3 5.7 22.9 0.5 3.0 220
 over £20,000 - £25,000 52.2 23.8 0.7 13.6 6.8 20.5 0.7 2.1 240
 over £25,000 - £30,000 45.4 25.6 0.7 18.9 6.2 25.1 0.8 2.5 230
 over £30,000 - £40,000 45.6 26.6 1.3 18.0 4.9 22.8 1.3 2.5 390
 over £40,000 p.a. 46.5 31.6 1.1 14.2 3.8 18.0 1.5 1.3 620
by Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation:
 1 (20 % most deprived) 51.2 21.7 0.6 12.3 9.2 21.5 0.4 4.6 340
2 52.7 23.5 0.8 13.3 6.1 19.4 1.3 2.4 350
3 45.5 26.4 0.7 22.6 3.4 25.9 0.4 1.1 430
4 43.9 28.5 2.4 16.8 5.5 22.3 1.5 1.4 410
 5 (20% least deprived) 51.6 28.8 1.5 10.1 4.5 14.6 2.1 1.4 360
by urban/rural classification:
 Large urban areas 50.2 29.7 1.0 5.9 8.8 14.7 2.4 2.0 520
 Other urban 53.3 25.5 1.4 12.5 4.4 16.9 0.3 2.6 640
 Small accessible towns and small   remote towns 63.2 15.5 1.6 14.0 4.6 18.5 0.5 0.7 300
 Accessible rural 32.9 26.3 1.0 31.3 4.7 36.0 1.1 2.8 250
 Remote rural 21.4 30.4 0.6 42.7 2.2 45.0 1.0 1.7 170
by number of cars:
None 65.4 1.7 1.7 13.2 12.7 25.9 0.6 4.7 280
One 50.8 24.6 1.3 14.1 5.6 19.7 1.2 2.4 800
Two + 41.2 35.3 1.0 17.1 3.3 20.4 1.2 1.0 790
Household type:
Single parent 49.6 21.1 2.3 17.1 7.6 24.6 0.6 1.8 400
Small family 50.4 29.5 0.8 12.2 4.4 16.6 0.4 2.2 820
Large family 47.5 25.5 1.2 16.6 4.9 21.6 1.9 2.2 520
Large adult 41.9 19.7 0.0 22.5 13.2 35.7 2.4 0.4 110

Source: Scottish Household Survey
1. For those in full time education at school. The Main method of transport is recorded if there is more than one method.
2. Including those who were said to travel by private bus, and a few who went by works bus.
3. Including the Glasgow Underground.
4. e.g. motorcycle, lorry, taxi, ferry, etc.

Table 11.20   Travel to/from school (pupils aged 5 to 16) 1, 2 
Note: This table has been removed as data are no longer available for Scotland .  Latest Scottish estimates are given in table 11.19 although this is based on a different source.

 

Table 11.21 Employed 1 adults (16+) - place of work
  2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
  column percentages
Works from home 11.1 10.7 11.2 10.0 11.4 10.1 10.6 13.2 13.3 13.1 14.1
Does not work from home 88.9 89.3 88.8 90.0 88.6 89.9 89.4 86.8 86.7 86.8 85.9
All employed adults 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100
Sample size (100%)  6,841   6,845   5,888   6,092   6,103   5,862   6,189   4,734   4,848   4,810   4,670 

Source: Scottish Household Survey
1. Those whose current situation was described as self-employed, employed full-time or employed part-time.

 

Table 11.22   Employed 1 adults (16+) not working from home - usual method of travel to work
  2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
  column percentages
Walking 12.7 13.8 11.9 12.5 12.3 13.4 12.9 13.6 12.9 12.9 13.6
Car or van
Driver 59.8 59.8 61.3 59.9 60.7 61.0 59.1 61.4 60.6 61.6 60.3
Passenger 7.5 7.0 6.7 6.1 6.4 6.3 7.5 6.0 5.6 6.0 5.6
All 67.4 66.8 68.0 66.0 67.0 67.3 66.6 67.3 66.2 67.6 65.9
Bicycle 1.6 2.0 1.7 2.3 2.4 2.3 2.0 2.0 2.5 2.6 2.2
Bus 12.1 11.8 12.7 12.1 12.1 10.8 12.0 10.1 11.3 10.2 11.2
Rail 3.9 3.6 3.5 4.3 3.9 3.6 3.9 4.3 4.0 4.2 4.4
Other 2.3 2.0 2.3 2.7 2.3 2.7 2.6 2.6 3.1 2.5 2.7
Sample size (100%)  6,044   6,068   5,176   5,437   5,371   5,221   5,508   4,103   4,157   4,130   3,950 

Source: Scottish Household Survey
1. The main method of transport is recorded if the journey involves more than one method.
2. Including the Glasgow Underground.
3. e.g. motorcycle, lorry, taxi, ferry, etc.

 

Table 11.23   Usual main method of travel to school
  2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
column percentages
Walking 52.5 51.1 52.8 48.8 50.0 49.7 50.6 51.4 51.7 51.2 48.8
Car or van 21.0 21.7 21.9 23.6 24.4 23.0 23.4 24.1 24.4 24.5 25.8
Bicycle 0.6 0.9 0.8 1.5 1.0 1.4 1.4 0.8 1.2 1.7 1.2
Bus
School 16.5 17.0 14.8 16.5 16.1 16.1 15.1 14.9 14.5 14.5 15.3
Service 7.1 6.7 7.1 7.3 5.9 7.8 6.6 6.2 5.4 5.8 5.7
All 23.3 23.4 21.9 23.9 22.0 23.9 21.7 21.1 19.9 20.3 20.9
Rail 0.7 1.2 0.9 0.7 0.7 0.3 0.7 0.4 0.6 0.7 1.1
Other 1.6 1.3 1.7 1.5 1.8 1.7 2.2 2.2 2.2 1.7 2.1
Sample size (100%)  3,272   3,240   2,517   2,750  2,881 2,676  2,715   1,923   1,975   1,980   1,880 

Source: Scottish Household Survey
1. For those in full time education at school. The main method of transport is recorded if there is more than one method.
2. Including those who were said to travel by private bus, and a few who went by works bus.
3. Including the Glasgow Underground.
4. e.g. motorcycle, lorry, taxi, ferry, etc.

 

Table 11.23a  Usual main method of travel to school - Hands Up Scotland Survey 1
  2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
  column percentages
Walk 47.0 45.8 45.9 45.1 44.1 44.2 43.3
Cycle 2.3 2.8 3.0 2.9 3.5 3.4 3.5
Scooter/Skate 0.6 0.7 1.0 1.6 2.8 2.8 2.9
Park & Stride 6.7 7.4 7.5 7.8 7.5 7.8 7.8
Driven 23.3 22.9 22.4 22.2 21.4 21.9 22.4
Bus 18.1 18.2 18.2 18.2 18.8 17.7 17.9
Taxi 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.7 1.6 1.6 1.7
Other 0.4 0.5 0.3 0.5 0.4 0.5 0.4
Sample size (100%)  415,804   439,401   427,104   457,488   467,397   487,147   480,161 

Source: Hands Up Scotland Survey -  Not National Statistics
1. All schools excluding nursery

 

Table 11.24  Scottish residents' visits abroad by means of leaving the UK and purpose of visit, 2015
Means of leaving the UK Purpose of visit    
Package Holiday Other Holiday Business Visiting  Friends or Relatives Miscellaneous and other Purposes Total
  thousands
Air
Edinburgh 327 520 122 324 15 1,308
Glasgow 599 333 46 203 10 1,191
Prestwick 111 159 1 12 .. 282
Aberdeen 31 47 61 74 .. 213
Total Edinburgh,  Glasgow, Prestwick & Aberdeen 1,068 1,059 230 613 25 2,995
Heathrow 26 59 43 41 5 173
Gatwick  55 73 12 24 7 171
Stanstead 3 26  4  19  ..  52
Manchester 90 49 6 12  18  175
Newcastle 34 23 3 3 1 63
Birmingham 3 13 3 2  ..  21
Other UK Airports  7 43 2 16 3 71
Total Air 1,287 1,346 302 730 57 3,722
Channel Tunnel 11 30 6 9 3 59
Sea
English Channel Ports 12 33 8 13 1 67
English East Coast Ports 19 16 2 5 0 42
Other UK Ports 2 .. ..  ..   ..   ..  0
Total Sea 31 49 9 17 1 109
Total All Means of Leaving the UK 1,329 1,425 317 757 62 3,890

Source: Office for National Statistics

 

Table 11.25  Scottish residents' visits abroad by means of leaving the UK 1 and area visited, 2015
Means of leaving the UK Area Visited Total
EU Other Europe Canada & USA Australia & New Zealand Asia Rest of  the  World
  thousands
Air
Edinburgh 1073 100 83  1  30 20 1,308
Glasgow 814 54 107 37 127 53 1,191
Prestwick 282 ..  ..   ..   ..   ..  282
Aberdeen 130 40  9   ..   14  21 213
Total Edinburgh,  Glasgow, Prestwick & Aberdeen 2,300 194 199 39 171 93 2,995
Heathrow 50  12  56 6 29 21 173
Gatwick  77  9  43  ..  .. 43 171
Stanstead 46 4  ..   ..   ..   2  52
Manchester 87 12 9  2  8 58 175
Newcastle 51  6   3  2 .. 2 63
Birmingham 18  ..   2   ..   2  .. 21
Other UK Airports  64 4 1 .. 1 1 71
Total Air 2,693 239 312 48 210 219 3,722
Channel Tunnel 59 ..  ..   ..   ..   ..  59
Sea
English Channel Ports 66  1   ..   ..   ..   ..  67
English East Coast Ports 41 1  ..   ..   ..  1 42
Other UK Ports 2 ..  ..  ..  ..   ..   ..  0
Total Sea 107 2 0  -   -  1 109
Total All Means of Leaving the UK 2,859 241 312 48 210 220 3,890

Source: Office for National Statistics
1.  These estimates are based on information from samples of passengers using the principal routes- see sections 3.14 and 4.4 of the text.
2. “Other UK ports” includes information collected from Rosyth in 2008 Q2 & Q3.  There are minor differences between Tables 11.26, 11.27 and 11.28, due to totals being calculated by adding separately-rounded numbers.

 

Table 11.26 Scottish residents' visits abroad, by means of leaving the UK1, purpose of visit, and area visited
    2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
  thousands
All visits abroad by Scots   4,288 4,792 4,738 4,765 3,899 3,618 3,579 3,645 3,592 3,907 3,890
by means of leaving the UK
Air Total 4,131 4,562 4,517 4,501 3,674 3,362 3,368 3,468 3,399 3,683 3,722
Edinburgh   767 852 1,077 1,194 1,035 1,000 1,038 1,045 1,166 1,213 1,308
Glasgow   1,721 1,868 1,774 1,742 1,339 1,102 1,108 1,176 972 1,178 1,191
Prestwick   566 673 656 644 376 409 414 364 382 328 282
Aberdeen    ..   ..   ..   ..  180 164 164 197 179 215 213
Total these airports   3,054 3,393 3,506 3,580 2,931 2,674 2,724 2,782 2,699 2,933 2,995
Heathrow   383 149 117 102 109 87 76 84 74 62 173
Gatwick    186 192 183 215 140 127 147 190 134 137 171
Stanstead   102 109 58 81 47 44 35 36 24 29 52
Manchester   164 159 158 134 130 130 125 132 161 214 175
   Newcastle    ..  136 176 128 105 119 83 91 80 90 63
   Birmingham    ..  39 22 18 13 19 14 17 19 25 21
Other UK Airports    242 385 297 243 199 162 164 137 208 193 71
Channel Tunnel   52 55 65 83 63 76 55 64 59 63 59
Sea Total 105 175 156 182 163 180 156 113 133 161 109
English Channel Ports   57 119 68 107 109 118 108 74 105 106 67
English East Coast Ports   47 45 52 46 37 34 43 35 26 52 42
Other UK Ports   1 11 36 28 16 28 5 4 3 3 ..
by purpose of visit
Package holiday   1,580 1,681 1,687 1,512 1,161 1,195 1,128 1,210 1,123 1,301 1,329
Other holiday   1,505 1,694 1,643 1,828 1,454 1,378 1,323 1,335 1,363 1,474 1,425
Business   394 383 458 407 397 363 399 334 325 350 317
Visit friends / relatives   692 859 824 913 800 611 670 673 711 718 757
Misc. and other   118 174 126 104 88 70 60 93 69 64 62
by area visited
EU   3,276 3,709 3,662 3,692 2,933 2,709 2,768 2,845 2,761 2,972 2,859
Other Europe   41 61 48 64 50 48 64 50 60 85 241
North America   484 503 465 477 365 344 285 297 267 317 312
Australia & New Zealand   77 60 71 52 57 55 43 38 47 47 48
Asia   128 158 147 154 146 139 132 119 140 167 210
Rest of the World   282 301 345 324 348 322 288 296 317 319 220
by means of leaving the UK and main purposes of visits
Edinburgh, Glasgow, Prestwick & Aberdeen
Package holiday   1,218 1,277 1,322 1,175 895 882 850 974 847 997 1,068
Other holiday   1,029 1,164 1,148 1,303 1,055 989 982 975 1,011 1,073 1,059
Business   235 199 306 296 289 242 298 246 211 231 230
Visit friends / relatives   513 634 658 749 651 512 553 543 587 589 613
Other UK airport
Package holiday   310 297 284 260 188 198 187 187 193 224 218
Other holiday   413 466 408 398 218 214 178 213 183 216 287
Business   149 163 132 94 40 48 49 47 42 47 72
Visit friends / relatives   160 198 147 135 78 54 56 75 64 62 117
Sea or Channel Tunnel
Package holiday   52 107 81 78 78 115 92 49 83 80 42
Other holiday   63 64 86 127 182 176 162 147 170 185 78
Business   10 21 20 17 67 73 51 41 73 72 16
Visit friends / relatives   19 27 19 29 71 45 62 55 60 68 27
by main purposes of visit and area visited
Package holiday
EU   1,305 1,410 1,366 1,227 898 908 912 987 868 1,050 1,061
Elsewhere   275 272 321 285 264 287 216 223 255 252 267
Other holiday
EU   1,186 1,370 1,353 1,503 1,185 1,120 1,106 1,110 1,152 1,219 1,122
Elsewhere   319 324 290 324 268 258 217 225 212 255 302
Business
EU   285 263 356 275 274 252 274 237 219 240 170
Elsewhere   108 120 101 132 123 111 124 97 106 109 147
Visit friends / relatives
EU   407 529 510 609 514 379 430 441 471 423 478
Elsewhere   284 331 314 304 286 232 240 231 240 295 280

Source: Office for National Statistics
1.  These estimates are based on information from samples of passengers using the principal routes: the International Passenger Survey does not provide any information about passengers using other routes (e.g.Rosyth) - see sections 11.2 (page 283) and 11.7 (page 288) of the notes and definitions. Prestwick airport was added to the International Passenger Survey sample in 2005, so there are no figures for it prior to then. The results for 2003 and earlier years differ from those published previously because ONS has revised the series retrospectively - for example, the EU/Other Europe breakdown now reflects the position following the enlargement of the EU in 2004.

 

Table 11.27  Transport Model for Scotland: inter-zonal 1 trips made on an average weekday - within Scotland: circa 2014 5
(a)  People: by car, bus or train      
  Destination          
Origin Clydeplan 2 SESplan 3 TAYplan 4 Aberdeen City & Shire Dumfries & Galloway Ayrshire Stirling, Falkirk & Clacks Elsewhere in Scotland Rest of UK Total
thousands
Clydeplan2 1,851 52 5 2 3 62 39 14 9 2,037
SESplan3 53 1,226 43 3 2 2 41 2 11 1,381
TAYplan4 5 42 411 6 0 0 8 2 2 476
Aberdeen City & Shire 2 3 7 487 0 0 1 8 1 509
Dumfries & Galloway 3 2 0 0 110 3 0 0 3 120
Ayrshire 62 2 0 0 3 283 1 1 1 351
Stirling, Falkirk & Clacks 43 42 8 1 0 1 209 1 1 307
Elsewhere in Scotland 15 3 2 8 0 1 1 298 2 331
Rest of UK 7 10 2 1 3 1 1 2 0 26
Total 2,041 1,381 478 507 121 351 301 329 29 5,538
(b)  People: by car      
  Destination          
Origin Clydeplan 2 SESplan 3 TAYplan 4 Aberdeen City & Shire Dumfries & Galloway Ayrshire Stirling, Falkirk & Clacks Elsewhere in Scotland Rest of UK Total
thousands
Clydeplan2 1,439 41 4 1 2 50 34 11 6 1,587
SESplan3 42 954 36 2 1 1 36 2 6 1,079
TAYplan4 4 36 340 5 0 0 8 2 1 395
Aberdeen City & Shire 1 2 6 426 0 0 1 7 1 444
Dumfries & Galloway 2 1 0 0 97 2 0 0 2 105
Ayrshire 49 1 0 0 2 239 0 1 1 293
Stirling, Falkirk & Clacks 38 37 8 0 0 0 179 1 1 264
Elsewhere in Scotland 12 2 2 7 0 0 1 263 2 289
Rest of UK 5 5 1 1 2 1 1 2 0 17
Total 1,591 1,080 397 442 105 294 259 287 19 4,474
(c)  People: by bus or train     
  Destination          
Origin Clydeplan 2 SESplan 3 TAYplan 4 Aberdeen City & Shire Dumfries & Galloway Ayrshire Stirling, Falkirk & Clacks Elsewhere in Scotland Rest of UK Total
thousands
Clydeplan2 413 11 1 1 1 11 5 4 2 449
SESplan3 11 272 7 1 0 1 5 1 5 302
TAYplan4 1 6 71 1 0 0 1 0 1 81
Aberdeen City & Shire 1 1 1 60 0 0 0 1 1 65
Dumfries & Galloway 0 0 0 0 14 0 0 0 1 16
Ayrshire 13 1 0 0 0 44 0 0 0 59
Stirling, Falkirk & Clacks 5 5 1 0 0 0 31 0 0 43
Elsewhere in Scotland 3 1 0 1 0 0 0 36 0 42
Rest of UK 2 4 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 9
Total 450 302 81 65 16 57 43 42 10 1,065
(d)  Vehicle trips: cars and goods vehicles only
  Destination
Origin Clydeplan 2 SESplan 3 TAYplan 4 Aberdeen City & Shire Dumfries & Galloway Ayrshire Stirling, Falkirk & Clacks Elsewhere in Scotland Rest of UK Total
thousands
Clydeplan2 1,483 46 5 2 3 55 35 10 7 1,646
SESplan3 44 1,013 38 2 2 2 36 2 7 1,147
TAYplan4 5 38 328 6 0 0 8 2 1 389
Aberdeen City & Shire 2 2 7 409 0 0 1 7 1 430
Dumfries & Galloway 3 2 0 0 103 3 0 0 2 114
Ayrshire 48 2 0 0 2 238 1 1 1 294
Stirling, Falkirk & Clacks 38 37 8 0 0 1 203 1 1 289
Elsewhere in Scotland 11 2 2 7 0 1 1 251 2 278
Rest of UK 6 7 1 1 3 1 1 2 0 22
Total 1,641 1,149 390 427 113 302 286 276 23 4,609

Source: Transport Scotland (Transport Model for Scotland:14) - Not National Statistics
1.  All travel movements between the 799 zones used to represent the UK.   The number of shorter distance trips which travel within a model zone area is not known.
2.  East Dunbartonshire, East Renfrewshire, Glasgow City, Inverclyde, North Lanarkshire, Renfrewshire, South Lanarkshire and West Dunbartonshire 
3.  City of Edinburgh, East Lothian, Midlothian, Fife (South), Scottish Borders and West Lothian
4.  Dundee City, Angus, Perth & Kinross and Fife (North)
5.  This traffic and travel data was extracted from the Transport Model for Scotland 2014 (TMfS14) (Base Year Version AE, Model Version TMfS14 V1.0).   The data reflects daily travel movements within a 2014 base year and represents the most recent data available from the LATIS service TMfS14 covers the whole of the Scottish Strategic Transport network.  England is represented with less detail.  The data reflects 'inter-zonal trips', which includes all travel movements between the 799 zones used to represent the UK.  The data does not include more local or short distance movements travelling wholly within model zones.

 

Table 11.29   Passenger journeys made under concessionary fare schemes
  2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13 2013-14 2014-15 2015-16
  millions
(a) all journeys made under concessionary fare schemes1
Strathclyde Concessionary Travel scheme
Buses2 78.30 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Rail 2.87 2.97 3.05 3.18 3.25 3.29 3.37 3.19 3.17 3.37 3.36
Underground 0.68 0.73 0.76 0.79 0.81 0.77 0.71 0.70 0.77 0.82 0.81
Ferries 0.54 0.65 0.69 0.70 0.71 0.68 0.63 0.65 0.64 0.67 0.65
Taxis 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Others 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Total 82.39 4.35 4.50 4.67 4.77 4.74 4.71 4.54 4.58 4.86 4.82
Other concessionary fare schemes3
Buses2,4,5 (ie. the National schemes) 69.05 155.74 159.20 157.61 151.61 147.48 149.68 146.36 148.65 148.26 146.37
Rail 0.81 0.01 0.21 0.31 0.42 0.62 0.88 1.04 1.46 2.13 2.31
Underground 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Ferries5  0.06 0.03 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.06
Taxis 0.89 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Others 0.05 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Total 70.86 155.78 159.46 157.97 152.08 148.15 150.61 147.46 150.17 150.45 148.74
All concessionary fare schemes3
Buses2,4,5 147.35 155.74 159.20 157.61 151.61 147.48 149.68 146.36 148.65 148.26 146.37
Rail 3.68 2.98 3.26 3.49 3.67 3.91 4.25 4.23 4.63 5.50 5.67
Underground 0.68 0.73 0.76 0.79 0.81 0.77 0.71 0.70 0.77 0.82 0.81
Ferries 0.60 0.68 0.74 0.75 0.76 0.73 0.68 0.71 0.70 0.73 0.71
Taxis 0.89 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Others 0.05 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Total 153.25 160.13 163.96 162.64 156.85 152.89 155.32 152.00 154.75 155.31 153.56
(b) of which:     journeys which were made free of charge to the traveller1
Strathclyde Concessionary Travel scheme
Buses2 78.30 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Rail 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Ferries6 0.54 0.65 0.69 0.70 0.71 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Other 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Total 78.84 0.65 0.69 0.70 0.71 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Other concessionary fare schemes
Buses2,4,5 (ie. the National schemes) 54.32 155.71 158.62 156.59 150.37 146.10 148.09 144.62 146.88 146.74 145.17
Rail 0.03 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Ferries 0.05 0.03 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.06
Other 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Total 54.40 155.74 158.67 156.64 150.42 146.15 148.14 144.68 146.94 146.80 145.23
All concessionary fare schemes
Buses2,4,5 132.62 155.71 158.62 156.59 150.37 146.10 148.09 144.62 146.88 146.74 145.17
Rail 0.03 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Ferries 0.59 0.68 0.74 0.75 0.76 0.05 0.05 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.06
Other 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Total 133.24 156.39 159.36 157.34 151.13 146.15 148.14 144.68 146.94 146.80 145.23

Source: Transport Scotland & Strathclyde Partnership for Transport - Not National Statistics
1 Figures include a degree of estimation (e.g. allowances for claims not yet been processed) and may incur some small revisions to previously published data.
2 The National Concessionary Travel bus scheme was introduced on 1st April 2006, which allows elderly and disabled free travel on all scheduled bus services in Scotland. This replaced any local schemes. 
3 2001-02 &  2002-03 figures do not include Eilean Siar.
4 The Young People's Concessionary Travel Scheme started in 8 January 2007, aimed at 16 to 18 year olds (inclusive) and full time volunteers (aged under 26).
5 The Reimbursement Rate for the National Concessionary Travel bus scheme changed from 73.6% applicable 2006/07 to 2009/10, to 67% applicable 2010/11 to 2012/13, to 61% in 2013/14,  to 58.1% in 2014/15, to 57.1% in 2015/16.
6 A small charge was introduced for ferries in 2010.

Figure 11.1: Calls to Traveline Scotland in 2015

Figure 11.1: Calls to Traveline Scotland in 2015

Figure 11.2 Traveline Scotland - Web & App hits in 2015

Figure 11.2 Traveline Scotland - Web and App hits in 2015

 

Table 11.30   Traveline Scotland: telephone calls and web site hits 1
  2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
Weeks included in year 2
Telephone calls 52 52 52 52 52 52 52 52 52 52 52
Web site 52 52 52 52 52 52 52 52 52 52 52
thousands
Calls answered 707.4 728.9 665.1 627.7 606.1 700.7 503.9 399.8 331.7 286.7 219.9
Calls unanswered   
Ring tone, no reply 3 5.3 4.0 4.7 7.2 3.4 2.8 0.4 0.7  -   -   - 
Engaged tone 3 0.0 0.3 1.0 0.0 0.6 1.9 0.0 0.0  -   -   - 
Other 3 4.9 2.3 3.8 5.9 2.4 2.6 0.3 2.5  -   -   - 
Total unanswered 10.3 6.6 9.4 13.1 6.4 7.3 0.7 3.2 6.5 8.5 2.6
Total number of calls 717.7 735.5 674.5 640.9 612.5 708.1 507.1 403.0 338.2 295.2 222.5
  percentages
Percentage answered 98.6 99.1 98.6 97.9 99.0 99.0 99.4 99.2 98.1 97.1 98.8
  numbers
Daily average answered  1,943 2,002 1,827 1,724 1,665 1,925 1,384 1,098 911 788 604
  seconds
Answered calls: av. duration  114.0 112.0 107.8 114.9 111.6 142.6 161.5 178.3 180.0 182.0 190
  thousands
Total number of hits 5, 6 2,658.5 | 1,854.4 2,305.4 1,635.2 3,217.4 4,349.7 | 7,430.9 10,166.9 11,532.4 12,636.1 20,080.9
  numbers
Daily average hits 4 7,304 | 5,094 6,334 4,492 8,839 11,950 | 20,415 27,931 31,682 34,715 55,167

Source: Transport Scotland - Not National Statistics
1. Traveline Scotland went live for telephone calls on 3 January 2001.  Its internet service became operational on 27 October 2002,  and was formally launched on 16 December 2002, but statistics of its use are only available from the start of 2003.  
2. The figures relate to the weeks which ended on Fridays which were in the specified calendar year - for example, the figures for "2003" cover the 52 weeks from the one ending on Friday 3 January 2003 to the week ending on Friday 26 December 2003, inclusive.
3. Categerisation of unanswered calls no longer takes place.
4. Daily averages are calculated by dividing the total for all the weeks ending in the year by the number of days in those weeks (e.g. 52 x 7 = 364).  Therefore, they may differ slightly from the result that would be obtained if one divided by the actual number of days in the year (365 or 366).
5. HIts are the record of unique visits to the web site. The web site supplier changed on 1 January 2006 and the new supplier  defined hits in a more robust way than the previous supplier so the figures for 2006 onwards are not on a  like for like basis with previous years.
6. Total number of hits now includes visits to bus departure boards on the Traveline Scotland app Consists of 6,211. 7 unique web visits and 1219.2 app departure board visits (thousands)

 

Table 11.31   Employed adults (16-74) distance to place of work: 20111 3
    Work mainly at or from home       Excluding those working mainly from home         Total Number         (=100%)
Less than 2km 2 km to less than 5 km   5 km to less than 10 km 10 km to less than 20 km 20 km to less than 30 km 30 km to less than 40 km 40 km to less than 60 km 60 km and over Other
  row percentages
All 10.8 14.7 21.6 19.2 17.0 7.2 3.3 2.5 2.3 12.3 2,400,925

Source: Scottish Census 2011, National Records of Scotland
1. The distance travelled is a calculation of the straight line between the postcode of place of residence and postcode of workplace.
2. Includes no fixed place of work, working on an offshore installation and working outside the UK.
3. Percentages for distance to place of work do not include those working mainly from home

 

Table 11.32   Employed adults (16-74) mode of transport to place of work: 20111 2 3
    Work mainly at or from home Excluding those working mainly from home             Total Number          (=100%)
Underground, metro, light rail or tram Train Bus, minibus or coach Taxi or minicab Driver, car or van Passenger, car or van Motorcycle, scooter or moped Bicycle On foot Other
  row percentages
All 10.8 0.3 4.2 11.2 0.7 62.8 6.5 0.3 1.6 11.1 1.3 2,400,925

Source: Scottish Census 2011, National Records of Scotland
1. The distance travelled is a calculation of the straight line between the postcode of place of residence and postcode of workplace.
2. Includes no fixed place of work, working on an offshore installation and working outside the UK.
3. Percentages for mode of travel to place of work do not include those working mainly from home

 

Table 11.33   Employed adults (16-74) distance to place of work by car/van availability: 20111 2 4
Work mainly at or from home Excluding those working mainly from home         Total Number        (=100%)3
Less than 2km 2 km to less than 5 km   5 km to less than 10 km 10 km to less than 20 km 20 km to less than 30 km 30 km and over Other
row percentages
All 10.7 14.6 21.6 19.3 17.0 7.3 8.0 12.3 2,390,595
Number of cars or vans available for private use:
None 10.8 24.8 30.9 17.9 9.4 3.0 3.6 10.5 314,494
One 10.0 16.4 23.7 19.7 15.9 6.2 6.7 11.4 932,787
Two or more 11.1 10.2 17.3 19.3 20.1 9.3 10.3 13.5 1,143,314

Source: Scottish Census 2011, National Records of Scotland
1. The distance travelled is a calculation of the straight line between the postcode of place of residence and postcode of workplace.
2. Includes no fixed place of work, working on an offshore installation and working outside the UK.
3. Excludes people who live in communal establishments - values for number of cars in a household were imputed where this was missing
4. Percentages for distance to place of work do not include those working mainly from home

 

Table 11.34  All people aged 4 and over studying, distance to place of study by age: 20111 2
  Study mainly at or from home Excluding those studying mainly from home           Total Number (=100%)
Less than 2km 2 km to less than 5 km   5 km to less than 10 km 10 km to less than 20 km 20 km to less than 30 km 30 km to less than 40 km 40 km to less than 60 km 60 km and over Other
  row percentages  
All 12.4 49.3 23.4 11.7 7.5 2.7 1.4 1.2 1.0 1.7 996,282
By age:
4 to 11 11.8 72.3 15.9 6.3 2.9 0.9 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 386,410
12 to 15 11.1 42.0 32.0 13.6 8.0 2.0 0.8 0.5 0.6 0.4 241,975
16 to 17 10.7 34.2 30.6 15.8 10.9 3.8 1.6 1.2 1.1 0.7 101,169
18 and over 15.2 27.6 23.5 16.4 12.4 5.8 3.5 3.0 2.3 5.2 266,728

Source: Scottish Census 2011, National Records of Scotland
1. The distance travelled is a calculation of the straight line between the postcode of place of residence and postcode of place of study
2. Percentages for distance to place of study do not include those studying mainly from home

 

Table 11.35 All people aged 4 and over studying, mode of transport to place of study by distance: 2011
  Study mainly at or from home Excluding those studying mainly from home         Total Number         (=100%)
Train, underground, metro, light rail or tram Bus, minibus or coach Driver, car or van Passenger, car or van Bicycle On foot Other
  row percentages
By distance:
All 12.4 3.7 24.6 5.3 19.1 1.2 44.7 1.5 996,282
Less than 2km   0.3 6.2 0.8 17.3 1.2 73.3 0.8 429,936
2km to less than 5km   2.6 40.9 4.6 26.2 1.6 22.2 1.8 203,907
5km to less than 10km   6.1 52.1 9.4 20.2 0.8 9.0 2.4 102,246
10km to less than 20km   11.5 46.2 14.7 16.4 0.3 8.3 2.6 65,101
20km to less than 30km   17.9 35.7 20.5 14.5 0.3 8.9 2.1 23,802
30km to less than 40km   25.5 29.7 20.9 11.6 0.4 10.1 1.8 12,406
40km to less than 60km   23.3 27.7 22.8 10.7 0.5 13.3 1.8 10,174
60km and over   14.1 25.2 15.6 10.7 1.6 30.7 2.1 10,245
Other   4.5 21.0 16.5 5.1 3.2 46.1 3.7 14,536

Source: Scottish Census 2011, National Records of Scotland
1. The distance travelled is a calculation of the straight line between the postcode of place of residence and postcode of place of study
2. Percentages for distance to place of study do not include those studying mainly from home