1. For more detailed information on the law with regards to seat belt use, please see: https://www.gov.uk/seat-belts-law
2. For more detailed information on the law with regards to mobile phone use, please see: https://www.gov.uk/using-mobile-phones-when-driving-the-law
3. Christmas, S., Young, D. and Cuerden, R. (2008) Strapping Yarns: Why People Do and Do Not Wear Seat Belts. Department for Transport, London.
4. MacLennan, P.A. et al (2004) Risk of injury for occupants of motor vehicle collisions from unbelted occupants. Injury Prevention 2004: 10 [online].
5. European Transport Safety Council (2007) Raising Compliance with Road Safety Law: 1st Road Safety PIN Report. ETSC [online].
6. World Health Organisation (2011) Mobile Phone Use: A Growing Problem of Driver Distraction. WHO [online].
7. Basacik, D., Reed, N. and Robbins, R. (2011) Smartphone use while driving - a simulator study. TRL report PPR592, Wokingham.
8. Burns, P. C. et al. (2002) How dangerous is driving with a mobile phone? Benchmarking the impairment to alcohol. TRL Report TRL547 [online].
9. TNS BMRB (2014) RITS: Driver Attitudes and Behaviour Tracking - Main findings (July '13, W7 - Feb '14, W8). Unpublished report.
10. Results for Great Britain are produced from a combination of data recorded in England and Scotland.
11. For results for Great Britain and England, please see the DfT report 'Seatbelt and Mobile Phone Usage Survey: 2014'.
12. Major roads are classified as A roads; B, C and unclassified roads are defined as minor roads.
13. Urban and Rural categories are based on DfT population definitions.
14. Walter, L. (2010) Seatbelt and mobile phone usage surveys: England and Scotland 2009. Department for Transport: London.
15. A previous study by TRL compared full and half-day sessions and found that a representative estimate was obtainable through a half-day period. For more info see: TRL (2008) Restraint use by car occupants, 2006-2008. TRL leaflet LF2106, Wokingham.
16. For example, the (weighted) number of front seat car passengers correctly restrained over the (weighted) number of all front seat car passengers observed.
17. Please see: DfT (2015) Seatbelt and Mobile Phone Usage Survey: 2014. https://www.gov.uk/government/collections/road-accidents-and-safety-statistics
18. The law states that: You can use hands-free phones, sat navs and 2-way radios when you're driving or riding. But if the police think you're distracted and not in control of your vehicle you could still get stopped and penalised. For more information, please see: https://www.gov.uk/using-mobile-phones-when-driving-the-law.
19. For the purposes of data collection and analysis, children in this study are classed as those who were recorded as being under the age of 14 by roadside observers.
20. 2014 results for England and Great Britain have been provided by the Department for Transport from the report Seatbelt and Mobile Phone Usage Survey: 2014. Results for Great Britain have been produced by combining data recorded in England and Scotland.
21 Please note the 2009 seatbelt survey considered trunk and major roads separately, whereas in the current study both are included in the 'major' category. In 2009, the seatbelt wearing rate by drivers on trunk roads was 96% in urban areas, and 97% in rural areas.
22. Results for England and GB have been supplied by DfT and do not include taxi and private hire vehicles.
23. Excludes one site observation period between 07:50 and 08:20 as this was outwith the general survey schedule.