Technical Reference

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Agglomeration Potential Index – The present day value of a one per cent decrease in the generalised cost of travel. The effect is summed over 60 years at 2006 prices and discounted.

Air Discount Scheme – Provides discounted travel on "lifeline" air links for residents of remote areas.

Annual Average Daily Traffic (AADT) – The total volume of vehicle traffic in both directions on a road, for a year, divided by 365 days.

Areas of Economic Activity – Locations that contain a concentration of employment in key strategic sectors of the economy; where many large companies operate on a global scale employing large numbers of staff on-site. These areas make a significant contribution towards the national economy. For more information refer to Appendix A.

Areas of Community Regeneration Priority – The six areas identified within the Scottish Government’s regeneration policy statement ‘People and Place’ (published in February 2006) for which Urban Regeneration Companies have been established.

Corridor / National Strategic Corridor – Twenty land-based transport corridors have been identified which connect the four largest cities and strategic nodes to: each other; national boundaries; or peripheral and rural communities.

Demand Management Systems – Used to control the level of demand in a transport system.

Diesel Multiple Unit – A diesel powered formation of vehicles either permanently or semi-permanently coupled together to form a train.

Economies of Agglomeration – The productivity benefits that some firms derive from locating closer to other firms.

ENEVAL – ENvironmental EVALuation Programme. This programme is run in conjunction with Transport Model for Scotland to produce environmental outputs associated with road-based transport for traffic noise and exhaust emissions of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons and particulates.

Freight Facilities Grant – Capital funding provided by the Scottish Government to freight operators with the purpose of encouraging the transfer of freight from road to rail and/or water.

Freight Scotland – An information system developed by Transport Scotland for the freight haulage industry including real time traffic information and roadworks on the trunk road network, up-to-date news relevant to the freight industry and location and contact details for ports, airports, railheads and industrial estates.

Gauge – A grading of rail routes based on the ability of the line and its structures to accept a given size of vehicle or container.

Grade Separated Interchange – A junction where two or more routes cross at different heights so that they do not disrupt traffic flow.

Great North Eastern Railway (GNER) – A train operating company which held a franchise for train services on the East Coast Main Line between 1996 and 2007. The franchise is now held by National Express East Coast since December 2007.

Greenway – A lane that provides buses, taxis and cycles with dedicated road space during times of high demand or throughout the day.

Gross Value Added (GVA) - GVA measures the contribution to the economy of each individual producer, industry or sector in the United Kingdom. GVA is also known as GDP at basic prices as it excludes taxes on products.

Guided Busway – A stretch of road dedicated to buses where raised kerbs are used to guide buses with fitted wheels.

Headway – The minimum time between trains on a route. This is principally governed by signalling.

High Cube Deep Sea Containers – High sided steel containers, approximately 12 metres long, 2.7 metres high, and with a storage volume of approximately 76 m3.

High Level Output Specification – A statement of the outputs that Scottish Ministers wish to purchase from the rail industry during the next regulatory control period.

Intelligent Transport Systems – A range of processing, control and communication technologies which provide an advanced approach to traffic management in order to improve transportation safety, mobility and productivity.

Inter-Modal Connection – An interchange designed to facilitate onward journeys using different modes of transport.

Inter-Peak Period – For transport modelling purposes the inter peak period is defined as a typical hour between 10:00 and 16:00.

Isochrone – A set of points on a route that a given process or trajectory will take the same length of time to complete starting from any point on the isochrone.

"Just-in-time" – A stock management technique to reduce the cost burden related to high levels of stock and inventory by ensuring shorter storage times.

Key Strategic Outcome (KSO) – The National Transport Strategy highlights three key strategic outcomes:

  • improve journey times and connections – making it quicker, easier and more reliable for passengers to travel between our towns and cities and across our global markets;
  • reduce emissions – making sure that Scotland takes a lead in the future of sustainable transport;
  • improve quality, accessibility and affordability – ensuring everyone across Scotland has high quality public transport choices.

"Kiss and fly" trips – Drop-off trips to and from airports.

Kyoto Protocol – An amendment to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change which was agreed in December 1997 in Kyoto, Japan. The objective of the protocol is the "stabilisation of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system."

LENNON – The rail industry’s central ticketing system, used to provide estimates of usage of the rail network. Note that this does not include SPT zone cards.

Line Speed – The maximum operating speed of a given section of railway line.

Loading Factor – The ratio of passengers to number of seats on a train.

Mobile Services – Vehicles such as food vans, post buses and mobile libraries, which travel through rural areas providing services to isolated communities.

Million Vehicle Kilometres (MVkm) – The number of accidents on any given length of road is expressed as an accident rate, defined as Personal Injury Accidents per million vehicle kilometres

National Planning Framework – A Government document that sets out a strategy for Scotland's long-term spatial development. More information is available on

National Road Traffic Forecast – The forecasts produced by the UK’s Department for Transport of the growth in the volume of motor traffic (excluding motorcycles) in Great Britain until the year 2031.

National Strategic Transport Network – Scotland’s land-based transport network, which provides access to international gateways including airports, seaports and lifeline ferry services.

National Transport Strategy (NTS) – The Government’s National Transport Strategy published in December 2005. More information is available on

Passing Loop – A location where trains can pass each other; either faster trains passing slower ones travelling in the same direction or trains travelling in opposite directions.

Peak Periods – For transport modelling purposes the morning peak period is 08:00 – 09:00 and the evening peak period is 17:00 – 18:00.

Public Performance Measure – The standard measure of train operator performance, which combines figures for punctuality and reliability into a single performance measure.

Public Transport Partnership Concordat – A partnership between bus operators and local authorities to promote and enhance regional bus services.

Quality Bus Corridors – An initiative to give dedicated road space and traffic signal priority to buses in order to reduce journey times and improve service consistency.

Quality Bus Partnership – A partnership between local authorities, bus operators and other interested parties to improve and expand bus services.

Rail Overcrowding – Network Rail assumes that services with a load factor of 70 per cent or more over the three hour morning peak are overcrowded.

Railway Assets – Fixed assets include track, structures, signals, earthworks, operational land and depots while mobile assets are trains.

Receptors – Residential properties which are impacted upon by the transport network.

Regenerative Braking – The process whereby a vehicle slows down by converting some kinetic energy into electrical energy. This energy may then be stored for future use.

Regional Transport Partnerships (RTP) – Local authority bodies that were established in December 2005 to strengthen the planning and delivery of regional transport. There are seven Regional Transport Partnerships in Scotland whose remit covers all forms of public transport within a regional boundary. They work in conjunction with stakeholders including bus operators, rail and ferry companies and airport operators.

Regional Transport Strategy – The regional frameworks that help ensure that investment programmes of local authorities, transport providers and other key stakeholders in the transport sector complement and support wider regional objectives.

Residual Life – The length of time a pavement surface will last before re-surfacing is required.

Route 24 – Network Rail’s designation of the East of Scotland route serving two principal passenger markets: fast frequent inter-urban services and commuting. Route 24 connects Scotland’s principal cities of Glasgow, Edinburgh, Perth, Dundee and Aberdeen. It also encompasses the significant suburban networks that radiate around Edinburgh, with access to the East Coast Main Line and West Coast Main Line.

Route 25 – Network Rail’s designation of the Highlands route serving a large number of rural communities across the North of Scotland and providing access to Inverness, Wick, Thurso, Oban and Fort William.

Route 26 – Network Rail’s designation of the Strathclyde and South West Scotland route. This route comprises the local Glasgow suburban rail network, the South Western lines to Stranraer and Gretna, long distance passenger traffic from the West Coast main Line via Carlisle and the East Coast Main Line via Edinburgh joining Route 26 at Carstairs. It also serves a number of freight locations, the most significant of which are Mossend, Coatbridge, the Ayrshire opencast mines and the deep water terminal at Hunterston.

Route Action Plan – A plan supported by scheme appraisal setting out local improvements to address existing and emerging problems along a particular route.

Route Utilisation Strategy (RUS) – A ten year strategy for the rail network in Scotland published in March 2007, which includes recommended interventions to close identified gaps in the strategic transport network and meet demand.

Scottish Executive Road Information System (SERIS) – Transport Scotland’s computerised pavement management system, which contains data on the physical characteristics and condition of the trunk road network.

Scottish Road Traffic Database (SRTDb) – A comprehensive database of detailed road traffic volumes for the principal routes of the Scottish road network.

SMART Objectives – Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Relevant and Timed Objectives.

Social Inclusion Partnership (SIP) – The Scottish Executive pursued a programme of tackling ‘exclusion’ in communities and minority groups by identifying target areas where social exclusion could be tackled through planned intervention and the provision or equal opportunities to those who were previously marginalised. SIPs are no longer used in Scotland.

Speed Enforcement Camera System (SPECS) – Speed camera system that monitors a vehicle’s average speed over a section of road.

Strategic Objectives – The Government has established five high level strategic objectives; wealthier and fairer, healthier, safer and stronger, smarter and greener. These objectives aim to achieve the Government’s Purpose; to focus on creating a more successful country, with opportunities for all to flourish through increasing sustainable economic growth. Further details can be found on

Strategic Bus Services – Bus services which operate along significant parts of each corridor, serving key settlements. Services and journeys of local significance are not included, although local services to the five principal airports are identified.

Strategic Node – Perth and Inverness act as strategic nodes in the national transport network as they are the locations where a number of strategic corridors converge.

Scottish Transport Appraisal Guidance (STAG) – An objective-led transport appraisal guidance looking across the five high level criteria of economy, safety, integration, accessibility, social inclusion and environment. For further information see

Scottish Transport Appraisal Guidance (STAG) Criteria – The criteria are: economy, safety, integration, accessibility, social inclusion, and environment.

Traffic Scotland – The Traffic Scotland website provides traffic information, details about roadworks and 'live-eye' views of roads in Scotland with the aim of improving safety and the overall efficiency of the network.

Transport and Economic Land Use Model for Scotland (TELMoS) – An economic and land-use model which translates forecast planning data into predicted travel demand. Used as an input for the Transport Model for Scotland.

Transport Direct – Government website containing a public transport route-finder, car route planner and live travel information. Refer to for more information.

Transport Model for Scotland (TMfS) – A multi-modal transport and land-use model, which covers areas of major population. The model is used to understand how Scotland’s transport system will respond to change.

Traveline – A partnership between operators and local authorities which provides information on all public transport services within Scotland and from Scotland to other major destinations in the UK.

Urban Network – Aberdeen, Dundee, Edinburgh and Glasgow are nationally significant hubs in the transport network. The urban networks align with the City Regions identified as Strategic Development Plan areas in the Planning etc. (Scotland) Act 2006.

Urban Traffic Control – A specialist form of traffic management which integrates and co-ordinates traffic signal control over a wide area in order to maximise the efficiency of traffic flows on the road network.