# Reported casualties by type of road

### Reported casualties by type of road

Table 23 refers.

In 2022, non built-up roads accounted for two-fifths of the total number of casualties (44%: 2,455 out of 5,621). However, because speeds are higher on non built-up roads than elsewhere (the definition is roads with a speed limit of more than 40mph), they accounted for almost three quarters of those killed (74%: 128 out of 173) and for just under half of the total number of seriously injured (46%: 823 out of 1,776).

Compared with 2012, the fall in the total number of casualties has been 53% for non built-up roads and 58% for those elsewhere. The numbers killed on built-up roads has fallen by 32% whereas those on non built-up ones have risen by 16%. Over the years, some traffic will have been transferred away from built-up roads by the opening of city and town bypasses, and by the construction of non built-up roads with higher average traffic volumes. Therefore, these figures do *not* provide an accurate measure of the comparative change in the road safety performance of built-up and non built-up roads.

**Casualties by mode of transport**

Table 23 refers.

A total of 3,198 car users were injured in road collisions in 2022, representing 57% of all casualties. Of these car users, 101 died. There were 912 pedestrian casualties (16% of the total), of whom 33 died, 480 pedal cycle casualties (9% of the total), of whom 2 died, and 467 motorcycle casualties (8% of the total), of whom 25 died. Because of the numbers of car user, pedestrian, pedal cyclist and motorcyclist casualties, the figures for each of these four groups of road users are the subject of separate sections, which follow this one, and are followed by a section on child casualties, which gives details of their modes of transport.

Together, all the modes of transport other than the four mentioned above accounted for 564 casualties in 2022 (10% of the total), and for smaller percentages of the numbers of seriously injured. These included 117 bus and coach users injured in 2022, of whom 20 suffered serious injuries (none died). There were also 211 casualties who were travelling in light goods vehicles (2 died), 36 people in heavy goods vehicles(5 died), 74 users of taxis(2 died), 16 users of minibuses(none died) and 110 people with another means of transport (3 died).

**Car user casualties**

A total of 3,198 car users were injured in road collisions in 2022, representing 57% of all casualties. Of these people, a total of 817 were seriously injured, 101 died. Non built-up roads accounted for over a half of all car user casualties (56%: 1,798 out of 3,198). Perhaps because average speeds are higher on non-built up roads, they accounted for much higher percentages of the total numbers of car users who were killed (80%: 81 out of 101) or were seriously injured (65%: 529 out of 817). *(see Table 23)*

The number of car users killed in 2022 was 46 more than the 2021 figure and the total number of casualties of all severities was up by 10%. Since 2012, the number killed has increased by 38%, and there has been a fall of 58% in the total number of car user casualties. *(see Table 23)*

Looking at the annual average over the years 2018-2022, the casualty rate for 16-22 year old car users was 1.42 per thousand population. This was much higher than the rate for car users in the older age groups, which varied from 0.49 to 1.23 per thousand population. *(see Table 32)*

On average, over the years 2018-2022, 68% of car user fatalities occurred on roads with a speed limit of 60 mph. Such roads accounted for 37% of the total number of car user casualties of all severities, where more casualties occurred on roads with a 30 mph limit (42%). *(see Table 33) *

**Adult car users**

On weekdays, the peak time for adult car user casualties was from 4pm to 6pm. The 4pm to 5pm average of 246 (the average over the years 2018-2022) was 65% higher than the average of 149 in the morning 8am to 9am peak. *(see Table 28)*

Adult car user casualties varied by month, with fewest in April and most in August. August had 33% more adult car user casualties than April (annual averages over the years 2018-2022; months standardised to 30 days). *(see Table 29)*

Friday had the peak numbers of adult car user casualties over the years 2018-2022 with 17% more than the average daily number of adult car user casualties. *(see Table 30)*

**Pedestrian casualties**

There were 912 pedestrian casualties in 2022: 16% of all casualties. Of these, 367 were seriously injured and 33 died. Presumably due to their greater vulnerability, a higher proportion of the total number of people who were killed (19%) and seriously injured (21%) were pedestrians. In addition, 40% of pedestrian casualties were seriously injured (367 out of 912) compared with serious for all modes of 32% (1,776 out of 5,621). 93% of pedestrian casualties occurred on built-up roads (851 out of 912) in 2021. *(see Table 23)*

The overall number of pedestrian casualties was 18% higher than 2021. Since 2012, the number of pedestrians killed has fallen by 26 and there has been a 54% reduction in the total number of pedestrian casualties. Looking at the annual average for the period 2018 to 2022, the 12-15 age-group had the highest 'all severities' pedestrian casualty rates (0.55 per thousand population). *(see Tables 23 & 32)*

The overall pedestrian 'all severities' casualty rate for males was 0.22 per thousand population, compared with 0.15 per thousand for females, using the averages for the period 2018 to 2022. *(see Table 34)*

**Adult pedestrian casualties**

On average in the period 2018 to 2028, the peak time for adult pedestrian casualties during the week was from 4pm to 6pm; at weekends it was from 5pm to 7pm. *(see Table 28)*

November and December were the peak months for adult pedestrian casualties, with each having 40% and 38% respectively more than the monthly average. Adult pedestrian casualties in the four winter months, November to February, were 25% more than the monthly average (annual averages over the years 2018-2022; months standardised to 30 days). *(see Table 29)*

Friday has the highest numbers of adult pedestrian casualties; 20% more than the daily average over the period 2018 to 2022. *(see Table 30)*

**Pedal Cycle Casualties**

There were 480 pedal cycle casualties in 2022, 32 less than the previous year. The number of seriously injured pedal cycle casualties in 2022 was 180. There were 2 pedal cycle fatalities in 2022, 8 less than 2021. Since 2012 there has been a 47% decrease in all pedal cycle casualties and the number of fatalities has fluctuated between 2 and 13. In 2022, 88% of pedal cycle casualties were on built-up roads* (see Table 23).* It should be noted that pedal cycle traffic is estimated to have seen a decrease of 3% in 2022 compared with 2021.

In terms of the averages for the period 2018 to 2022, the pedal cycle casualty rate per head of population was highest for those aged 23-25 (0.17 per thousand population). Of course, it must be remembered that, as noted earlier, per capita casualty rates do not provide a measure of the relative risk, because they do not take account of the levels of usage of (in this case) pedal cycles. *(see Table 32)*

**Adult pedal cycle casualties**

Using the averages for the period 2018 to 2022, on weekdays, the peak numbers of adult pedal cycle casualties occurred from 4 pm to 6 pm and from 8 am to 9 am. At weekends the numbers were smaller, but appear to peak between 10 am to 2 pm. *(see Table 28)*

The peak months of the year for adult pedal cycle casualties were June and August which were 28-40% more than the monthly average (2018-2022 annual averages standardised to 30 days). *(see Table 29)*

The day of the week with the peak numbers of adult pedal cycle casualties was Tuesday, 19% higher than the daily average, over the years 2018-2022. There were substantially fewer adult pedal cycle casualties on Sunday, 35% less than the daily average. *(see Table 30)*

**Motorcyclist casualties**

A total of 467 motorcyclists were injured in road collisions in 2022, representing 8% of all casualties. Of these, 280 were seriously injured and 25 died. 53% of all motorcyclist casualties occurred on non built-up roads but (perhaps because of their higher average speeds) such roads accounted for 60% of those seriously injured, and 80% of those killed. *(see Table 23)*

The number of motorcyclist casualties in 2022 was 2% lower than in the previous year and the number killed decreased by 5. The total number of motorcycle casualties rose each year from 1999 to a peak in 2001; since then, it has tended to decline. As a result, the figure for all casualties in 2022 was 46% lower than in 2012. Four more motorcyclists died in 2022 than in 2012. *(see Table 23)*

On average, over the years 2018 to 2022, the motorcyclist casualty rate was highest for the 16-25 and 50-59 age groups (0.15 per thousand population); other age-groups had smaller casualty rates. *(see Table 32)*

Looking at the averages for the period 2018 to 2022, the peak time of day for adult motorcyclist casualties was 4pm to 6pm on weekdays *(see Table 28)*, the peak months of the year were June (68 casualties) and August (66 casualties, amidst a general peak from May to September *(see Table 29) *and there were more casualties from Friday to Sunday than on any of the other days *(see Table 30).*

**Child (0-15) casualties**

There were 587 child casualties in 2022, representing 10% of the total number of casualties of all ages. Of the child casualties, 176 were seriously injured, and three died *(see Table 24)*.

There were two less children killed in 2022 than in 2021. The total number of child casualties increased by 92 on 2021. Since 2012, the number of children killed has increased by one. *(see Table A and Table 25)*

In terms of the averages for the period 2018 to 2022, on weekdays, the peak time for child casualties was from 3 pm to 6 pm, with 43% of all weekday casualties in those three hours. A further 17% occurred in the three hours between 6 pm and 9 pm There was another peak in the morning, between 8 am and 9 am There was no real clear peak at weekends: the numbers of casualties were very broadly the same each hour from 12 noon to 7 pm *(see Table 27)*

August was the peak month for child casualties, with 36% more than in an average month. June had 20% more than an average month. (2018-2022 annual averages standardised to 30 days). *(see Table 29)*

Using the averages for 2018 to 2022, Friday was the peak day of the week for child casualties, with 28% more than an average day. Sunday, on the other hand, had 21% less than an average day. *(see Table 30)*

**Child (0-15) casualties by mode of transport**

In 2022, there were 295 child pedestrian casualties. They accounted for 32% of all pedestrian casualties of all ages (295 out of 912). Of the child pedestrian casualties, 115 were seriously injured and 1 died. *(see Table 24)*

There were 44 child pedal cycle casualties in 2022 (9% of the total of 480 pedal cycle casualties of all ages). The child pedal cycle casualties included 12 who were seriously injured, none died. *(see Table 24)*

In 2022, there were 196 child casualties in cars, 6% of the total number of car user casualties of all ages (196 out of 3,272). Of the child casualties in cars, 21 were seriously injured (one died). *(see Tables 23 and 25)*

**Child (0-15) casualty rates (per head of population)**

Children's casualty rates (per head of population) increase with age: using the averages for the years 2018-2022 taken together, for children aged 0-4 the rate was 0.35 per thousand population, whereas it was 0.69 per thousand for those aged 5-11 and for the 12-15 age group it was 1.02 per thousand. The pedestrian casualty rate for younger children (0-4 years) was 32% of that for 5-11 and 18% of the 12-15 year old rate. *(see Table 32)*

The pedestrian casualty rate for boys in the 0-4 age group was more than twice that for girls. The difference between the sexes was even more pronounced in driver or rider casualty rates. *(see Table 34)*

The overall child pedestrian casualty rate at 0.20 per thousand child population was almost twice the corresponding rate for adult pedestrian casualties. *(see Table 32)*

**Emergency hospital admissions for Road Traffic Collisions, by ethnic group**

A new table U has been added to the Excel data tables which provides a time series showing the number of emergency hospital admissions for injury collisions by ethnic group.

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